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POSEKIM POSENER THE UNIVERSAL

by Isaak Landman,
POSEKIM POSENER THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 608 ] until 1888, when Isaac Palache, Haham of the Se-phardic Congregation, became its head, serving until 1925. Palache was succeeded by Benjamin Israel Ri-cardo. The Seminary, in the 20th cent., had two de-partments; in the lower department students received a high school secular education in conjunction with Jewish studies; in the upper division students who matriculated for the University entered the rabbinical classes or the teachers classes. Instruction was en-tirely from the Orthodox point of view. The Seminary library included the private collection of David Montezinos, bibliographer and once librarian of the institution. He presented it to the Seminary, where it was known as Livraria Montezinos. J. S. da Silva Rosa succeeded Montebinos in the librarians post. The Seminary, as far as it was known, was still in existence in 1942, despite Nazi occupation of Holland. Lit.: Gedenkschrift Dr. M. C. Paraira en J. S. da Silva Rosa ( 1916). POSEKIM, general name for all the rabbinical teachers after the Talmudic period who drew up codes or who gave a legal decision ( pesak) to questions that were submitted to them; in Yiddish they were said to paskenen shailoth,  settle problems. Their activity bridges the interval between the completion of the Talmud ( about 500) and the completion of the Shulhan Aruch ( 1575). Those of the period up to the end of the 15th cent, are usually called Posekim Kadmonim ( earlier Posekim); those of a later time, Posekim Aharonim ( later Posekim). The earliest Posekim are the Geonim; among their last representa-tives was Abraham Danzig of the 19th cent. See RESPONSA AND DECISIONS. POSEN, a province incorporated into the German Reich in 1939; it was formerly a part of the republic of Poland. Jews came to the province in the 13th cent, together with the German settlers in Great Poland, which covered a somewhat larger area than the prov-ince of Posen. In 1264 Boleslav, Duke of Great Poland, granted legal status to the Jews and took them under his protection. This was the first historic legal docu-ment concerning the Jews in Poland, and became the basis of future acts by the Polish king recognizing Jewish rights. The statute of Boleslav, called also the Statute of Kalisz, was confirmed by Casimir the Great in 1334 and extended to the entire territory of Poland. However, the later centuries were not free of anti- Jewish outbreaks. Especially in times of wars or na-tional crises, the position of the Jews became very pre-carious. Thus, anti- Jewish riots broke out during the wars against the Teutonic Order in the 15th cent, and at the time of the Swedish- Polish War in the 17th cent. However, on the whole the situation of the Jews in Posen and in Poland was better than in Germany and in the west. A further influx of Jews into Posen came in the 15th cent., when the Jews were expelled from the various German territories. The settlement of Germans in the Polish cities also brought about a sub-stantial immigration of Jews. The Jews enjoyed a great measure of autonomy and self- government insofar as their communal life was concerned. The Synod of Posen was a part of the Council of the Four Lands which was recognized by the Polish rulers as the representative body of the Jews in the country and enjoyed large autonomous rights. In 1772 Prussia annexed the northern part of the province, and in 1793 also the southern part came under Prussian rule. With the short interval between the Treaty of Tilsit ( 1807) and the downfall of Na- » II The principal synagogue in the city of Posen, desecrated by the occupying Germans poleon, when Posen was a part of the Duchy of Warsaw, the province remained under Prussia until 1918. Un-der the Prussian rule Posen lost most of its Jewish population, which emigrated to the west. The censuses of the Jews in the province were as follows: 43,315 in 1804; 77,102 in 1840; 40,019 in 1900. By 1931 only 7,200 Jews were left in the province. While at the time of the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th cent, the Jews formed about 5 per cent of the total popula-tion of the province, at the outbreak of the second World War in 1939 they were less than 0.3 per cent. In the 16th cent, the Jews, numbering 3,000, formed nearly one- half of the population of the city of Posen; in 1939 there were less than 2,000 Jews in the city, or 0.6 per cent of the population. In spite of the small number of Jews in the province of Posen under the Polish Republic, it was the strong-hold of anti- Semitism in Poland. When the Germans occupied Posen in 1939, they expelled almost all the Jews from the province and sent them eastward. The city of Posen became the capital of the Warthegau, which included the former province of Posen plus the city and district of Lodz. The synagogue in Posen was converted into a swimming pool for the use of Nazi party members. While in former centuries the Jewish community of Posen was quite important, and Jewish communal and religious life flourished there, from the middle of the 19th cent, on a general decline of the Jewish pop-ulation was evident until the almost complete disap-pearance of Jews from the province and city of Posen. SIMON SEGAL. Lit.: Graetz, H., Geschichte der Juden, vol. 402- 3; Bergmann, Zur Geschichte der Entwicklung deutscher, polnischer und jüdischer Bevölkerung Provinz Posen; Feilchenfeld,  Die innere Verfassung der jüdischen Gemeinde zu Posen im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, Zeitschrift der historischen Gesellschaft für Posen, vol. 11, pp. 122- 23; Meyer, Geschichte des Landes Posen ( 1881). POSENER, SALOMON, historian and writer, b. Minsk, Russia, 1876. He was educated at the Univer-sity of St. Petersburg. Although Posener left Russia for Paris in 1903, he had already by that time become Chapter Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS  | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

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POSEKIM POSENER THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 608 ] until 1888, when Isaac Palache, Haham of the Se-phardic Congregation, became its head, serving until 1925. Palache was succeeded by Benjamin Israel Ri-cardo. The Seminary, in the 20th cent., had two de-partments; in the lower department students received a high school secular education in conjunction with Jewish studies; in the upper division students who matriculated for the University entered the rabbinical classes or the teachers' classes. Instruction was en-tirely from the Orthodox point of view. The Seminary library included the private collection of David Montezinos, bibliographer and once librarian of the institution. He presented it to the Seminary, where it was known as Livraria Montezinos. J. S. da Silva Rosa succeeded Montebinos in the librarian's post. The Seminary, as far as it was known, was still in existence in 1942, despite Nazi occupation of Holland. Lit.: Gedenkschrift Dr. M. C. Paraira en J. S. da Silva Rosa ( 1916). POSEKIM, general name for all the rabbinical teachers after the Talmudic period who drew up codes or who gave a legal decision ( pesak) to questions that were submitted to them; in Yiddish they were said to paskenen shailoth, \\" settle problems.\\" Their activity bridges the interval between the completion of the Talmud ( about 500) and the completion of the Shulhan Aruch ( 1575). Those of the period up to the end of the 15th cent, are usually called Posekim Kadmonim (\\" earlier Posekim\\"); those of a later time, Posekim Aharonim (\\" later Posekim\\"). The earliest Posekim are the Geonim; among their last representa-tives was Abraham Danzig of the 19th cent. See RESPONSA AND DECISIONS. POSEN, a province incorporated into the German Reich in 1939; it was formerly a part of the republic of Poland. Jews came to the province in the 13th cent, together with the German settlers in Great Poland, which covered a somewhat larger area than the prov-ince of Posen. In 1264 Boleslav, Duke of Great Poland, granted legal status to the Jews and took them under his protection. This was the first historic legal docu-ment concerning the Jews in Poland, and became the basis of future acts by the Polish king recognizing Jewish rights. The statute of Boleslav, called also the Statute of Kalisz, was confirmed by Casimir the Great in 1334 and extended to the entire territory of Poland. However, the later centuries were not free of anti- Jewish outbreaks. Especially in times of wars or na-tional crises, the position of the Jews became very pre-carious. Thus, anti- Jewish riots broke out during the wars against the Teutonic Order in the 15th cent, and at the time of the Swedish- Polish War in the 17th cent. However, on the whole the situation of the Jews in Posen and in Poland was better than in Germany and in the west. A further influx of Jews into Posen came in the 15th cent., when the Jews were expelled from the various German territories. The settlement of Germans in the Polish cities also brought about a sub-stantial immigration of Jews. The Jews enjoyed a great measure of autonomy and self- government insofar as their communal life was concerned. The Synod of Posen was a part of the Council of the Four Lands which was recognized by the Polish rulers as the representative body of the Jews in the country and enjoyed large autonomous rights. In 1772 Prussia annexed the northern part of the province, and in 1793 also the southern part came under Prussian rule. With the short interval between the Treaty of Tilsit ( 1807) and the downfall of Na- » II The principal synagogue in the city of Posen, desecrated by the occupying Germans poleon, when Posen was a part of the Duchy of Warsaw, the province remained under Prussia until 1918. Un-der the Prussian rule Posen lost most of its Jewish population, which emigrated to the west. The censuses of the Jews in the province were as follows: 43,315 in 1804; 77,102 in 1840; 40,019 in 1900. By 1931 only 7,200 Jews were left in the province. While at the time of the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th cent, the Jews formed about 5 per cent of the total popula-tion of the province, at the outbreak of the second World War in 1939 they were less than 0.3 per cent. In the 16th cent, the Jews, numbering 3,000, formed nearly one- half of the population of the city of Posen; in 1939 there were less than 2,000 Jews in the city, or 0.6 per cent of the population. In spite of the small number of Jews in the province of Posen under the Polish Republic, it was the strong-hold of anti- Semitism in Poland. When the Germans occupied Posen in 1939, they expelled almost all the Jews from the province and sent them eastward. The city of Posen became the capital of the Warthegau, which included the former province of Posen plus the city and district of Lodz. The synagogue in Posen was converted into a swimming pool for the use of Nazi party members. While in former centuries the Jewish community of Posen was quite important, and Jewish communal and religious life flourished there, from the middle of the 19th cent, on a general decline of the Jewish pop-ulation was evident until the almost complete disap-pearance of Jews from the province and city of Posen. SIMON SEGAL. Lit.: Graetz, H., Geschichte der Juden, vol. 402- 3; Bergmann, Zur Geschichte der Entwicklung deutscher, polnischer und jüdischer Bevölkerung Provinz Posen; Feilchenfeld, \\" Die innere Verfassung der jüdischen Gemeinde zu Posen im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert,\\" Zeitschrift der historischen Gesellschaft für Posen, vol. 11, pp. 122- 23; Meyer, Geschichte des Landes Posen ( 1881). POSENER, SALOMON, historian and writer, b. Minsk, Russia, 1876. He was educated at the Univer-sity of St. Petersburg. Although Posener left Russia for Paris in 1903, he had already by that time become << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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