Volume 7, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Rules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and Abbreviations THE following general rules will aid the reader in con-sulting these pages: TRANSLITERATION. In transliterating from languages that do not employ the Roman alphabet, our aim has been to approximate the phonetic sound of the words for the benefit of the reader who does not understand such languages. It is assumed that the scholar will have no trouble recognizing the words in any case, while the lay reader is apt to be confused by special distinguishing signs. In the case of Hebrew and Yiddish, transliteration has been preferred throughout, the only exceptions being in-stances where reproduction of the Hebrew letters may be essential to the comprehension of the article. Hebrew has been transliterated in accordance with the rules adopted by the Joint Committee of the Jewish Theo-logical Seminary of America, the Hebrew Union College, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and National Coun-cil for Jewish Education. We have, however, made two exceptions: ch instead of Kh, to represent the aspirate Kaf, and tz instead of z, to represent Tzade. In addition, Hebrew words have been transliterated in their entirety, without the use of hyphens, while a reduplication of letters has been reduced to a minimum. ( See chart on pp. 202- 3 for the transliteration of consonants. For vowels see Volume 10). Yiddish is transliterated ( phonetically) with special care to distinguish its spelling from that of German. Thus sh is used instead of sch, and fun instead of von. SPELLING OF NAMES. In all instances where the individual signs his name in Roman letters, the name is spelled pre-cisely as he himself gives it, e. g. Chaim, Jakob, Zacharias. If, however, the person wrote in Hebrew, Russian or Yid-dish, the name is recorded according to our rules of trans-literation— unless it happens to be Biblical. In the latter event, the spelling adopted by the Jewish Publication Society of America is the criterion followed. CITATIONS. When given in English, citations from the Bible conform to the version published by the Jewish Publi-cation Society of America. The number before the colon indicates the chapter; the number following, the verse ( Gen. 1: 8- 10; Isa. 23: 14). Tractates of the Babylonian Talmud are given by their names, by page and column, according to standard usage ( Taan. 30a). The Palestinian Talmud is indicated by pre-fixing Yer. ( Yerushalmi); page and column are designated according to the Krotoschin edition. But chapter and Hala-chah are cited for the guidance of readers who have no access to this edition ( Yer. B. B. 5: 2, 15b). Mishnah citations give chapter and verse in the same form as citations from the Bible. In citing the Midrash, we use the more readily under-standable form of Midrash Genesis, Midrash Exodus, etc., BIBLE Gen Genesis Ex Exodus Lev Leviticus Num Numbers Deut Deuteronomy Josh Joshua I Sam I Samuel II Sam II Samuel Isa Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Ezek Ezekiel Ob Obadiah Hab Habakkuk Zeph Zephaniah Zech Zechariah Mal Malachi Ps Psalms Prov Proverbs Lam Lamentations Eccl Ecclesiastes Neh Nehemiah I Chron I Chronicles II Chron II Chronicles NEW TESTAMENT Matt Matthew Rom Romans Cor Corinthians rather than Hebrew terms that require explanation ( Bere-shith Rabbah, Shemoth Rabbah, etc.). Classical works of Jewish literature are cited, wherever possible, by standard editions and pages. LITERATURE. The bibliography, or literature, given at the end of articles is furnished primarily to enable the in-terested reader to learn more about any given subject than space limits of the article permit. It is authoritative through-out, yet no complete bibliography has been attempted since many of the sources contain no more than has been adduced in the article itself, while others, especially of foreign tongue, may tend to confuse rather than help. Standard reference sources, such as encyclopedias, Kon~ versationslexi\\ a, biographical collections and literary cata-logues, are ordinarily omitted on the assumption that the student will consult them automatically when in need of collateral data. Preference has been given to reference works in English. Books and periodicals have not been included where investigation has shown that they are not easily avail-able to the reader. TITLES: In determining titles for the articles, care has been taken to choose such names and terms as are likely to be most familiar to those consulting our pages. Individ-uals of the modern era are entered under their family names. For the ancient and medieval periods, where the usual form is A ben ( or ibn) B, the listing will be found under the first name, e. g. Aaron ben Elijah. Where, however, ben or ibn is part of the family name ( as in the case of Ben Zeeb, or Ibn Tibbon), the person in question is listed under the family name, e. g., Ibn Tibbon, Judah— not Judah ibn Tibbon. The general order of arrangement of titles embodying names follows: ( 1) single names, e. g. Abraham; ( 2) titles containing the name of the individual, e. g. Abraham, Apocalypse of; ( 3) titles representing individuals listed by their first names, e. g. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi; ( 4) titles listed by family names, e. g. Abraham, Abraham. The words of and the are disregarded, but not bar, ben or ibn. CROSS REFERENCES. Special care has been taken to assist the reader by extensive cross- references, so that information desired may be obtained with the least amount of effort. The See also paragraphs at the conclusion of articles ( always present in general subjects) will aid the reader in securing additional details on the subjects under examina-tion or on kindred topics. ABBREVIATIONS. Essential abbreviations employed through-out the encyclopedia include— b. ( born), d. ( died), cent. ( century), ed. ( edition), edit. ( edited by), trans. ( trans-lated by). A list of abbreviations pertaining to the Biblical references follows: Kin Kinnim Μ. Κ Moed Katan M. S Maaser Shcni Maas Maaseroth Mach. Machshirin Mash Mashkin Mak Makkoth Meg Megillah Meil Meilah Men Menahoth Mid Middoth Ned Nedarim Neg Negaim Nez Nezikin Nid Niddah Ohal Ohaloth Pes Pesahim R. Η Rosh Hashanah Sab Sabbath San Sanhedrin Shebi Shebiith Shebu Shebuoth Shek Shekalim Suk Sukkah Τ. Y Tebul Yom Taan Taanith Tem Temurah Toh Toharoth Uktz Uktzin Yad Yadaim Yeb Yebamoth Zebah Zebahim Gal Galatians Eph Ephesians Phil Philippians Col Colossians Thess Thessalonians Tim Timothy Philem Philemon Heb Hebrews Rev Revelation TALMUD Α. Z Abodah Zarah Arach Arachin Β. Β Baba Bathra Β. Κ Baba Kamma Β. Μ Baba Metzia Bech Bechoroth Ber Berachoth Betz Betzah Bik Bikkurim Eduy Eduyoth Erub Erubin Git Gittín Hag Hagigah Hal Hallah Hor Horayoth Hul Hullin Ker Kerithoth Keth Kethuboth Kid KiddushiaAAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX |  LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageASSOCIATE EDITORSCONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND THEIR SUBJECTSMEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFFSPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME SEVENRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageLEX - MOS ( VII )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Collected Writings in Jewish Studies
This collection of articles in Jewish Studies has been authored by, what many consider, the most important scholar of the rabbinic life and literature in the post WWII period.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah, 12 vols.
The most important work of the 20th century giant of Talmudic scholarship.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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Collected Writings in Jewish Studies
This collection of articles in Jewish Studies has been authored by, what many consider, the most important scholar of the rabbinic life and literature in the post WWII period.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.