Volume 7, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Rules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and Abbreviations THE following general rules will aid the reader in con-sulting these pages: TRANSLITERATION. In transliterating from languages that do not employ the Roman alphabet, our aim has been to approximate the phonetic sound of the words for the benefit of the reader who does not understand such languages. It is assumed that the scholar will have no trouble recognizing the words in any case, while the lay reader is apt to be confused by special distinguishing signs. In the case of Hebrew and Yiddish, transliteration has been preferred throughout, the only exceptions being in-stances where reproduction of the Hebrew letters may be essential to the comprehension of the article. Hebrew has been transliterated in accordance with the rules adopted by the Joint Committee of the Jewish Theo-logical Seminary of America, the Hebrew Union College, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and National Coun-cil for Jewish Education. We have, however, made two exceptions: ch instead of Kh, to represent the aspirate Kaf, and tz instead of z, to represent Tzade. In addition, Hebrew words have been transliterated in their entirety, without the use of hyphens, while a reduplication of letters has been reduced to a minimum. ( See chart on pp. 202- 3 for the transliteration of consonants. For vowels see Volume 10). Yiddish is transliterated ( phonetically) with special care to distinguish its spelling from that of German. Thus sh is used instead of sch, and fun instead of von. SPELLING OF NAMES. In all instances where the individual signs his name in Roman letters, the name is spelled pre-cisely as he himself gives it, e. g. Chaim, Jakob, Zacharias. If, however, the person wrote in Hebrew, Russian or Yid-dish, the name is recorded according to our rules of trans-literation— unless it happens to be Biblical. In the latter event, the spelling adopted by the Jewish Publication Society of America is the criterion followed. CITATIONS. When given in English, citations from the Bible conform to the version published by the Jewish Publi-cation Society of America. The number before the colon indicates the chapter; the number following, the verse ( Gen. 1: 8- 10; Isa. 23: 14). Tractates of the Babylonian Talmud are given by their names, by page and column, according to standard usage ( Taan. 30a). The Palestinian Talmud is indicated by pre-fixing Yer. ( Yerushalmi); page and column are designated according to the Krotoschin edition. But chapter and Hala-chah are cited for the guidance of readers who have no access to this edition ( Yer. B. B. 5: 2, 15b). Mishnah citations give chapter and verse in the same form as citations from the Bible. In citing the Midrash, we use the more readily under-standable form of Midrash Genesis, Midrash Exodus, etc., BIBLE Gen Genesis Ex Exodus Lev Leviticus Num Numbers Deut Deuteronomy Josh Joshua I Sam I Samuel II Sam II Samuel Isa Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Ezek Ezekiel Ob Obadiah Hab Habakkuk Zeph Zephaniah Zech Zechariah Mal Malachi Ps Psalms Prov Proverbs Lam Lamentations Eccl Ecclesiastes Neh Nehemiah I Chron I Chronicles II Chron II Chronicles NEW TESTAMENT Matt Matthew Rom Romans Cor Corinthians rather than Hebrew terms that require explanation ( Bere-shith Rabbah, Shemoth Rabbah, etc.). Classical works of Jewish literature are cited, wherever possible, by standard editions and pages. LITERATURE. The bibliography, or literature, given at the end of articles is furnished primarily to enable the in-terested reader to learn more about any given subject than space limits of the article permit. It is authoritative through-out, yet no complete bibliography has been attempted since many of the sources contain no more than has been adduced in the article itself, while others, especially of foreign tongue, may tend to confuse rather than help. Standard reference sources, such as encyclopedias, Kon~ versationslexi\\ a, biographical collections and literary cata-logues, are ordinarily omitted on the assumption that the student will consult them automatically when in need of collateral data. Preference has been given to reference works in English. Books and periodicals have not been included where investigation has shown that they are not easily avail-able to the reader. TITLES: In determining titles for the articles, care has been taken to choose such names and terms as are likely to be most familiar to those consulting our pages. Individ-uals of the modern era are entered under their family names. For the ancient and medieval periods, where the usual form is A ben ( or ibn) B, the listing will be found under the first name, e. g. Aaron ben Elijah. Where, however, ben or ibn is part of the family name ( as in the case of Ben Zeeb, or Ibn Tibbon), the person in question is listed under the family name, e. g., Ibn Tibbon, Judah— not Judah ibn Tibbon. The general order of arrangement of titles embodying names follows: ( 1) single names, e. g. Abraham; ( 2) titles containing the name of the individual, e. g. Abraham, Apocalypse of; ( 3) titles representing individuals listed by their first names, e. g. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi; ( 4) titles listed by family names, e. g. Abraham, Abraham. The words of and the are disregarded, but not bar, ben or ibn. CROSS REFERENCES. Special care has been taken to assist the reader by extensive cross- references, so that information desired may be obtained with the least amount of effort. The See also paragraphs at the conclusion of articles ( always present in general subjects) will aid the reader in securing additional details on the subjects under examina-tion or on kindred topics. ABBREVIATIONS. Essential abbreviations employed through-out the encyclopedia include— b. ( born), d. ( died), cent. ( century), ed. ( edition), edit. ( edited by), trans. ( trans-lated by). A list of abbreviations pertaining to the Biblical references follows: Kin Kinnim Μ. Κ Moed Katan M. S Maaser Shcni Maas Maaseroth Mach. Machshirin Mash Mashkin Mak Makkoth Meg Megillah Meil Meilah Men Menahoth Mid Middoth Ned Nedarim Neg Negaim Nez Nezikin Nid Niddah Ohal Ohaloth Pes Pesahim R. Η Rosh Hashanah Sab Sabbath San Sanhedrin Shebi Shebiith Shebu Shebuoth Shek Shekalim Suk Sukkah Τ. Y Tebul Yom Taan Taanith Tem Temurah Toh Toharoth Uktz Uktzin Yad Yadaim Yeb Yebamoth Zebah Zebahim Gal Galatians Eph Ephesians Phil Philippians Col Colossians Thess Thessalonians Tim Timothy Philem Philemon Heb Hebrews Rev Revelation TALMUD Α. Z Abodah Zarah Arach Arachin Β. Β Baba Bathra Β. Κ Baba Kamma Β. Μ Baba Metzia Bech Bechoroth Ber Berachoth Betz Betzah Bik Bikkurim Eduy Eduyoth Erub Erubin Git Gittín Hag Hagigah Hal Hallah Hor Horayoth Hul Hullin Ker Kerithoth Keth Kethuboth Kid KiddushiaAAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX |  LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageASSOCIATE EDITORSCONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND THEIR SUBJECTSMEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFFSPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME SEVENRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageLEX - MOS ( VII )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)


The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3

The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6

English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Hebrew Narrative Art (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXVII)
Each of the twelve articles in this volumes illustrates some state of the development of Hebrew narrative prose: from biblical literature though talmudic-midrashic and medieval eras till modern times.