Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARLOSOROFF ARMENIA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 482] creasing restrictions and degradations, including the prohibiting of Jews from testifying against a Christian, from working on Sundays, and from visiting the public baths on any day of the week except Friday. In 1344 riots broke out, and these were repeated so frequently in the following years that Louis III ( 1417- 34) had to appoint special officers to protect the Jews. New attacks, of still greater violence, occurred in 1484 and 1485; as a result, many Jews were compelled to accept baptism. Finally, in 1488, all the Jews were expelled from the city, to which they never returned. Some of the savants and poets who lived in Arles or had relations with the Jewish community there were: Judah ben Moses of Arles ( 11th cent.); Abraham ben David of Posquiéres ( 12th cent.); Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon and Gershon ben Solomon ( 13th cent.); Levi ben Abraham ( 14th cent.); Joseph Caspi, Don Comprad of Arles, Tanhum ben Moses ( 14th cent.). Among the Jewish physicians of Arles were Maestro Bendit and Benedit du Canet, both of whom were court physicians; Asher ben Moses ( about 1468); Maestro Salves Vidal. SIMON COHEN. Lit.: Gross, Henri, Gallia Judaica ( 1897) 73- 90; La grande encyclopedie, vol. 1, pp. 970- 75; Dictionnaire géné-rale de Biographie et dhistoire, under Arles. ARLOSOROFF, VICTOR HAYIM, leader of the Hapoel Hatzair, a Zionist Labor group, b. Romny, Ukraine, Russia, 1899; assassinated at Tel- Aviv, Pales-tine, 1933. From 1905 to 1924 he lived in Germany, then went to Palestine. He was one of the founders of the Hithahduth ( Zionist Labor Party) and a member of the Zionist Actions Committee. He frequently criti-cized the Zionist financial and economic policies. In 1923 he proposed the raising of a loan from interna-tional bankers for the financing of Jewish reconstruc-tion in Palestine, and worked out a plan providing for the security and repayment of principal and interest. From 1923 until his death he was a member of the Financial and Administrative Council of the Interna-tional Zionist Organization. He visited the United States in 1929 as a member of the Weizmann delega-tion to the Palestine Foundation Fund ( Keren Haye-sod). He was elected a member of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine at Basel in July, 1931. Arlosoroff was slain at Tel- Aviv on the night of June 16, 1933 by two unidentified men generally believed to have been Revisionists actuated by political motives. The murder caused a sensation in Palestine and in Zionist circles throughout the world. Of the many Re-visionists arrested in connection with the murder, two suspects; Zevi Rosenblatt and Abraham Stavsky, were finally brought to trial on April 23, 1934. The former was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence, and the latter received the death sentence in a decision handed down by the District Court on June 8th. Stav-skys case was appealed, and on July 20, 1934 the Court of Appeal reversed the death sentence and ac-quitted him also on the ground of insufficient evidence. Arlosoroffs murder has never been solved. Arlosoroff wrote: Der jüdische Volkssozialismus ( on the theoretical basis of the Hithahduth movement; Berlin, 1919); Lage und nächste Aufgabe unserer Kolonisation ( Berlin, 1922); Studien über die marxis-tische Soziologie der Klasse ( Berlin, 1922); Die Kolo- Victor Hayim Arlosoroff, Zionist Labor Keren Hayesod Head Office, Jerusalem nisationsfinanzen der Jewish Agency and many essays and articles in Hapoel Hatzair ( Tel- Aviv, 1921 et seq.). Selected essays, addresses, letters and biographical data on Arlosoroff were published, with an introduction by Georg Landauer, under the title of Chaim Arlosoroff, Leben und Werk. works were published in four volumes in Hebrew at Tel Aviv in 1934 as of Kithbe Hayim Arlosoroff. ARMAGEDDON, see PHRASES, BIBLICAL. ARMENIA, country in the Near East, in the west-ern part of Asia Minor, east of the Caspian Sea and bounded on the south by Lake Van, and on the north by the valley of the river Araxes and Ararat. It is sup-posed to have been the haven of refuge for some of the descendants of the Jews who were carried away from Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. According to the re-ports of the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene ( 7th cent.), the noble family of the Bagratuni, independent princes during the Middle Ages, who had the privilege of placing the crown on the monarchs head, are said to have been descended from these Jews. This tradition is certainly good evidence for the im-portance of Jews in ancient Armenia. The Jews were engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. They attained great prosperity under the rule of the  princes of the exile. About the year 300, Christianity had already made its way into Armenia. The Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium, in the 4th cent., describes the invasion of the Persians at the time of Emperor Sapor II, and states that they carried away over 90,000 Jew-ish families, about 400,000 individuals. Although this number is certainly an exaggeration, it does indicate that Armenia had an extensive Jewish population. The Talmud makes mention of a Jacob of Armenia and of an academy at Nisibis, which might be the Nisi-bis in Armenia. The wine of Etchmiadzin ( the modern religious center of the Armenians) is also mentioned. The Karaite Kirkisani, in the 10th cent., speaks of a Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Luah HaShanah 5776
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Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

Notes on the New Translation of the Torah
Written with admirable clarity of style and thought, this volume of Notes is capable of being read and appreciated by anyone interested in the process by which modern and classical biblical scholarship are fused together to deepen our understanding of the single most significant book in the Jewish tradition.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
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A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Palestine in the 18th Century


Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.