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Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
by Mordechai Cogan / Varda Books

From Preface:

Thirty outstanding studies covering Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel, which have been published to mark the occasion of the sixty-fifth birthday of Hayim Tadmor (in November 1988), colleagues and friends from East and West have joined together in the present collection of essays which reflect the multi-faceted nature of his scholarly work.

A major focus of this work has been the investigation of the ideological patterns in the Assyrian historical inscriptions. In concluding a recent study, Tadmor noted that

.. .the formulae we have discussed are thus our best, and sometimes our only available source for tracing the changing self-image of the Assyrian monarch, which in itself is indicative of the changes in the royal court and among the scribes. In that sense, the new reality they created is of no less significance than the often concealed historical reality which they purport to relate (ARINH, 33).

He gave expression here, perhaps instinctively, to one of the central pillars and raison d'etre of his distinguished scholarly career.

Tadmor is first and foremost a historian. During his early studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, he already concentrated in Bible and History (1943-1949). At the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London (1951-1952), he began a career-long specialization in Assyriology. After receiving his PhD in Jerusalem (1955), he pursued postgraduate work at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (1955-1957) under the tutelage of Benno Landsberger. Tadmor then returned to Jerusalem, to lecture in Near Eastern studies and to found the Department of Assyriology at the Hebrew University, with which he has been associated until the present. He has been a frequent lecturer at universities in the United States, Canada and in Europe. In recognition of his scholarly achievements, he was elected to the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1985 and the American Oriental Society in 1986.

Tadmor ranks as one of the leading authorities on the history of Mesopotamia during the first millennium B.C.E. In particular, he has developed models for the study of the major corpus of that history, the Assyrian royal inscriptions, with a view towards defining their ideological trends and the techniques of literary transmission; his models have become the accepted norm for the analysis of these documents.

Tadmor,s work on ancient historiography integrates both Mesopotamian as well as biblical sources. Early on, Tadmor recognized the significance of chronology for understanding the affairs of state and so, he has periodically returned to refine his system of Biblical Chronology with the aid of extra-biblical records. He has lavished special attention upon the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III, during whose reign Israel was first brought under direct Assyrian rule; in dozens of Vorarbeiten, he consulted the excavator's notebooks in order to restore the order of the surviving fragmentary texts and now has prepared a definitive edition of the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser 111, in press. His studies of the history of Israel and its land range from the pre-Monarchic period until the Restoration, with special emphasis on the history of the Neo-Assyrian and Achaemenid empires in the West. In addition to their political aspects, Tatlmor paints a lucid picture of social and cultural trends in Israel and Assyria.

It is the wish of the contributors and editors of this volume that our jubilarian will find in it material of interest and relevance to advance his own work. As Daniel and his friends in their day, ״proficient in the writings and language of the Chaldeans," may he enjoy long and happy years "with knowledge and intelligence" in the service of God and man.

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Front Matter
Half Title Page
Title page
Table of content
PREFACE
ABBREVIATIONS
Content
PART ONE: NEO-ASSYRIAN HISTORY
THE CITIES OF THE MEDES
PHOENICIAN OVERLAND TRADE WITHIN THE MESOPOTAMIAN EMPIRES
Phoenicia and Assyria
Phoenicia and Babylonia
"THE SAMARIAN(S)" IN THE ASSYRIAN SOURCES
Onomastic examination
The content of the source and the context of the reference to the"Samarian(s)":
THE ACHIEVEMENT OF TIGLATH-PILESER III: NOVELTY OR CONTINUITY?
ESARHADDON'S "LETTER TO THE GODS"
THE CYPRIOT VASSALS OF ESARHADDON
THE TRADE NETWORK OF TYRE ACCORDING TO EZEK. 27
Ezek. 27 and the Trade of Tyre
The Geographical Picture
The Commodities
Trade Terminology
The General Statement (Trade-partners)
The Analytical Statement (Traded Goods)
Conclusions and Perspectives
FORCED PARTICIPATION IN ALLIANCES IN THE COURSE OF THE ASSYRIAN CAMPAIGNS TO THE WEST
Introduction
Joram of Israel and Hazael of Aram-Damascus
Zakkur of Hamath and Bar-Hadad of Aram-Damascus
Jehoash of Israel and Bar-Hadad of Damascus
Kushtashpi of Kummuh and Sarduri II of Urartu
The Syro-Ephraimite War
Hezekiah and the Philistine Kingdoms
SEMIRAMIS: HER NAME AND HER ORIGIN
ELEMENTS OF ARAMEAN PRE-HISTORY
PART TWO: LITERARY AND HISTORIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES
A PLAIDOYER ON BEHALF OF THE ROYAL SCRIBES
NARRATIVE AND IDEOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN THE ACCOUNT OF SARGON'S EIGHTH CAMPAIGN
The righteous king and the treacherous enemy
The difficult landscape and the heroic suzerain
"The bigger they are, the harder they fall"
THE DEATH OF KINGS: TRADITIONAL HISTORIOGRAPHY IN CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE
THE SUCCESSION NARRATIVE AND ESARHADDON'SAPOLOGY: A COMPARISON
"HISTORY" AND "LITERATURE" IN THE PERSIAN PERIOD:THE RESTORATION OF THE TEMPLE
VIII
SOLOMON AND SULGI: A COMPARATIVE PORTRAIT
THE QUESTION OF DISTINCTIVENESS IN ANCIENT ISRAEL:AN ESSAY: PETER MACHINIST
LARGE NUMBERS IN THE ASSYRIAN ROYAL INSCRIPTIONS
Round Numbers
Sources of Information
Exact Numbers
Variant Figures
Feasible Figures
Inflated Numbers?
Evaluating the Large Numbers
Conclusion
"THE COMMAND OF THE GOD" AS A REASON FORGOING TO WAR IN THE ASSYRIAN ROYALINSCRIPTIONS: BUSTANAY ODED
The Gods have the Legitimate Authority to Declare War
The Gods are Patrons of a Treaty between Two States
"Holy War"
The Assyrian King is the Rod of Wrath in the Hand of the Gods
The King is Responsible to the Gods rather than to the People
The Closeness of the Assyrian King to the Gods
To Assure the Results of Battles in Advance
Conclusion
PART THREE: TEXTS AND TEXTUAL STUDIES
THE RITUAL TABLET AND RUBRICS OF MAQLU:TOWARD THE HISTORY OF THE SERIES
Introduction
The Ritual Tablet
Ritual Tablet and Rubrics: Description of the Relationship
RUBRICS
Tablet II
Tablet III
RITUAL TABLET
Tablet IX
Rubrics and Ritual Tablet: Direction and Nature of the Relationship
Toward a History of Maqlu
ASSUR-UBALLIT I AND THE SUTIANSA SMALL CHAPTER FROM THE THEME: PROLEGOMENA TO ASSYRIAN EMPIRE
Comments on passage
Comments
SARGON'S REPORT ON KISH.A PROBLEM IN AKKADIAN PHILOLOGY
Translation (Sumerian)
Translation (Akkadian)
Commentary (Sumerian)
Commentary (Akkadian)
Historical Evaluation?
OLD AND MIDDLE ASSYRIAN ROYALINSCRIPTIONS—MARGINALIA
Dedicatory or Votive?
''Auto-dictation"
NEBUCHADNEZZAR AT THE PARTING OF THE WAYS: EZEK. 21:26-27
Comment
ASYLUM AT ALEPPO: A NOTE ON SFIRE III, 4-7: JONAS C. GREENFIELD
ABSTRUSE SUMERIAN
Akkadianisms
Orthography
Dialects
Gender
Phrase Structure
Misinterpretations?
1p. sg. -bi
Purposive -bi
-men used as 1 p.sg. object-element
Imperative PL in -es and -nene
-enzen used as possessive suffix
Tricks and Puns(?)
Syntactic Displacement
IV R 20:1 AJSL 35(1918), 139
Orthography
Dialects
Gender
Punning
Syntactic Displacement
The various peculiarities here discussed
THE CORONATION AND CONSECRATION OF SULGIIN THE EKUR (SULGI G)
Introduction
Content and Literary Structure
Cultic-Historical Setting
Orthography, Grammar and Syntax
Akkadian Glosses
Transliteration and Translation
Commentary
AN UNKNOWN KING IN AN UNKNOWN CITY
ASSURBANIPAL'S MESSAGE TO THE BABYLONIANS (ABL 301), WITH AN EXCURSUS ON FIGURATIVE BILTU
Problem 2
Problem
Problem 7
Excursus
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL REFLECTIONS OF A UNIVERSITY TEACHER
Back Matter
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE WORKS OF HAYIM TADMOR
Copyright Page
Title Page