Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALMS ALNAQUA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 196] he performed, were of great service to the historic con-gregation to whose interests he was deeply devoted. Lit.: Gaster, Moses, History of the Ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews ( 1901) 182; Jewish Chronicle ( London) Jan. 18, 1878, p. 10. ALMS, see CHARITY. AL- MUKAMMAS, DAVID IBN MERWAN, see DAVID IBN MERWAN AL- MUKAMMAS. AL- NAKAWA ( ALNAQUA), ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH,  the martyr, moralist and liturgist. All that is known of Al- Nakawas life is that he lived in Toledo, Spain, and was descended from a family prom-inent for its piety, hospitality and support of scholar-ship. He met his death, together with Judah ben Asher, in the Toledo massacres of 1391. Al- Nakawa was the author of a comprehensive re-ligio- ethical work entitled Menorath Hamaor ( The Lamp of Illumination), a brilliant summation of all phases of practical religious life, both ethical and rit-ual. The only complete manuscript of this monumen-tal composition which is found in the Bodleian Library in Oxford was published in its entirety by H. G. Ene-low in four volumes, with elaborate introductions and copious notes ( New York, 1929- 32). The work opens with a poem in praise of the Torah, and this is fol-lowed by a rimed introduction in which the circum-stances of its composition are explained. The book is divided into twenty chapters, each of which begins with a seven- line poem, giving his name, Israel, in acrostic. The topics discussed in the twenty chapters are the following: Charity, Prayer, Repentance, Humil-ity, Hours of Study, Commandments, Acts of Mercy, Sabbath and the Holy Days, Honoring of Parents, Marriage, Education, Upright Conduct in Business, Justice, Contentment, Evils of Anger, Flattery and Deception, Love of Comrades, Clean Speech, Keeping Secrets, and Good Manners. Al- Nakawa drew upon the entire range of Talmudic literature for material, and even incorporated passages from Midrashim which we do not today possess, e. g. Midrash Hashkem and certain Yemenite Midrashim. He was influenced mainly by the Orah Hayim of Ja-cob ben Asher and by the Sefer Mitzvoth Zemanioth of Israel ben Joseph ibn Israel. Although his work contains but little original matter, many of his chap-ters, as for example the one on charity, have rarely been equalled for depth of penetration into the Jew-ish soul. Though the book was not printed, it became most widely disseminated and read through a peculiar chain of circumstances. A certain Judah ibn Kaalatz copied large portions of the Menorath Hamaor for his own personal use. After his death his grandson discovered the manuscript, and not suspecting that it was not original, he published it in 1527, under his grandfath-ers name, calling it Sefer Hamusar. This book gained great popularity, and no one realized that it was ex-cerpted from the Menorath Hamaor. In 1620 Rabbi Isaac of Posen published in Yiddish an ethical treatise entitled Leb Tob, admittedly little more than a trans-lation of Sefer Hamusar. It soon became one of the most popular books in the Yiddish language, and it was reprinted nineteen times in less than a century after its initial appearance. In the Yiddish text- book ( 1699) of the Christian scholar Wagenseil, the last chapter of the Menorath Hamaor taken from the Leb Tob was given as an exercise. Another channel through which this book found its way into Hebrew literature was the Reshith Hochmah ( 1575) of Eliezer di Vidas, in which were incorporated five chapters of the Menorath Hamaor. These chapters alone were printed as a special work under the name Menorath Ζahab in 1593 and 1864. The chapter of the Menorath Hamaor was reprinted Emden in his Migdal Oz ( Warsaw, 1911, pp. 134- 42). Efros and Enelow advanced strong arguments to prove that the Menorath Hamaor of Isaac Aboab merely a recasting of Al- Nakawas Menorath Hamaor. Al- Nakawa was also a liturgist, as many members of his family seem to have been. Including the short poems in the Menorath Hamaor, we have some twenty- five of his poetical and liturgical compositions. Undoubtedly he composed many others, which have since been lost. There is a tradition which has some evidence to support it that Al- Nakawa translated the Zohar into Hebrew ( Menorath Hamaor, vol. 4, p. 92). Hirschel REVEL. See also: ABOAB, ISAAC Lit.: Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, especially ( 1929); vol. 2 ( 1930) 45; idem,  Midrash Hashkem Quo-tations, in Hebrew Union College Annual, 311- 43; Efros, I.,  The Menorat Ha- Meor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 9 ( 1918- 19) Davidson, I.,  Enelows Edition of Al- Nakawas Menorat Ha- Maor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New ( 1930- 31) 461- 68; Waxman, M., A History of Jewish vol. 2 ( 1933) 282- 87; Schechter, S.,  Über Israel Alnaquas Menorat Hamaor, in Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, 114- 26, 234- 40. ALNAQUA, EPHRAIM BEN ISRAEL, rabbi, theological author and physician, b. Toledo, Spain, in the second half of the 14th cent.; d. Tlemcen, Algeria, 1442. He escaped in 1391 from the Spanish massacre in Toledo, in which his parents were slain, and fled to Northern Africa. Here he gained a reputation as a mir-acle worker. Many legends cluster around his name. The most popular relates how he crossed the sea, reached Morocco and then proceeded by sea to the city of Onein. From there he came to Tlemcen, seated on a lion which had for a halter an enormous serpent. Here, after curing the only daughter of a king of the Beni Zion family, he refused rewards of gold and silver, and asked only permission to unite in Tlemcen all the Jews living near the city as well as the refugees from Spain. Tradition thus ascribes to Alnaqua the founding of the Jewish community of Tlemcen. He became known simply as  The Rab. The great synagogue which he built in Tlemcen is still in existence and bears his name. His grave still serves as a place of pilgrimage. In addition to several religious hymns he wrote a theological work, Shaar Kebod Adonai ( The Gate Gods Glory), intended for his elder son, Israel, to ex-plain certain anthropomorphic expressions in Maimón-ides and containing answers to Nahmanides criticism of Maimonides Μoreh Nebuchim. His younger son, Judah, who was rabbi in Oran and Tlemcen, was the father- in- law of Zemah Duran. Lit.: Beliach, H., Introduction to Shaar ( 1902); Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, vol. 15; Slouschz, N., Travels in North Africa ( 1927) Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow alms ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7
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Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7
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A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

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Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 8
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Multi-platform, electronic edition of masoretic text of the Holy Scriptures placed next to classic Jewish translation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)
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Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

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Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.