Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARKANSAS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA himself and the animals, but differ slightly as to the details of its construction. The most elaborate account is in P, which states that the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 wide and 30 high; it was made of gopher wood, built in three stories, caulked tight with pitch, divided into cells, and pro-vided with a door at the side. Since the narrative fur-ther states that the flood rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, and that the Ark stranded on Mount Ararat while the flood was at its height, it is probable that the author conceived of the Ark as half submerged in the water. The door, which was evidently near the bottom of the Ark, could not be opened until the waters had subsided sufficiently to uncover the tops of the mountains ( Gen. 8: 6, 13b). The J account of the construction of the Ark has not been preserved, but both accounts provide the Ark with a removable roof ( Gen. 6: 16; 8: 13). J, however, seems not to have included a door in his Ark, and differs also from Ρ in providing it with a window which could be opened after the rain had ceased ( Gen. 8: 6). These accounts agree fairly well with the Babylonian flood story, which speaks of the vessel of Ut- napishtim as  a great house afloat, although the latter account gives a different set of dimensions. Josephus makes the statement that in his time the fragments of the Ark were still to be seen in Armenia. Rabbinical traditions supplement the Biblical account by saying that the Ark was made of cedars which Noah had planted 120 years before the flood, and that it was lighted by jewels which gave as much light as the noonday sun. The Mohammedan account of the Ark is a somewhat distorted version of the Biblical and rabbinical stories. See also: FLOOD; NOAH. ARKANSAS, state in the south- central part of the United States, admitted into the Union as a state in 1836; seceding in 1861, it was readmitted shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Its area is 52,525 square miles, with a population of 2,048,000 ( 1937 census), of whom 8,500 are Jews. Historical data of the early settlement of Jews in the state is fragmentary. The oldest and most important of the Jewish communities is in the city of Little Rock. Coming from Cracow, Galicia, in 1838, Jacob, Hyman and Levy Mitchell, three brothers, are thought to have been the citys first settlers, establishing a commercial house there. They were followed four years later by Edward Czarnickow, who settled in Fort Smith, bring-ing after him Louis, a brother, who was followed by Morris Price in 1843; Michael Charles in 1844, and Leopold Lowenthal in 1845. A Jew named Wolf ar-rived in Pine Bluff between 1845 and 1850, and in 1856, Jacob Kempner was the first Jewish resident of Hot Springs; it was as late as 1832 before Jonesboro had its first Jewish settler in the person of Morris Ber-ger. Jewish immigrants settled in various other parts of the state shortly before and following the Civil War. The first congregation to be founded in Arkansas was Bnai Israel of Little Rock. Organized in 1866, it was chartered the following year. In 1873 it dedicated its own temple with Joseph Bloch as rabbi. Other congrega-tions established were Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff, 1867; Beth El in Helena, 1868; House of Israel in Hot ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arkansas. Showing the chief places where Jewish communities Springs, 1876; Mount Sinai in Texarkana, 1884; United Hebrew Congregation in Fort Smith, 1890; Temple Israel in Jonesboro, 1897; Agudas Achim in Little Rock, 1904; Beth El in Newport, 1905; Bnai Israel in Eudora, 1912; Tifereth Israel in Forrest City, 1904, and the Jewish Reform Congregation in El Dorado, 1926. There are also congregations in Camden, Blythe-ville and Wynne. In all, Arkansas has fourteen con-gregations, six of them with buildings and schools of their own; most of them now have the services of resi-dent rabbis. There are six Jewish cemeteries located in different parts of the state. Jews are to be found in almost all towns of Arkansas. Those in the large cities participate in an extensive cul-tural and social life. The Bnai Brith, a Zionist organ-ization, a Council and Junior Council of Jewish Women and the Hadassah are represented in nearly every city; and the women of every congregation be-long to a sisterhood. The first charitable society founded in Arkansas was the Cemetery Organization ( organized in 1871) at Fort Smith. Later, the following charitable, social and educational agencies were founded: Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society ( 1871) at Fort Smith; Jewish Relief Society ( 1899) at Hot Springs; Jewish Ladies Aid Society ( 1878) at Cam-den; Temple Aid Society ( 1892) at Little Rock; Fed-eration of Jewish Charities ( 1910) at Little Rock, and in 1915, at Hot Springs; Hot Springs Relief Society ( 1916); Talmud Torah ( 1917) at Little Rock; Young Mens Hebrew Association at Little Rock; Temple Zion Society ( 1917.) at Pine Bluff; Progressive Club ( 1899) at Fort Smith; Lotus Club in Helena, and the Harmony Club ( 1916) at Pine Bluff. One of the outstanding institutions in the state is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital at Hot Springs, organized in 1910 and sponsored by the Bnai Brith. Many Arkansas Jews have been prominent in the social, public, commercial and financial life of the state. Jonas Levy, one of Little Rocks earliest settlers, was its mayor from 1860 to 1865; Jacob Erb was county judge of Little Rock from 1890 to 1894; Jacob Triebar headed the Masonic Order of Arkansas as Grand Mas- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

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The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.