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eBook The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
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Author:  
Publisher:  Varda Books
Published:  2005
Language:  English
Pages:   402
Techno:  

Prepared to work interactively with both Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible and Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible which can be purchased separately.



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ISBN: 1-59045-846-X




About the Book -- The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah

New Page 3

From INTRODUCTION.

§ I. THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE BOOKS.

The books of Ezra and Nehemia were originally one, and ought really to be so combined now. The evidence of this is overwhelming. Two points suffice for a demonstration: (1) The story of Ezr. is partly in one book, Ezr. 7–10, and partly in the other, Ne. 770–812.* In 1 Esd. these two parts are united in a single book. (2) At the end of each book of the OT. there are certain Massoretic notes, giving the number of verses, the
middle point in the volume or roll, etc. There are no such notes at the end of Ezr., and those at the end of Ne. cover both books, showing that the two constituted a single work when those notes were made.

It is also generally agreed that Ezr.–Ne. originally was a part of the book of Ch., so that the whole work was a comprehensive history of the Jews from Adam down to the end of the Persian period.

It is true that in the Heb. Bible our books precede Ch., though the right order is found in G. The order in the Heb. canon is naturally illogical, and is prob. due to the fact that Ezr.–Ne. was accepted as canonical before Ch. The fact is that Ch. was under a great deal of suspicion. It was a book parall. the earlier histories long established as authorities, and differing from them so much that the presence of the new work created difficulties. Ezr.–Ne., on the other hand, contained the only account of the important Pers. period. A part of the large work of Ch. was, therefore, severed from the rest, and naturally just that part dealing with the otherwise unknown period, and of which there was no dup., and this part was accepted.

Later the rest of the work found its place at the very end of the canon. The order in G really does not contravene this conclusion, for the
Gk. translators made a new arrangement of the canon on a literary basis, putting all the historical books together. When the transposition was
made on this basis, Ch. was put before Ezr.–Ne. from chron. considerations. When the disjuncture was made, there appears to have been an accident, for the severed parts overlap, Ezr. 11–3a being identical with 2 Ch. 36:22 f.

The latter ends in the middle of a sentence “and let him go up,” and in the middle of Cy.'s decree. The simplest explanation of the strange fact is that a copyist who was working on the book of Ch.had as his exemplar one of the older editions containing the whole original Ch.–Ezr.–Ne.

He got beyond the point of division before he noted his mistake, and this slip has been perpetuated down to the present day. Howorth explains differently (PSBA. 1901,2). It is indisputable that Ch. and Ezr.–Ne. come from the same hand. There is no book in the OT. which has more marked peculiarities than Ch. These cover both literary features, favourite words and expressions, peculiar style, etc. (for a list of which, see Curt.7), and also historical features, for the Chr. had his own way of looking at the history, and his theory colours his work so markedly that it is often quite valueless to the student of history. There is scarcely one of these peculiarities that is not found also in Ezr.–Ne. Evidence of the original
unity is furnished from Esd., which contains two whole c. of Ch. (2 Ch. 35, 36) and then goes on directly to Ezra, without the duplication
found in Heb.



About the Book

Contents

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PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
INTRODUCTION
§ 1. THE ORIGINAL FORM OF THE BOOKS . . . . . . . . . 1
§ 2. THE DATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
§ 3. THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOKS . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
§ 4. THE CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
§ 5. THE TWO EDITIONS OF EZRA–NEHEMIAH . . . . . . . . 6
§ 6. 1 ESDRAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
§ 7. THE SEMITIC TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
§ 8. THE SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
§ 9. THE SAMARITAN OPPOSITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
§ 10. THE DATE OF EZRA'S MISSION . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
§ 11. THE HISTORY OF THE PERSIAN PERIOD . . . . . . . . 30
§ 12. CHAPTER AND VERSE DIVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
§ 13. LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
COMMENTARY ON
EZRA 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
EZRA 21–69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
EZRA 270–43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
424b–618 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
EZRA 619–22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
EZRA 44–6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
EZRA 47–24a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
NEHEMIAH 1, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
NEHEMIAH 31–32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
NEHEMIAH 333–417 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
NEHEMIAH 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
NEHEMIAH 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
NEHEMIAH 71–5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
NEHEMIAH 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
NEHEMIAH 121–26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
NEHEMIAH 1227–43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
NEHEMIAH 1244–47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
NEHEMIAH 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
EZRA 7–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
NEHEMIAH 8–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381



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