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JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
by Baruch A. Levine / Varda Books

Levine, like all the JPS Torah commentators, makes use of traditional rabbinic commentaries, and the Mishna, Midrash and Talmud. But it doesn't end here: The commentary goes on to make good use of literary analysis and comparative Semitics; inter-textual commentary relating each book to other biblical books, and evidence from modern archaeological, discoveries.

Especially illuminating is his treatment and analysis of the meaning of Temple sacrifices, described in the context of the Biblical world's era. This work manages to be respectful, religious, and authentic to the Jewish tradition, while at the same time rigorously adhering to the highest standards of biblical criticism and intellectual honesty.
 

free ebook JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
 
FRONT MATTER
Title Page
Patrons Page
Dedication Page
Copyright Page
Acknowledgments
Contents
Introduction
Glossary
Abbreviations
WEEKLY READINGS
Va-yikra'
Tsav
Shemini
Tazria‘
Metsora'
Aharei Mot
Kedoshim
Emor
Be-har
Be-hukkotai
THE COMMENTARY TO LEVITICUS
The Principal Types of Sacrifice (1:1-7:38)
The Burnt Offering ('Olah) (vv. 1-17)
The Grain Offering (Minhah) (vv. 1-16)
The Sacred Gift of Greeting (Zevah Shelamim) (vv.1-17)
The Expiatory Sacrifices (4:1-5:26)
Forms of the Hatta't Sacrifice
Additional Means of Expiation (vv. 1-13)
Uses of the 'Asham Sacrifice (vv. 14-26)
The Disposition of Sacrifices (6:1-7:38)
The Burnt Offering ('Olah) (vv.1-6)
The Grain Offering (Minhah) (vv. 7-11)
The Sin Offering (Hatta't) (6:17-23)
The Guilt Offering ('Asham) (vv. 1-10)
The Sacred Gift of Greeting (Zevah Ha-Shelamim) (7:11-34)
Summary (7:35-38)
The Initiation of Formal Worship (Chaps. 8-9)
The Consecration of Priests and Tabernacle (vv. 1-36)
The First Celebration of Sacrifice (vv.1-24)
Admonitions on Priestly Conduct
The Death of Nadab and Abihu: a Dramatic Precedent (vv. 1-7)
Rules for the Priesthood (vv. 8-15)
Moses Monitors the Priests and the Cult (vv. 16-20)
The Laws of Kashrut: Proper Foods and Vessels
The Dietary Laws: Two Collections
Permitted and Forbidden Food Sources (vv. 1-23)
Postscript (vv. 46-47)
Regulations Concerning the New Mother
The Purification of Scin Diseases (13:1-14:57)
The Symptomatology (vv. 1-8)
Chronic Ailments (vv. 9-17)
Tsara'at as a Complication (vv. 18-46)
Tsara'at in Fabrics and Leather (vv. 47-59)
Purification Rites for Individuals (vv. 1-32)
Tsara'at in Building Stones (vv. 33-53)
Discharges from Sexual Organs
The Israelite Male (vv. 1-18)
The Israelite Female (vv. 19-30)
Conclusions (vv. 31-33)
The Yom Kippur Ritual
Preparations for Purification (vv. 3-10)
The Purification of the Sanctuary (vv. 11-19)
The Dispatch of the Scapegoat (vv. 20-22)
Rites Subsequent to the Dispatch of the Scapegoat (vv. 23-28)
Designation of an Annual Atonement Day (vv. 29-34)
The Pursuit of Holiness (17:1-26:46)
Prologue: Proper Forms of Worship (vv. 1-16)
Definition of the Family
The Laws of Holiness
The Family in Religious Context
Forbidden Sexual Unions (vv. 8-21)
Possesion of the Land (vv. 21-27)
Laws Governing the Priesthood (21:1-22:33)
Restrictions and Limitations (vv. 1-24)
Sacred Donations (vv. 1-33)
The Calendar of Sacred Time
The Sabbath (vv. 1-3)
The Feast of Unleavened Bread (vv.4-8)
Offerings from the New Grain Crop (vv. 9-14)
The Shavuot Festival (vv. 15-22)
The First Day of the Seventh Month (vv.23-25)
Day of Atonement (vv. 26-32)
The Sukkot Festival (vv. 33-44)
A Collection of Laws
The Kindling of the Menorah (vv. 1-4)
The Rows of Bread (vv. 5-9)
Laws Governing Blasphemy and Othe Serious Crimes (vv. 10-22)
The Principles of Land Tenure (25:1-26:2)
The Sabbatical Year and the Jubilee (25:1-23)
Additional Laws Regarding Land Tenure and Indenture (25:24-55)
Epilogue to the Holiness Code (26:3-46)
The Blessing (vv. 3-13)
The Execration (vv. 14-45)
Postscript (v.46)
Funding the Sanctuary
Votary Pleges in Fixed Amounts of Silver (vv. 1-8)
Votary Pleges of Animals (vv. 9-13)
Consecrations (vv. 14-25)
Firstlings (vv. 26-27)
Proscribed Property (vv. 28-29)
Tithes ( vv. 30-33)
The Postscript (v. 34)
NOTES TO THE COMMENTARY
LEVITICUS IN THE ONGOING JEWISH TRADITION
From Sacrifice to Alternative Forms of Worship
The Centralized Cult
Post-Temple Judaism
Worship and Celebration
Conclusion
Notes to Leviticus in the Ongoing Jewish Tradition
EXCURSUSES
Excursus 1. That Person Shall Be Cut Off (chap. 7)
Excursus 2. The Meaning of the Dietary Laws (chap. 11)
Excursus 3. The New Mother (chap. 12)
Excursus 4. The Scapegoat Ritual (chap. 16)
Excursus 5. Family in Biblical Israel (chap. 18)
Excursus 6. Biblical Concept of Holiness (chap. 19)
Excursus 7. The Cult of Molech in Biblical Israel (chap. 20)
Excursus 8. The Development of the Biblical Festivals (chap. 23)
Excursus 9. Retaliation and Compensation in Biblical Criminal Law (chap. 24)
Excursus 10. The Inalienable Right to the Land of Israel (chap. 25)
Excursus 11. A Priestly Statement on the Destiny of Israel (26:3-46)
Notes to the Excursuses
Excursus 1
Excursus 2
Excursus 3
Excursus 4
Excursus 5
Excursus 6
Excursus 7
Excursus 8
Excursus 9
Excursus 10
Excursus 11