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eBook History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
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Publisher:  Varda Books
Published:  2005
Language:  English
Pages:   408


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ISBN: 1-59045-784-6




About the Book -- History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament

One of the main contributions of English scholarship to the subject, Maddens work on Jewish numismatics builds on the achievements of his predecessors Eckhel, Bayer, Cavedoni, deSaulcy and M.A. Levy. However, Madden not only takes into account their discoveries, but also subjects their results to withering criticism, concluding, for all his real modesty, with remarks that Jewish numismatics had been a neglected subject in England until his own time.

Precursor of Hill's Catalogue, Madden work followed sound scholarly principles and didn't not publish any coin which Madden didn't see and tested himself. Michael Avi-Yonah, Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University in Jerusalem, wrote that Madden's book, despite passage of time, has retained its value as "a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past."



About the Book

Contents

CONTENTS.

PREFACE...........XI

INTRODUCTION.PROGRESS OF THE STUDY OF JEWISH COINS......XLVII

CHAPTER I.
EARLY USE OF SILVER AS A MEDIUM OF COMMERCE AND TRADE AMONG THE HEBREWS BEFORE THE EXILE.............I

CHAPTER II.
WHAT PEOPLE FIRST COINED MONEY? THE MATERIALS EMPLOYED FOR MONEY............9

CHAPTER III.
THE MONEY EMPLOYED BY THE JEWS AFTER THEIR RETURN FROM BABYLON, UNTIL THE REVOLT UNDER THE MACCABEES............ 16

CHAPTER IV.
SIMON THE MACCABEE FIRST STRIKES COINS.....................................37

A. SIMON MACCABÆUS, B.C. 143B.C. 135.................................43
B. JOHN HYRCANUS, B.C. 135B.C. 106..................................... 51
C. JUDAS ARISTOBULUS, B.C. 106B.C. 105............................... 61
D. ALEXANDER JANNÆUS, B.C. 105B.C. 78............................. 63
E. ALEXANDRA, B.C. 78B.C. 69............................................... 70
F. HYRCANUS II. B.C. 69B.C. 65...............................................72
G. ARISTOBULUS II. AND ALEXANDER II. B.C. 65B.C. 49...............72
H. HYRCANUS II. RE-ESTABLISHED, B.C. 47B.C. 40.................75
I. ANTIGONUS, B.C. 40B.C. 37...................................................76

CHAPTER V.
COINS OR THE IDUMÆAN PRINCES .....................................................81
A. HEROD I. SURNAMED THE GREAT, B.C. 37B.C. 4................. 81
B. HEROD ARCHELAUS, B.C. 4A.D. 6........................................91
C. HEROD ANTIPAS, B.C. 4A.D. 39............................................95
D. HEROD PHILIP II. B.C. 4A.D. 34........................................100
E. HEROD AGRIPPA I. A.D. 37A.D. 44.....................................103
F. HEROD, KING OF CHALCIS, A.D. 41A.D. 48....................... 111
G. AGRIPPA II. A.D. 48A.D. 100..............................................113

CHAPTER VI.
COINS STRUCK BY THE PROCURATORS...............................................134
A. REIGN OF AUGUSTUS, A.D. 6A.D. 14...................................135
B. REIGN OF TIBERIUS, A.D. 14A.D. 37...................................141
C. REIGN OF CAIUS (CALIGULA), A.D. 37A.D. 41....................151
D. REIGN OF CLAUDIUS, A.D. 41A.D. 54.................................151
E. REIGN OF NERO, A.D. 54A.D. 68........................................153

CHAPTER VII.
MONEY STRUCK DURING THE FIRST REVOLT OF THE JEWS...............154
A. ELEAZAR................................................................................161
B. SIMON, SON OF GIORAS.......................................................... 166
C. SIMON, SON OF GAMALIEL, AND THE SUPREME AUTHORITY.........174
D. ANANUS, SON OF ANANUS.....................................................181

CHAPTER VIII.
ROMAN COINS STRUCK COMMEMORATING THE CAPTURE OF JERUSALEM.......183
A. REIGN OF VESPASIAN.............................................................183
I. COINS STRUCK IN JUDÆA..................................................183
II. COINS STRUCK AT ROME.................................................183
B. REIGN OF TITUS.....................................................................189
I. COINS STRUCK IN JUDÆA..................................................189
II. COINS STRUCK AT ROME.................................................190
C. REIGN OP DOMITIAN...............................................................197
I. COINS STRUCK AT ROME...................................................197

CHAPTER IX.
MONEY STRUCK DURING THE SECOND REVOLT OF THE JEWS...........198
A. SIMON BAR-COCHAB............................................................. 203

CHAPTER X.
IMPERIAL COLONIAL COINS STRUCK AT JERUSALEM....................... 211
A. HADRIANUS, A.D. 136A.D. 138..........................................212
HADRIAN AND ANTONINUS...................................................215
B. ANTONINUS PIUS, A.D. 138A.D. 161..................................215
ANTONINUS AND MARCUS AURELIUS.................................. 219
C. MARCUS AURELIUS, A.D. 161A.D. 180.............................. 220
MARCUS AURELIUS AND LUCIUS VERUS............................. 221
D. LUCIUS VERUS, A.D. 161A.D. 169...................................... 222
E. JULIA DOMNA, A.D. 173A.D. 217........................................223
F. CARACALLA, A.D. 211A.D. 217........................................... 224
G. GETA, A.D. 211A.D. 212......................................................224
H. DIADUMENIANUS, A.D. 217A.D. 217...................................225
I. ELAGABALUS, A.D. 218A.D. 222......................................... 226
J. TRAJANUS DECIUS, A.D. 249A.D. 251.................................228
K. HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS AND HOSTILIANUS, A.D. 249A.D. 251.....230
ARAB COINS.......................................................................................230

CHAPTER XI.
MONEY IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.....................................................232
A. GREEK MONEY.......................................................................232
B. ROMAN MONEY......................................................................242

CHAPTER XII.
WEIGHTS............................................................................................249
CHAPTER XIII.
WRITING.............................................................................................305

TABLES
TO ILLUSTRATE THE COINAGE, FROM THE DEATH OF HEROD I. TO THE DEATH OF HADRIAN........321
I. B.C. 4A.D. 40................................................................. 323
II. A.D. 41A.D. 81............................................................... 324
III. A.D. 82A.D. 138.............................................................325

APPENDIX.
A. THE TALMUDIC WRITINGS ON THE COINAGE OF THE FIRST AND SECOND REVOLTS................329
B. COUNTERFEIT JEWISH COINS................................................334


An Excerpt from the Book -- History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament

New Page 1

CHAPTER VII.

MONEY STRUCK DURING THE FIRST REVOLT OF THE JEWS.

GESSIUS FLORUS, who, as previously stated, succeeded Albinus in A.D. 65, proved even a greater tyrant than his predecessor. Already, under former Procurators, had the enmity of the Jews towards their oppressors found vent in many outbreaks, which only lasted for a short time. These insurrections were always quickly subdued, and the Jews only postponed their attempts for attaining independence to a suitable time.

The conduct of Florus in oppressing the people helped to increase the feeling of hostility to Rome. It was owing to certain events happening at Cæsarea, that the Jews were brought into direct hostility with Rome. Two parties laid claim to the city, the Greeks and the Jews. The claim of the former finding favour with the Romans, and the religion of the Jews having been in several instances insulted by the inhabitants of Cæsarea, the Jews broke out into open rebellion.

Florus, instead of hastening to Cæsarea to quell the flame of the war, further insulted the oppressed Jews by attempting to obtain seventeen talents from the treasure in the Temple, pretending that Cæsar wanted them. We must pass over briefly the account of the fearful tumult that ensued, of Queen Berenices pleading barefoot before Florus, and only allude to the famous speech that Agrippa II. made to the Jews, entreating them to pause before they made war with Rome. It was of no avail.

Hitherto, it had been customary for the governor of the Temple to offer sacrifices for the welfare of the Roman Empire; but Eleazar, the son of the High-Priest Ananias, refused to do so, massacred the Roman garrison, and remained master of the town for some time. Cestius Gallus, the governor of Syria, who had already suffered one defeat at Beth-horon from Simon, son of Gioras, advanced from his camp at Scopus towards Jerusalem. The Jews rushing forth repulsed the advancing Romans, and Cestius was obliged to retire. After three days delay, he again advanced, and the Roman army was completely defeated. This took place in A.D. 66.

The part that Eleazar, son of Ananias, took in the history of which we are treating, was not of very long duration. Immediately after the defeat of Cestius Gallus, he was sent with others into Idumæa in military command, and nothing more is known of him . . .

. . . is it not rather remarkable that the four years of the Revolt, during which time Jerusalem was continuously in the hands of the Jews (from the year A.D. 66A.D. 70), should be so totally barren of Jewish numismatic history? Fortunately, the discovery of De Vogüé has supplied this deficiency, and though he has not obtained as many results from the coins of Eleazar as he might have done, this task has been undertaken by Levy, who has certainly made great advancement in the history of later Jewish numismatics.


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