Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARKANSAS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA himself and the animals, but differ slightly as to the details of its construction. The most elaborate account is in P, which states that the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 wide and 30 high; it was made of gopher wood, built in three stories, caulked tight with pitch, divided into cells, and pro-vided with a door at the side. Since the narrative fur-ther states that the flood rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, and that the Ark stranded on Mount Ararat while the flood was at its height, it is probable that the author conceived of the Ark as half submerged in the water. The door, which was evidently near the bottom of the Ark, could not be opened until the waters had subsided sufficiently to uncover the tops of the mountains ( Gen. 8: 6, 13b). The J account of the construction of the Ark has not been preserved, but both accounts provide the Ark with a removable roof ( Gen. 6: 16; 8: 13). J, however, seems not to have included a door in his Ark, and differs also from Ρ in providing it with a window which could be opened after the rain had ceased ( Gen. 8: 6). These accounts agree fairly well with the Babylonian flood story, which speaks of the vessel of Ut- napishtim as  a great house afloat, although the latter account gives a different set of dimensions. Josephus makes the statement that in his time the fragments of the Ark were still to be seen in Armenia. Rabbinical traditions supplement the Biblical account by saying that the Ark was made of cedars which Noah had planted 120 years before the flood, and that it was lighted by jewels which gave as much light as the noonday sun. The Mohammedan account of the Ark is a somewhat distorted version of the Biblical and rabbinical stories. See also: FLOOD; NOAH. ARKANSAS, state in the south- central part of the United States, admitted into the Union as a state in 1836; seceding in 1861, it was readmitted shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Its area is 52,525 square miles, with a population of 2,048,000 ( 1937 census), of whom 8,500 are Jews. Historical data of the early settlement of Jews in the state is fragmentary. The oldest and most important of the Jewish communities is in the city of Little Rock. Coming from Cracow, Galicia, in 1838, Jacob, Hyman and Levy Mitchell, three brothers, are thought to have been the citys first settlers, establishing a commercial house there. They were followed four years later by Edward Czarnickow, who settled in Fort Smith, bring-ing after him Louis, a brother, who was followed by Morris Price in 1843; Michael Charles in 1844, and Leopold Lowenthal in 1845. A Jew named Wolf ar-rived in Pine Bluff between 1845 and 1850, and in 1856, Jacob Kempner was the first Jewish resident of Hot Springs; it was as late as 1832 before Jonesboro had its first Jewish settler in the person of Morris Ber-ger. Jewish immigrants settled in various other parts of the state shortly before and following the Civil War. The first congregation to be founded in Arkansas was Bnai Israel of Little Rock. Organized in 1866, it was chartered the following year. In 1873 it dedicated its own temple with Joseph Bloch as rabbi. Other congrega-tions established were Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff, 1867; Beth El in Helena, 1868; House of Israel in Hot ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arkansas. Showing the chief places where Jewish communities Springs, 1876; Mount Sinai in Texarkana, 1884; United Hebrew Congregation in Fort Smith, 1890; Temple Israel in Jonesboro, 1897; Agudas Achim in Little Rock, 1904; Beth El in Newport, 1905; Bnai Israel in Eudora, 1912; Tifereth Israel in Forrest City, 1904, and the Jewish Reform Congregation in El Dorado, 1926. There are also congregations in Camden, Blythe-ville and Wynne. In all, Arkansas has fourteen con-gregations, six of them with buildings and schools of their own; most of them now have the services of resi-dent rabbis. There are six Jewish cemeteries located in different parts of the state. Jews are to be found in almost all towns of Arkansas. Those in the large cities participate in an extensive cul-tural and social life. The Bnai Brith, a Zionist organ-ization, a Council and Junior Council of Jewish Women and the Hadassah are represented in nearly every city; and the women of every congregation be-long to a sisterhood. The first charitable society founded in Arkansas was the Cemetery Organization ( organized in 1871) at Fort Smith. Later, the following charitable, social and educational agencies were founded: Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society ( 1871) at Fort Smith; Jewish Relief Society ( 1899) at Hot Springs; Jewish Ladies Aid Society ( 1878) at Cam-den; Temple Aid Society ( 1892) at Little Rock; Fed-eration of Jewish Charities ( 1910) at Little Rock, and in 1915, at Hot Springs; Hot Springs Relief Society ( 1916); Talmud Torah ( 1917) at Little Rock; Young Mens Hebrew Association at Little Rock; Temple Zion Society ( 1917.) at Pine Bluff; Progressive Club ( 1899) at Fort Smith; Lotus Club in Helena, and the Harmony Club ( 1916) at Pine Bluff. One of the outstanding institutions in the state is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital at Hot Springs, organized in 1910 and sponsored by the Bnai Brith. Many Arkansas Jews have been prominent in the social, public, commercial and financial life of the state. Jonas Levy, one of Little Rocks earliest settlers, was its mayor from 1860 to 1865; Jacob Erb was county judge of Little Rock from 1890 to 1894; Jacob Triebar headed the Masonic Order of Arkansas as Grand Mas- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Multi-platform, electronic edition of masoretic text of the Holy Scriptures placed next to classic Jewish translation.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 12
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8
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Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)
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Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

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Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
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Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.