Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARLOSOROFF ARMENIA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 482] creasing restrictions and degradations, including the prohibiting of Jews from testifying against a Christian, from working on Sundays, and from visiting the public baths on any day of the week except Friday. In 1344 riots broke out, and these were repeated so frequently in the following years that Louis III ( 1417- 34) had to appoint special officers to protect the Jews. New attacks, of still greater violence, occurred in 1484 and 1485; as a result, many Jews were compelled to accept baptism. Finally, in 1488, all the Jews were expelled from the city, to which they never returned. Some of the savants and poets who lived in Arles or had relations with the Jewish community there were: Judah ben Moses of Arles ( 11th cent.); Abraham ben David of Posquiéres ( 12th cent.); Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon and Gershon ben Solomon ( 13th cent.); Levi ben Abraham ( 14th cent.); Joseph Caspi, Don Comprad of Arles, Tanhum ben Moses ( 14th cent.). Among the Jewish physicians of Arles were Maestro Bendit and Benedit du Canet, both of whom were court physicians; Asher ben Moses ( about 1468); Maestro Salves Vidal. SIMON COHEN. Lit.: Gross, Henri, Gallia Judaica ( 1897) 73- 90; La grande encyclopedie, vol. 1, pp. 970- 75; Dictionnaire géné-rale de Biographie et dhistoire, under Arles. ARLOSOROFF, VICTOR HAYIM, leader of the Hapoel Hatzair, a Zionist Labor group, b. Romny, Ukraine, Russia, 1899; assassinated at Tel- Aviv, Pales-tine, 1933. From 1905 to 1924 he lived in Germany, then went to Palestine. He was one of the founders of the Hithahduth ( Zionist Labor Party) and a member of the Zionist Actions Committee. He frequently criti-cized the Zionist financial and economic policies. In 1923 he proposed the raising of a loan from interna-tional bankers for the financing of Jewish reconstruc-tion in Palestine, and worked out a plan providing for the security and repayment of principal and interest. From 1923 until his death he was a member of the Financial and Administrative Council of the Interna-tional Zionist Organization. He visited the United States in 1929 as a member of the Weizmann delega-tion to the Palestine Foundation Fund ( Keren Haye-sod). He was elected a member of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine at Basel in July, 1931. Arlosoroff was slain at Tel- Aviv on the night of June 16, 1933 by two unidentified men generally believed to have been Revisionists actuated by political motives. The murder caused a sensation in Palestine and in Zionist circles throughout the world. Of the many Re-visionists arrested in connection with the murder, two suspects; Zevi Rosenblatt and Abraham Stavsky, were finally brought to trial on April 23, 1934. The former was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence, and the latter received the death sentence in a decision handed down by the District Court on June 8th. Stav-skys case was appealed, and on July 20, 1934 the Court of Appeal reversed the death sentence and ac-quitted him also on the ground of insufficient evidence. Arlosoroffs murder has never been solved. Arlosoroff wrote: Der jüdische Volkssozialismus ( on the theoretical basis of the Hithahduth movement; Berlin, 1919); Lage und nächste Aufgabe unserer Kolonisation ( Berlin, 1922); Studien über die marxis-tische Soziologie der Klasse ( Berlin, 1922); Die Kolo- Victor Hayim Arlosoroff, Zionist Labor Keren Hayesod Head Office, Jerusalem nisationsfinanzen der Jewish Agency and many essays and articles in Hapoel Hatzair ( Tel- Aviv, 1921 et seq.). Selected essays, addresses, letters and biographical data on Arlosoroff were published, with an introduction by Georg Landauer, under the title of Chaim Arlosoroff, Leben und Werk. works were published in four volumes in Hebrew at Tel Aviv in 1934 as of Kithbe Hayim Arlosoroff. ARMAGEDDON, see PHRASES, BIBLICAL. ARMENIA, country in the Near East, in the west-ern part of Asia Minor, east of the Caspian Sea and bounded on the south by Lake Van, and on the north by the valley of the river Araxes and Ararat. It is sup-posed to have been the haven of refuge for some of the descendants of the Jews who were carried away from Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. According to the re-ports of the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene ( 7th cent.), the noble family of the Bagratuni, independent princes during the Middle Ages, who had the privilege of placing the crown on the monarchs head, are said to have been descended from these Jews. This tradition is certainly good evidence for the im-portance of Jews in ancient Armenia. The Jews were engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. They attained great prosperity under the rule of the  princes of the exile. About the year 300, Christianity had already made its way into Armenia. The Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium, in the 4th cent., describes the invasion of the Persians at the time of Emperor Sapor II, and states that they carried away over 90,000 Jew-ish families, about 400,000 individuals. Although this number is certainly an exaggeration, it does indicate that Armenia had an extensive Jewish population. The Talmud makes mention of a Jacob of Armenia and of an academy at Nisibis, which might be the Nisi-bis in Armenia. The wine of Etchmiadzin ( the modern religious center of the Armenians) is also mentioned. The Karaite Kirkisani, in the 10th cent., speaks of a Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

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The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

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Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (1825–1894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.