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JABAL, the oldest son

by Isaak Landman,
JABAL, the oldest son of Lamech, and the ances-tor of the nomads ( such as dwell in tents). In Gen. 4: 20- 22 Jabal and his two brothers, Jubal and Tubal-cain, are designated respectively as the first to dwell in tents and have cattle, as the first to play the harp and the pipe, and as the first to forge every cutting instru-ment of brass and iron. JABBOK, a tributary of the Jordan river in the country east of the Jordan; in modern Palestine it is called Nahr ez- Zerka. This river is known from the story of Jacob ( Gen. 32: 23), and also as the northern boundary of the Ammonites ( Deut. 3: 16; Josh. 12: 2). In Judges 11: 22 the Jabbok is called the boundary of the land of the Amorites. JABESH- GILEAD, city east of the Jordan in Gil-ead, mentioned several times in Judges and I and II Samuel, especially I Sam. 11. Here Saul was buried by the valiant men of Jabesh- gilead after he had been defeated by the Philistines in the battle on Mount Gil-boa ( I Sam. 31: 12; II Sam. 2: 4- 7). The old name is still preserved in the name of the Wadi Yabis, oppo-site Beth- shan. JABIN, king of Hazor, in the northern part of Canaan, who was defeated by the Israelites during their conquest of the land of Canaan, about 1250 B. C. E. According to the account in Josh. 11: 1- 15, Jabín headed a coalition of kings of northern Canaan and was defeated by Joshua in a battle  by the waters of Merom; the city of Hazor was burned, Jabin was slain and the northern territory was occupied. How-ever, in Judges 4, it is related that Jabin, the king of Canaan, who had his residence in Hazor, oppressed Israel for twenty years until the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali, under the leadership of Deborah and Barak, defeated his army, led by his general Sisera, at the brook Kishon or on Mount Tabor ( in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo, Judges 5: 19). Then the Israelites pressed on and finally destroyed Jabin. The earlier belief was that the second narrative referred to a later king by the same name; some thought that Jabin was a dynastic title rather than the name of an individual king, thus explaining the iden-tity of names. It is more likely, however, that both accounts are based on a common tradition. In Josh. 11 the struggle of the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali against Jabin is transformed into an account of the conquest of northern Canaan by the Israelites under Joshua; in Judges 4 it is confused with the struggle of the Israelites against Sisera of Harosheth- goiim, the latter assuming the role of Jabins general in this account. The fact that the Song of Deborah ( Judges 5) does not mention Jabin, but makes Sisera the head of the confederated Canaanites, as well as various other contradictions between the account of Judges 4 and the Song of Deborah, together with certain inconsistencies in the story as related in Judges 4, are the basis of this assumption. A reference to the struggle of Israel against Jabin and Sisera as related in Judges 4 is found in Ps. 83: 10. Lit.: Commentaries to Joshua and Judges, especially that of Moore to Judges, pp. 107- 8; Bernfeld, Mabo Lekithebe Hakodesh, vol. 2, p. 33. JABNEH ( II Chron. 26: 6; probably identical with Jabneel, Josh. 15: 11; it is called Jamnia by the Greeks, and frequently occurs in that form in the books of Maccabees and Josephus), an old Palestinian city, situ-ated on the Mediterranean coast between Jaffa and the former Philistine city of Ashdod. At the time when it was most flourishing, Jabneh also had a harbor, for which reason Pliny the Elder ( Historia Naturalis, 5: 14) speaks of two Jamnias. Uzziah, king of Judah, cap-tured the city from the Philistines and broke down its wall ( II Chron. 26: 6). In the time of the Second Temple Jabneh was a populous, well- fortified city, and many battles took place near there. Judas Maccabeus, incensed at the hostility of the inhabitants, burned the harbor of Jab-neh with all the wares found there ( II Macc. 12: 8- 9). His brother Simon captured the city in 137 B. C. E., but Jews settled there in rather large numbers only in the time of Alexander Jannaeus. Pompey made it a free city, and it was rebuilt by the procurator Gabinius ( 57 B. C. E.). The emperor Augustus gave it to Herod, who presented the income of the city to his sister Salome. The latter presented Jabneh to the empress Livia, and thus it and other cities came into the private posses-sion of Augustus. In 40 C. E. the heathen population erected an altar in honor of Caligula, which stirred up the Jews there to a revolt against Rome. Vespasian besieged Jabneh and humbled the Jews ( Josephus, Jew-ish War, book 4, chap. 3, section 2; Philo, Embassy to Caius 30). At the time of the destruction of Jerusalem ( 70 C. E.), Johanan ben Zakkai, a member of the Sanhe-drin, who had fled from the city, established a small community of sages at Jabneh. He became the head of a Beth Din ( court) there which, with certain changes, took over the functions of the Sanhedrin. Vespasian granted the request of Johanan ben Zakkai to found an academy there, and from that time on Jabneh be-came the center of a new Jewish spiritual life. Rabban Gamaliel II was the successor of Johanan as the presi-dent of the new Sanhedrin and the academy. When the city was destroyed in the Bar Kochba revolt ( 132- 35 C. E.) and the inhabitants had fled or been led off to captivity, the teachers of the law fled to Usha; it is doubtful whether they ever returned to Jabneh, as there is no further reference to a Sanhedrin there. At the time of Judah Hanasi, the redactor of the Mishnah ( latter half of the 2nd cent. C. E.), Jabneh was an emporium for the export and import of wheat ( Midrash Gen. 76). In the 3rd cent. a Christian com-munity arose there. Benjamin of Tudela, in 1172, reported that he had visited the ruins of the academy in Jabneh, but that there were no Jews there. Estori Hafarhi, in his Kaftor Vaferah, mentions a beautiful Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS  | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE  | SPI- ZYL

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JABAL, the oldest son of Lamech, and the ances-tor of the nomads (\\" such as dwell in tents\\"). In Gen. 4: 20- 22 Jabal and his two brothers, Jubal and Tubal-cain, are designated respectively as the first to dwell in tents and have cattle, as the first to play the harp and the pipe, and as the first to forge every cutting instru-ment of brass and iron. JABBOK, a tributary of the Jordan river in the country east of the Jordan; in modern Palestine it is called Nahr ez- Zerka. This river is known from the story of Jacob ( Gen. 32: 23), and also as the northern boundary of the Ammonites ( Deut. 3: 16; Josh. 12: 2). In Judges 11: 22 the Jabbok is called the boundary of the land of the Amorites. JABESH- GILEAD, city east of the Jordan in Gil-ead, mentioned several times in Judges and I and II Samuel, especially I Sam. 11. Here Saul was buried by the valiant men of Jabesh- gilead after he had been defeated by the Philistines in the battle on Mount Gil-boa ( I Sam. 31: 12; II Sam. 2: 4- 7). The old name is still preserved in the name of the Wadi Yabis, oppo-site Beth- shan. JABIN, king of Hazor, in the northern part of Canaan, who was defeated by the Israelites during their conquest of the land of Canaan, about 1250 B. C. E. According to the account in Josh. 11: 1- 15, Jabín headed a coalition of kings of northern Canaan and was defeated by Joshua in a battle \\" by the waters of Merom\\"; the city of Hazor was burned, Jabin was slain and the northern territory was occupied. How-ever, in Judges 4, it is related that Jabin, the king of Canaan, who had his residence in Hazor, oppressed Israel for twenty years until the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali, under the leadership of Deborah and Barak, defeated his army, led by his general Sisera, at the brook Kishon or on Mount Tabor (\\" in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo,\\" Judges 5: 19). Then the Israelites pressed on and finally destroyed Jabin. The earlier belief was that the second narrative referred to a later king by the same name; some thought that Jabin was a dynastic title rather than the name of an individual king, thus explaining the iden-tity of names. It is more likely, however, that both accounts are based on a common tradition. In Josh. 11 the struggle of the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali against Jabin is transformed into an account of the conquest of northern Canaan by the Israelites under Joshua; in Judges 4 it is confused with the struggle of the Israelites against Sisera of Harosheth- goiim, the latter assuming the role of Jabin's general in this account. The fact that the Song of Deborah ( Judges 5) does not mention Jabin, but makes Sisera the head of the confederated Canaanites, as well as various other contradictions between the account of Judges 4 and the Song of Deborah, together with certain inconsistencies in the story as related in Judges 4, are the basis of this assumption. A reference to the struggle of Israel against Jabin and Sisera as related in Judges 4 is found in Ps. 83: 10. Lit.: Commentaries to Joshua and Judges, especially that of Moore to Judges, pp. 107- 8; Bernfeld, Mabo Lekithebe Hakodesh, vol. 2, p. 33. JABNEH ( II Chron. 26: 6; probably identical with Jabneel, Josh. 15: 11; it is called Jamnia by the Greeks, and frequently occurs in that form in the books of Maccabees and Josephus), an old Palestinian city, situ-ated on the Mediterranean coast between Jaffa and the former Philistine city of Ashdod. At the time when it was most flourishing, Jabneh also had a harbor, for which reason Pliny the Elder ( Historia Naturalis, 5: 14) speaks of two Jamnias. Uzziah, king of Judah, cap-tured the city from the Philistines and broke down its wall ( II Chron. 26: 6). In the time of the Second Temple Jabneh was a populous, well- fortified city, and many battles took place near there. Judas Maccabeus, incensed at the hostility of the inhabitants, burned the harbor of Jab-neh with all the wares found there ( II Macc. 12: 8- 9). His brother Simon captured the city in 137 B. C. E., but Jews settled there in rather large numbers only in the time of Alexander Jannaeus. Pompey made it a free city, and it was rebuilt by the procurator Gabinius ( 57 B. C. E.). The emperor Augustus gave it to Herod, who presented the income of the city to his sister Salome. The latter presented Jabneh to the empress Livia, and thus it and other cities came into the private posses-sion of Augustus. In 40 C. E. the heathen population erected an altar in honor of Caligula, which stirred up the Jews there to a revolt against Rome. Vespasian besieged Jabneh and humbled the Jews ( Josephus, Jew-ish War, book 4, chap. 3, section 2; Philo, Embassy to Caius 30). At the time of the destruction of Jerusalem ( 70 C. E.), Johanan ben Zakkai, a member of the Sanhe-drin, who had fled from the city, established a small community of sages at Jabneh. He became the head of a Beth Din ( court) there which, with certain changes, took over the functions of the Sanhedrin. Vespasian granted the request of Johanan ben Zakkai to found an academy there, and from that time on Jabneh be-came the center of a new Jewish spiritual life. Rabban Gamaliel II was the successor of Johanan as the presi-dent of the new Sanhedrin and the academy. When the city was destroyed in the Bar Kochba revolt ( 132- 35 C. E.) and the inhabitants had fled or been led off to captivity, the teachers of the law fled to Usha; it is doubtful whether they ever returned to Jabneh, as there is no further reference to a Sanhedrin there. At the time of Judah Hanasi, the redactor of the Mishnah ( latter half of the 2nd cent. C. E.), Jabneh was an emporium for the export and import of wheat ( Midrash Gen. 76). In the 3rd cent. a Christian com-munity arose there. Benjamin of Tudela, in 1172, reported that he had visited the ruins of the academy in Jabneh, but that there were no Jews there. Estori Hafarhi, in his Kaftor Vaferah, mentions a beautiful << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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