Volume 5, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Rules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and Abbreviations THE following general rules will aid the reader in con-suiting these pages: TRANSLITERATION. In transliterating from languages that do not employ the Roman alphabet, our aim has been to approximate the phonetic sound of the words for the benefit o£ the reader who does not understand such languages. It is assumed that the scholar will have no trouble recognizing the words in any case, while the lay reader is apt to be confused by special distinguishing signs. In the case of Hebrew and Yiddish, transliteration has been preferred throughout, the only exceptions being in-stances where reproduction of the Hebrew letters may be essential to the comprehension of the article. Hebrew has been transliterated in accordance with the rules adopted by the Joint Committee of the Jewish Theo-logical Seminary of America, the Hebrew Union College, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and National Coun-cil for Jewish Education. We have, however, made two exceptions: ch instead of kh, to represent the aspirate Kaf, and tz instead of z, to represent Tzade. In addition, Hebrew words have been transliterated in their entirety, without the use of hyphens, while a reduplication of letters has been reduced to a minimum. ( See chart on pp. 202- 3 for the transliteration of consonants. For vowels see Volume 10). Yiddish is transliterated ( phonetically) with special care to distinguish its spelling from that of German. Thus sh is used instead of sch, and fun instead of von. SPELLING OF NAMES. In all instances where the individual signs his name in Roman letters, the name is spelled pre-cisely as he himself gives it, e. g. Chaim, Jakob, Zacharias. If, however, the person wrote in Hebrew, Russian or Yid-dish, the name is recorded according to our rules of trans-literation— unless it happens to be Biblical. In the latter event, the spelling adopted by the Jewish Publication Society of America is the criterion followed. CITATIONS. When given in English, citations from the Bible conform to the version published by the Jewish Publi-cation Society of America. The number before the colon indicates the chapter; the number following, the verse ( Gen. 1: 8- 10; Isa. 23: 14). Tractates of the Babylonian Talmud are given by their names, by page and column, according to standard usage ( Taan. 30a). The Palestinian Talmud is indicated by pre-fixing Yer, ( Yerushalmi); page and column are designated according to the Krotoschin edition. But chapter and Hala-chah are cited for the guidance of readers who have no access to this edition ( Yer. B. B. 5: 2, 15b). Mishnah citations give chapter and verse in the same form as citations from the Bible. In citing the Midrash, we use the more readily under-standable form of Midrash Genesis, Midrash Exodus, etc., BIBLE Gen Genesis Ex Exodus Lev Leviticus Num Numbers Deut Deuteronomy Josh. Joshua I Sam I Samuel Π Sam II Samuel Isa Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Ezek Ezekiel Ob Obadiah Hab Habakkuk Zeph Zephaniah Zech Zechariah Mal Malachi Ps PsaJms Prov Proverbs Lam Lamentations EccI Ecclesiastes Neh Nehemiah I Chron I Chronicles II Chron II Chronicles NEW TESTAMENT Matt Matthew Rom Romans Cor Corinthians rather than Hebrew terms that require explanation ( Bere-shith Rabbah, Shemoth Rabbah, etc.). Classical works of Jewish literature are cited, wherever possible, by standard editions and pages. LITERATURE. The bibliography, or literature, given at the end of articles is furnished primarily to enable the in-terested reader to learn more about any given subject than space limits of the article permit. It is authoritative through-out, yet no complete bibliography has been attempted since many of the sources contain no more than has been adduced in the article itself, while others.) especially of foreign tongue, may tend to confuse rather than help. Standard reference sources, such as encyclopedias, Kon~ versationslexika, biographical collections and literary cata-logues, are ordinarily omitted on the assumption that the student will consult them automatically when in need of collateral data. Preference has been given to reference works in English. Books and periodicals have not been included where investigation has shown that they are not easily avail-able to the reader. TITLES: In determining titles for the articles, care has been taken to choose such names and terms as are likely to be most familiar to those consulting our pages. Individ-uals of the modern era arc entered under their family names. For the ancient and medieval periods, where the usual form is Λ ben ( or ibn) B, the listing will be found under the first name, e. g. Aaron ben Elijah. Where, however, ben or ibn is part of the family name ( as in the case of Ben Zeeb, or Ibn Tibbon), the person in question is listed under the family name, e. g., Ibn Tibbon, Judah— not Judah ibn Tibbon. The general order of arrangement of titles embodying names follows: ( 1) single names, e. g. Abraham; ( 2) titles containing the name of the individual, e. g. Abraham, Apocalypse of; ( 3) titles representing individuals listed by their first names, e. g. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi; ( 4) titles listed by family names, e. g. Abraham, Abraham. The words of and the are disregarded, but not bar, hen or ibn. CROSS REFERENCES. Special care has been taken to assist the reader by extensive cross- references, so that information desired may be obtained with the least amount of effort. The See also paragraphs at the conclusion of articles ( always present in general subjects) will aid the reader in securing additional details on the subjects under examina-tion or on kindred topics. ABBREVIATIONS. Essential abbreviations employed through-out the encyclopedia include— b. ( born), d. ( died), cent. ( century), ed. ( edition), edit. ( edited by), trans. ( trans-lated by). A list of abbreviations pertaining to the Biblical references follows: Kin Kinnim Μ. Κ Moed Katan M. S Maaser Shcni Maas Maaseroth Mach Machshirin Mash Mashkin Mak Makkoth Meg Megillah Meil Meilah Men Menahoth Mid Middoth Ned Nedarim Neg Negaim Nez Nezikin Nid Niddah Ohal Ohaloth Pes Pesahim R. Η Rosh Hashanah Sab Sabbath San Sanhedrin Shebi Shebiith Shebu Shebuoth Shek Shekalim Suk Sukkah Τ. Y Tebul Yom Taan Taanith Tem Temurah Toh Toharoth Uktz Uktzin Yad Yadaim Yeb Yebamoth Zebah Zebahim Gal Galatians Eph Ephesians Phil Philippians Col Colossians Thess Thessalonians Tim Timothy Philem Philemon Heb Hebrews Rev Revelation TALMUD Α. Z Abodah Zarah Arach Arachin Β. Β Baba Bathra Β. Κ Baba Kamma Β. Μ Baba Metzia Bech Bechoroth Ber Berachoth Betz Betzah Bik Bikkurim Eduy Eduyoth Erub Erubin Git Gittin Hag Hagigah Hal Hallah Hor Horayoth Hul Hullin Ker Kerithoth Keth Kethuboth Kid KiddushinAAR- AZU  | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO |  GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS  | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageAssociate Editors and Contributors of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIACONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME FIVERules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageGOD - IZS ( V )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material


History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the Geschichte der Juden, the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah, 12 vols.
The most important work of the 20th century giant of Talmudic scholarship.


Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on holy wars, power, land, and blood.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1