Volume 7, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 3] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA LEVITES Adonijah, he was banished, and the house of Zadok ( I Kings 2: 26- 27, 35), of unknown origin but, accord-ing to I Chron. 5: 27- 41, of Gibeon, received the of-ficial priesthood. Zadok claimed descent from Aaron, and Moses is thus supplanted as the legitimate ancestor of the priests and the way is prepared for making him a simple Levite and the forbear of the Levites. A later account, Ex. 28, after the fact, explains this separation as having occurred at the time of the construction of the Tabernacle, when God commanded Moses to take Aaron and his sons for the priestly office, while the more menial tasks were given to the rest of the tribe of Levi ( Num. 1: 47- 54; 4: 4- 16, 22- 28, 29- 33). The Levites dare not approach the sacred objects ( Num. 4: 19), hence may not act in an officiating capacity. This is not in accord with the facts as we know them of Israels earliest history, but is a later explanation. In I Chron. 23 the lowly status of the Levites due to Davids organization of the Temple service is con-firmed ( cf. also chaps. 25 and 26). Zadok founded the hierarchy of the Aaronite priesthood and made it preeminent. When the break came between Judah and Israel, and, later, when the former alone remained, this preeminence was naturally enhanced. In this period the priests of Judah were called Levitical priests, down to the reformation of Josiah, because their col-leagues of the Northern Kingdom could not claim descent from Levi, a guild entrance qualification fos-tered by the dominant priestly families. When, finally, the central sanctuary was firmly established and be-came the nations fane, the complete subordination of Levite to priest was effected. The wandering Levites, if there were any, or the priests and Levites of erst-while local sanctuaries or of so called non- Aaronidic stock were absorbed by the Jerusalem group and rele-gated to an inferior rank. Ezek. 44: 9- 16 shows how this was done, his words indicating that before the Exile even foreigners and  outcast Levites, i. e. volun-teers, had performed priestly functions. The Levites of the later Temple period killed and prepared the animals for sacrifice, had charge of the music, probably kept the Torah or Torahs and did teaching and other less dignified chores. According to Νeh. 7: 43- 45, the Levites who came back with Nehemiah from the Exile numbered 360; according to Ezra 2: 40- 42, they numbered 341, and were later joined by thirty- eight more, a proof, thinks Auerbach, of the unattractiveness of their office. ( Even today the proportion of Levis to Cohens is 1 to 3.) These figures, in comparison with the 4,289 priests who re-turned from the Exile, show the falsity of the claim that the priests are the descendants of Aaron while the Levites stem from the remainder of their ancestral tribe. Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX |  LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageASSOCIATE EDITORSCONTRIBUTING EDITORS AND THEIR SUBJECTSMEMBERS OF THE EDITORIAL STAFFSPECIAL CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME SEVENRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageLEX - MOS ( VII )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Nazvanie
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Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of translating insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

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A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

THE BOOK OF JUDGES


A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

BOOKS OF KINGS


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (18251894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Palestine in the 18th Century


Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel