Volume 7, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Rules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and Abbreviations THE following general rules will aid the reader in con-sulting these pages: TRANSLITERATION. In transliterating from languages that do not employ the Roman alphabet, our aim has been to approximate the phonetic sound of the words for the benefit of the reader who does not understand such languages. It is assumed that the scholar will have no trouble recognizing the words in any case, while the lay reader is apt to be confused by special distinguishing signs. In the case of Hebrew and Yiddish, transliteration has been preferred throughout, the only exceptions being in-stances where reproduction of the Hebrew letters may be essential to the comprehension of the article. Hebrew has been transliterated in accordance with the rules adopted by the Joint Committee of the Jewish Theo-logical Seminary of America, the Hebrew Union College, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and National Coun-cil for Jewish Education. We have, however, made two exceptions: ch instead of Kh, to represent the aspirate Kaf, and tz instead of z, to represent Tzade. In addition, Hebrew words have been transliterated in their entirety, without the use of hyphens, while a reduplication of letters has been reduced to a minimum. ( See chart on pp. 202- 3 for the transliteration of consonants. For vowels see Volume 10). Yiddish is transliterated ( phonetically) with special care to distinguish its spelling from that of German. Thus sh is used instead of sch, and fun instead of von. SPELLING OF NAMES. In all instances where the individual signs his name in Roman letters, the name is spelled pre-cisely as he himself gives it, e. g. Chaim, Jakob, Zacharias. If, however, the person wrote in Hebrew, Russian or Yid-dish, the name is recorded according to our rules of trans-literation— unless it happens to be Biblical. In the latter event, the spelling adopted by the Jewish Publication Society of America is the criterion followed. CITATIONS. When given in English, citations from the Bible conform to the version published by the Jewish Publi-cation Society of America. The number before the colon indicates the chapter; the number following, the verse ( Gen. 1: 8- 10; Isa. 23: 14). Tractates of the Babylonian Talmud are given by their names, by page and column, according to standard usage ( Taan. 30a). The Palestinian Talmud is indicated by pre-fixing Yer. ( Yerushalmi); page and column are designated according to the Krotoschin edition. But chapter and Hala-chah are cited for the guidance of readers who have no access to this edition ( Yer. B. B. 5: 2, 15b). Mishnah citations give chapter and verse in the same form as citations from the Bible. In citing the Midrash, we use the more readily under-standable form of Midrash Genesis, Midrash Exodus, etc., BIBLE Gen Genesis Ex Exodus Lev Leviticus Num Numbers Deut Deuteronomy Josh Joshua I Sam I Samuel II Sam II Samuel Isa Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Ezek Ezekiel Ob Obadiah Hab Habakkuk Zeph Zephaniah Zech Zechariah Mal Malachi Ps Psalms Prov Proverbs Lam Lamentations Eccl Ecclesiastes Neh Nehemiah I Chron I Chronicles II Chron II Chronicles NEW TESTAMENT Matt Matthew Rom Romans Cor Corinthians rather than Hebrew terms that require explanation ( Bere-shith Rabbah, Shemoth Rabbah, etc.). Classical works of Jewish literature are cited, wherever possible, by standard editions and pages. LITERATURE. The bibliography, or literature, given at the end of articles is furnished primarily to enable the in-terested reader to learn more about any given subject than space limits of the article permit. It is authoritative through-out, yet no complete bibliography has been attempted since many of the sources contain no more than has been adduced in the article itself, while others, especially of foreign tongue, may tend to confuse rather than help. Standard reference sources, such as encyclopedias, Kon~ versationslexi\\ a, biographical collections and literary cata-logues, are ordinarily omitted on the assumption that the student will consult them automatically when in need of collateral data. Preference has been given to reference works in English. Books and periodicals have not been included where investigation has shown that they are not easily avail-able to the reader. TITLES: In determining titles for the articles, care has been taken to choose such names and terms as are likely to be most familiar to those consulting our pages. Individ-uals of the modern era are entered under their family names. For the ancient and medieval periods, where the usual form is A ben ( or ibn) B, the listing will be found under the first name, e. g. Aaron ben Elijah. Where, however, ben or ibn is part of the family name ( as in the case of Ben Zeeb, or Ibn Tibbon), the person in question is listed under the family name, e. g., Ibn Tibbon, Judah— not Judah ibn Tibbon. The general order of arrangement of titles embodying names follows: ( 1) single names, e. g. Abraham; ( 2) titles containing the name of the individual, e. g. Abraham, Apocalypse of; ( 3) titles representing individuals listed by their first names, e. g. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi; ( 4) titles listed by family names, e. g. Abraham, Abraham. The words of and the are disregarded, but not bar, ben or ibn. CROSS REFERENCES. Special care has been taken to assist the reader by extensive cross- references, so that information desired may be obtained with the least amount of effort. The See also paragraphs at the conclusion of articles ( always present in general subjects) will aid the reader in securing additional details on the subjects under examina-tion or on kindred topics. ABBREVIATIONS. Essential abbreviations employed through-out the encyclopedia include— b. ( born), d. ( died), cent. ( century), ed. ( edition), edit. ( edited by), trans. ( trans-lated by). A list of abbreviations pertaining to the Biblical references follows: Kin Kinnim Μ. Κ Moed Katan M. S Maaser Shcni Maas Maaseroth Mach. Machshirin Mash Mashkin Mak Makkoth Meg Megillah Meil Meilah Men Menahoth Mid Middoth Ned Nedarim Neg Negaim Nez Nezikin Nid Niddah Ohal Ohaloth Pes Pesahim R. Η Rosh Hashanah Sab Sabbath San Sanhedrin Shebi Shebiith Shebu Shebuoth Shek Shekalim Suk Sukkah Τ. Y Tebul Yom Taan Taanith Tem Temurah Toh Toharoth Uktz Uktzin Yad Yadaim Yeb Yebamoth Zebah Zebahim Gal Galatians Eph Ephesians Phil Philippians Col Colossians Thess Thessalonians Tim Timothy Philem Philemon Heb Hebrews Rev Revelation TALMUD Α. Z Abodah Zarah Arach Arachin Β. Β Baba Bathra Β. Κ Baba Kamma Β. Μ Baba Metzia Bech Bechoroth Ber Berachoth Betz Betzah Bik Bikkurim Eduy Eduyoth Erub Erubin Git Gittín Hag Hagigah Hal Hallah Hor Horayoth Hul Hullin Ker Kerithoth Keth Kethuboth Kid KiddushiaAAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX |  LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageASSOCIATE EDITORSCONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND THEIR SUBJECTSMEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFFSPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME SEVENRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageLEX - MOS ( VII )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
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Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
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The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
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Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

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Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

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and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

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Mishnayoth


The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrumentand on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on holy wars, power, land, and blood.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

(Torah: the New Russian Translation)
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Islam Unveiled
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The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
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Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
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Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
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The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

What is Jewish Literature?
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Luah Hashannah 5778
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A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
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The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
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Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.