Volume 7, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 3] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA LEVITES Adonijah, he was banished, and the house of Zadok ( I Kings 2: 26- 27, 35), of unknown origin but, accord-ing to I Chron. 5: 27- 41, of Gibeon, received the of-ficial priesthood. Zadok claimed descent from Aaron, and Moses is thus supplanted as the legitimate ancestor of the priests and the way is prepared for making him a simple Levite and the forbear of the Levites. A later account, Ex. 28, after the fact, explains this separation as having occurred at the time of the construction of the Tabernacle, when God commanded Moses to take Aaron and his sons for the priestly office, while the more menial tasks were given to the rest of the tribe of Levi ( Num. 1: 47- 54; 4: 4- 16, 22- 28, 29- 33). The Levites dare not approach the sacred objects ( Num. 4: 19), hence may not act in an officiating capacity. This is not in accord with the facts as we know them of Israels earliest history, but is a later explanation. In I Chron. 23 the lowly status of the Levites due to Davids organization of the Temple service is con-firmed ( cf. also chaps. 25 and 26). Zadok founded the hierarchy of the Aaronite priesthood and made it preeminent. When the break came between Judah and Israel, and, later, when the former alone remained, this preeminence was naturally enhanced. In this period the priests of Judah were called Levitical priests, down to the reformation of Josiah, because their col-leagues of the Northern Kingdom could not claim descent from Levi, a guild entrance qualification fos-tered by the dominant priestly families. When, finally, the central sanctuary was firmly established and be-came the nations fane, the complete subordination of Levite to priest was effected. The wandering Levites, if there were any, or the priests and Levites of erst-while local sanctuaries or of so called non- Aaronidic stock were absorbed by the Jerusalem group and rele-gated to an inferior rank. Ezek. 44: 9- 16 shows how this was done, his words indicating that before the Exile even foreigners and  outcast Levites, i. e. volun-teers, had performed priestly functions. The Levites of the later Temple period killed and prepared the animals for sacrifice, had charge of the music, probably kept the Torah or Torahs and did teaching and other less dignified chores. According to Νeh. 7: 43- 45, the Levites who came back with Nehemiah from the Exile numbered 360; according to Ezra 2: 40- 42, they numbered 341, and were later joined by thirty- eight more, a proof, thinks Auerbach, of the unattractiveness of their office. ( Even today the proportion of Levis to Cohens is 1 to 3.) These figures, in comparison with the 4,289 priests who re-turned from the Exile, show the falsity of the claim that the priests are the descendants of Aaron while the Levites stem from the remainder of their ancestral tribe. Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX |  LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageASSOCIATE EDITORSCONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND THEIR SUBJECTSMEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFFSPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME SEVENRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageLEX - MOS ( VII )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

THE CONCILIATOR


Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 5
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My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.