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RHODES RIBALOW THE UNIVERSAL

by Isaak Landman,
RHODES RIBALOW THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Gates to the Jewish quarter in Rhodes 1310. In 1502 a decree issued and enforced by Pierre dAubusson, grand master of the Knights Hospitaler, ordered all Jews of Rhodes who refused to accept bap-tism expelled from the island; on this occasion a num-ber of Jews were converted to Christianity. When the city of Rhodes was captured by the Turks in 1522, sev-eral of the baptized Jews returned to their old faith. Those Jews who did not reembrace Judaism escaped to Italy, fearing persecution under the Turkish rule. Many of the Jews of the island of Rhodes participated in the siege of the city by Sultan Suleiman II the Mag-nificent ( 1687- 91), aiding the sultans troops. After Rhodes had capitulated they settled there and, together with other Jews from Salonika and other places whom Suleiman had encouraged to settle in Rhodes, they were granted important privileges. A blood accusation was levelled against the Jews of Rhodes in 1840; however, despite a false confession secured by means of torture, and leading to several at-tacks on the Jews of Rhodes, this accusation was easily disproved and the accused Jews were liberated. In 1923 Rhodes came under the rule of Italy. In 1927 the Jews of Rhodes maintained two large synagogues, two smaller ones, as well as two schools. In 1928 the Jews of the city of Rhodes numbered 3,000, out of a general popu-lation of 15,000. The Jewish population of the whole island of Rhodes was estimated in 1942 as about 4,500, out of a total population of about 40,000. During the past three decades ( 1910- 42) there has been a migratory movement of Jews away from Rhodes to the mainland of Asia, and to Palestine; this movement was still continuing on a small scale up to the time of the outbreak of the second World War. The Italian subjects of Jewish faith in the whole Aegean Islands, including Rhodes, were under the super-vision of the chief rabbi of Rhodes. Among the outstanding Jewish authors who lived in Rhodes in the past were: Hayim ben Menahem Algazi; Moses Israel, author of Massath Mosheh; Rabbi Ezra Malki, author of the three works Mishpat, Hoshen Μishpat, and Peri Hadash; and Rabbi Jedidiah Tarikah. ABRAHAM I. SHINEDLING. Lit.: Pacifici, Riccardo,  Notizie sulla vita degli ebrei a Rodi, Israel, La rassegnu mensile, vol. 8 ( 1935) 60- 77. RHODES, SOLOMON Α., professor and author, b. Rodi, Italy, 1895. He came to the United States in 1913, and received his Ph. D. degree from Cornell Uni-versity in 1925. After serving as instructor in Romance languages at Cornell, at Rice Institute, in Houston, Texas, and at New York University, Rhodes joined the faculty of the College of the City of New York ( 1929). He was made associate professor in 1942. Among the books published by Rhodes were: The Jews in the Intellectual Life of France ( 1927); The Cult of Beauty in Charles Baudelaire ( 1929); Within Grove ( 1933): Contemporary French Theatre RHODESIA, see SOUTH AFRICA. RHYME, see POETRY, HEBREW. RIHAZAKEN, see ISAAC BEN SAMUEL. RIAM, see IBN MIGAS, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HALEVI. RIAZANOV, DAVID BORISOVICH, revolu-tionary and author, b. Russia, 1870. His original family name was Goldendakh. He did underground organi-zational work in Russia, joining first the Narodniks ( populists) in Odessa, and was imprisoned from 1891 on for five years, spending three years in exile at Kishinev. In 1905 he took part in the work of the Social Democratic fraction in the State Duma, and he was imprisoned again in 1907 for a short time. The periods following imprisonments he spent abroad, mostly in Germany. He edited Borba ( The Struggle), the magazine of his own small Social Democratic group, en-gaged in extensive library work, and contributed to the Ger-man Social Democratic organ Neue Zeit as well as to Russian magazines on topics like Marxism, socialism and the history of the labor movement. He was commissioned to publish the works of Marx and Engels in behalf of the German Social Democratic Party, but the first World War interfered with his work, so that by 1916 he had issued only two volumes. After the February, 1917, Revolution Riazanov re-turned to Russia and attached himself to an anti- Bolshevik group called Mezhraiontsi ( The District- Wide), joining the Bolsheviks when this organization did, in July, 1917. After the October, 1917, Revolution Riazanov held a series of responsible Soviet posts. He established the Marx- Engels Institute with a rich library on Marxist questions, and published the works of Marx and Engels as well as other important Marxist works. On several issues Riazanov took a stand in opposition to that of the government of the Soviets. In 1931 he was expelled from the Communist Party for giving assistance to former Mensheviks who had become anti- Bolsheviks. At the same time he was removed from the Marx- Engels Institute. RIBA, see 1. ISAAC BEN ASHER HALEVI THE ELDER; 2. TRANI, ISAIAH BEN ELIJAH RIBAK, see JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR. RIBALOW, MENACHEM, Hebrew writer and editor, b. Chudnow, Russia, 1899. After obtaining a Hebrew education in a Yeshiva he attended the Univer-sity of Moscow. Arriving in the United States in 1921, Ribalow at once became associated with the Histadruth Ivrith, and editor of the Hebrew weekly Ηadoar. In 1922 to 1923 he was secretary of the Histadruth Ivrith; in 1928 he became vice- president, and still held this post in 1943. As editor and author, Ribalow was one of the most important figures in American Hebrew literature. Among his own works were: Sefer Hamassoth, a book of essays ( 1928); Soferim Veishim ( Writers and Personal-ities; 1936); Dichter un Sheffer fun Nei- Hebraish and Creators of Modern Hebrew; written in Yiddish; 1936); Kethabim Umegilloth, essays on ancient and modern He-brew literature ( 1942). Ribalow was also editor of An-thologia Shel Hashirah Haibrith Beamerikah, of Hebrew poetry in America ( 1938); of six volumes of the Sefer Hashanah Liyehude Amerikah, an American year book; and of several jubilee books and memorial vol-umes. He was a contributor to various periodicals in Eng-lish, Hebrew and Yiddish. Chapter Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX  | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO  | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

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RHODES RIBALOW THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Gates to the Jewish quarter in Rhodes 1310. In 1502 a decree issued and enforced by Pierre d'Aubusson, grand master of the Knights Hospitaler, ordered all Jews of Rhodes who refused to accept bap-tism expelled from the island; on this occasion a num-ber of Jews were converted to Christianity. When the city of Rhodes was captured by the Turks in 1522, sev-eral of the baptized Jews returned to their old faith. Those Jews who did not reembrace Judaism escaped to Italy, fearing persecution under the Turkish rule. Many of the Jews of the island of Rhodes participated in the siege of the city by Sultan Suleiman II the Mag-nificent ( 1687- 91), aiding the sultan's troops. After Rhodes had capitulated they settled there and, together with other Jews from Salonika and other places whom Suleiman had encouraged to settle in Rhodes, they were granted important privileges. A blood accusation was levelled against the Jews of Rhodes in 1840; however, despite a false confession secured by means of torture, and leading to several at-tacks on the Jews of Rhodes, this accusation was easily disproved and the accused Jews were liberated. In 1923 Rhodes came under the rule of Italy. In 1927 the Jews of Rhodes maintained two large synagogues, two smaller ones, as well as two schools. In 1928 the Jews of the city of Rhodes numbered 3,000, out of a general popu-lation of 15,000. The Jewish population of the whole island of Rhodes was estimated in 1942 as about 4,500, out of a total population of about 40,000. During the past three decades ( 1910- 42) there has been a migratory movement of Jews away from Rhodes to the mainland of Asia, and to Palestine; this movement was still continuing on a small scale up to the time of the outbreak of the second World War. The Italian subjects of Jewish faith in the whole Aegean Islands, including Rhodes, were under the super-vision of the chief rabbi of Rhodes. Among the outstanding Jewish authors who lived in Rhodes in the past were: Hayim ben Menahem Algazi; Moses Israel, author of Massath Mosheh; Rabbi Ezra Malki, author of the three works Mishpat, Hoshen Μishpat, and Peri Hadash; and Rabbi Jedidiah Tarikah. ABRAHAM I. SHINEDLING. Lit.: Pacifici, Riccardo, \\" Notizie sulla vita degli ebrei a Rodi,\\" Israel, La rassegnu mensile, vol. 8 ( 1935) 60- 77. RHODES, SOLOMON Α., professor and author, b. Rodi, Italy, 1895. He came to the United States in 1913, and received his Ph. D. degree from Cornell Uni-versity in 1925. After serving as instructor in Romance languages at Cornell, at Rice Institute, in Houston, Texas, and at New York University, Rhodes joined the faculty of the College of the City of New York ( 1929). He was made associate professor in 1942. Among the books published by Rhodes were: The Jews in the Intellectual Life of France ( 1927); The Cult of Beauty in Charles Baudelaire ( 1929); Within Grove ( 1933): Contemporary French Theatre RHODESIA, see SOUTH AFRICA. RHYME, see POETRY, HEBREW. RIHAZAKEN, see ISAAC BEN SAMUEL. RIAM, see IBN MIGAS, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HALEVI. RIAZANOV, DAVID BORISOVICH, revolu-tionary and author, b. Russia, 1870. His original family name was Goldendakh. He did underground organi-zational work in Russia, joining first the Narodniks ( populists) in Odessa, and was imprisoned from 1891 on for five years, spending three years in exile at Kishinev. In 1905 he took part in the work of the Social Democratic fraction in the State Duma, and he was imprisoned again in 1907 for a short time. The periods following imprisonments he spent abroad, mostly in Germany. He edited Borba ( The Struggle), the magazine of his own small Social Democratic group, en-gaged in extensive library work, and contributed to the Ger-man Social Democratic organ Neue Zeit as well as to Russian magazines on topics like Marxism, socialism and the history of the labor movement. He was commissioned to publish the works of Marx and Engels in behalf of the German Social Democratic Party, but the first World War interfered with his work, so that by 1916 he had issued only two volumes. After the February, 1917, Revolution Riazanov re-turned to Russia and attached himself to an anti- Bolshevik group called Mezhraiontsi ( The District- Wide), joining the Bolsheviks when this organization did, in July, 1917. After the October, 1917, Revolution Riazanov held a series of responsible Soviet posts. He established the Marx- Engels Institute with a rich library on Marxist questions, and published the works of Marx and Engels as well as other important Marxist works. On several issues Riazanov took a stand in opposition to that of the government of the Soviets. In 1931 he was expelled from the Communist Party for giving assistance to former Mensheviks who had become anti- Bolsheviks. At the same time he was removed from the Marx- Engels Institute. RIBA, see 1. ISAAC BEN ASHER HALEVI THE ELDER; 2. TRANI, ISAIAH BEN ELIJAH RIBAK, see JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR. RIBALOW, MENACHEM, Hebrew writer and editor, b. Chudnow, Russia, 1899. After obtaining a Hebrew education in a Yeshiva he attended the Univer-sity of Moscow. Arriving in the United States in 1921, Ribalow at once became associated with the Histadruth Ivrith, and editor of the Hebrew weekly Ηadoar. In 1922 to 1923 he was secretary of the Histadruth Ivrith; in 1928 he became vice- president, and still held this post in 1943. As editor and author, Ribalow was one of the most important figures in American Hebrew literature. Among his own works were: Sefer Hamassoth, a book of essays ( 1928); Soferim Veishim ( Writers and Personal-ities; 1936); Dichter un Sheffer fun Nei- Hebraish and Creators of Modern Hebrew; written in Yiddish; 1936); Kethabim Umegilloth, essays on ancient and modern He-brew literature ( 1942). Ribalow was also editor of An-thologia Shel Hashirah Haibrith Beamerikah, of Hebrew poetry in America ( 1938); of six volumes of the Sefer Hashanah Liyehude Amerikah, an American year book; and of several jubilee books and memorial vol-umes. He was a contributor to various periodicals in Eng-lish, Hebrew and Yiddish. << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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