Thirty outstanding studies covering Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel, which have been published to mark the occasion of the sixty-fifth birthday of Hayim
Tadmor (in November 1988), colleagues and friends from East and West have joined
together in the present collection of essays which reflect the multi-faceted
nature of his scholarly work.
A major focus of this work has been the investigation of the ideological patterns in the Assyrian historical inscriptions. In concluding a recent study, Tadmor noted that
.. .the formulae we have discussed are thus our best, and sometimes our only available source for tracing the changing self-image of the Assyrian monarch, which in itself is indicative of the changes in the royal court and among the scribes. In that sense, the new reality they created is of no less significance than the often concealed historical reality which they purport to relate (ARINH, 33).
He gave expression here, perhaps instinctively, to one of the central pillars and raison d'etre of his distinguished scholarly career.
Tadmor is first and foremost a historian. During his early studies at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, he already concentrated in Bible and History (1943-1949). At the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London (1951-1952), he began a career-long specialization in Assyriology. After receiving his PhD in Jerusalem (1955), he pursued postgraduate work at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (1955-1957) under the tutelage of Benno Landsberger. Tadmor then returned to Jerusalem, to lecture in Near Eastern studies and to found the Department of Assyriology at the Hebrew University, with which he has been associated until the present. He has been a frequent lecturer at universities in the United States, Canada and in Europe. In recognition of his scholarly achievements, he was elected to the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1985 and the American Oriental Society in 1986.
Tadmor ranks as one of the leading authorities on the history of Mesopotamia during the first millennium B.C.E. In particular, he has developed models for the study of the major corpus of that history, the Assyrian royal inscriptions, with a view towards defining their ideological trends and the techniques of literary transmission; his models have become the accepted norm for the analysis of these documents.
Tadmor,s work on ancient historiography integrates both Mesopotamian as well as biblical sources. Early on, Tadmor recognized the significance of chronology for understanding the affairs of state and so, he has periodically returned to refine his system of Biblical Chronology with the aid of extra-biblical records. He has lavished special attention upon the Assyrian monarch Tiglath-pileser III, during whose reign Israel was first brought under direct Assyrian rule; in dozens of Vorarbeiten, he consulted the excavator's notebooks in order to restore the order of the surviving fragmentary texts and now has prepared a definitive edition of the Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser 111, in press. His studies of the history of Israel and its land range from the pre-Monarchic period until the Restoration, with special emphasis on the history of the Neo-Assyrian and Achaemenid empires in the West. In addition to their political aspects, Tatlmor paints a lucid picture of social and cultural trends in Israel and Assyria.
It is the wish of the contributors and editors of this volume that our jubilarian will find in it material of interest and relevance to advance his own work. As Daniel and his friends in their day, ״proficient in the writings and language of the Chaldeans," may he enjoy long and happy years "with knowledge and intelligence" in the service of God and man.
PART ONE: NEO-ASSYRIAN HISTORY
I.M. Diakonoff ערי מדי: The Cities of the Medes 13
Moshe Elat Phoenician Overland Trade within the Mesopotamian Empires 21
Israel Eph'al "The Samarian(s)" in the Assyrian Sources 36
Paul Garelli The Achievement of Tiglath-pileser III: Novelty or Continuity? 46
Erie Leichty Esarhaddon's "Letter to the Gods" 52
E. Lipinski The Cypriot Vassals of Esarhaddon 58
Mario Liverani The Trade Network of Tyre according to Ezek.27 65
Nadav Na'aman Forced Participation in Alliances in the Course of the Assyrian Campaigns to the West 80
Moshe Weinfeld Semiramis: Her Name and her Origin 99
Ran Zadok Elements of Aramean Pre-history 104
PART TWO: LITERARY AND HISTORIOGRAPHICAL STUDIES
Mordechai Cogan A Plaidoyer on behalf of the Royal Scribes 121
Frederick Mario Fales Narrative and Ideological Variations in the Account of Sargon's Eighth Campaign 129
William W. Hallo The Death of Kings: Traditional Historiography in Contextual Perspective 148
Tomoo Ishida The Succession Narrative and Esarhaddon's
Apology: A Comparison
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