Volume 5, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Rules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and Abbreviations THE following general rules will aid the reader in con-suiting these pages: TRANSLITERATION. In transliterating from languages that do not employ the Roman alphabet, our aim has been to approximate the phonetic sound of the words for the benefit o£ the reader who does not understand such languages. It is assumed that the scholar will have no trouble recognizing the words in any case, while the lay reader is apt to be confused by special distinguishing signs. In the case of Hebrew and Yiddish, transliteration has been preferred throughout, the only exceptions being in-stances where reproduction of the Hebrew letters may be essential to the comprehension of the article. Hebrew has been transliterated in accordance with the rules adopted by the Joint Committee of the Jewish Theo-logical Seminary of America, the Hebrew Union College, Central Conference of American Rabbis, and National Coun-cil for Jewish Education. We have, however, made two exceptions: ch instead of kh, to represent the aspirate Kaf, and tz instead of z, to represent Tzade. In addition, Hebrew words have been transliterated in their entirety, without the use of hyphens, while a reduplication of letters has been reduced to a minimum. ( See chart on pp. 202- 3 for the transliteration of consonants. For vowels see Volume 10). Yiddish is transliterated ( phonetically) with special care to distinguish its spelling from that of German. Thus sh is used instead of sch, and fun instead of von. SPELLING OF NAMES. In all instances where the individual signs his name in Roman letters, the name is spelled pre-cisely as he himself gives it, e. g. Chaim, Jakob, Zacharias. If, however, the person wrote in Hebrew, Russian or Yid-dish, the name is recorded according to our rules of trans-literation— unless it happens to be Biblical. In the latter event, the spelling adopted by the Jewish Publication Society of America is the criterion followed. CITATIONS. When given in English, citations from the Bible conform to the version published by the Jewish Publi-cation Society of America. The number before the colon indicates the chapter; the number following, the verse ( Gen. 1: 8- 10; Isa. 23: 14). Tractates of the Babylonian Talmud are given by their names, by page and column, according to standard usage ( Taan. 30a). The Palestinian Talmud is indicated by pre-fixing Yer, ( Yerushalmi); page and column are designated according to the Krotoschin edition. But chapter and Hala-chah are cited for the guidance of readers who have no access to this edition ( Yer. B. B. 5: 2, 15b). Mishnah citations give chapter and verse in the same form as citations from the Bible. In citing the Midrash, we use the more readily under-standable form of Midrash Genesis, Midrash Exodus, etc., BIBLE Gen Genesis Ex Exodus Lev Leviticus Num Numbers Deut Deuteronomy Josh. Joshua I Sam I Samuel Π Sam II Samuel Isa Isaiah Jer Jeremiah Ezek Ezekiel Ob Obadiah Hab Habakkuk Zeph Zephaniah Zech Zechariah Mal Malachi Ps PsaJms Prov Proverbs Lam Lamentations EccI Ecclesiastes Neh Nehemiah I Chron I Chronicles II Chron II Chronicles NEW TESTAMENT Matt Matthew Rom Romans Cor Corinthians rather than Hebrew terms that require explanation ( Bere-shith Rabbah, Shemoth Rabbah, etc.). Classical works of Jewish literature are cited, wherever possible, by standard editions and pages. LITERATURE. The bibliography, or literature, given at the end of articles is furnished primarily to enable the in-terested reader to learn more about any given subject than space limits of the article permit. It is authoritative through-out, yet no complete bibliography has been attempted since many of the sources contain no more than has been adduced in the article itself, while others.) especially of foreign tongue, may tend to confuse rather than help. Standard reference sources, such as encyclopedias, Kon~ versationslexika, biographical collections and literary cata-logues, are ordinarily omitted on the assumption that the student will consult them automatically when in need of collateral data. Preference has been given to reference works in English. Books and periodicals have not been included where investigation has shown that they are not easily avail-able to the reader. TITLES: In determining titles for the articles, care has been taken to choose such names and terms as are likely to be most familiar to those consulting our pages. Individ-uals of the modern era arc entered under their family names. For the ancient and medieval periods, where the usual form is Λ ben ( or ibn) B, the listing will be found under the first name, e. g. Aaron ben Elijah. Where, however, ben or ibn is part of the family name ( as in the case of Ben Zeeb, or Ibn Tibbon), the person in question is listed under the family name, e. g., Ibn Tibbon, Judah— not Judah ibn Tibbon. The general order of arrangement of titles embodying names follows: ( 1) single names, e. g. Abraham; ( 2) titles containing the name of the individual, e. g. Abraham, Apocalypse of; ( 3) titles representing individuals listed by their first names, e. g. Abraham bar Hiyya Hanasi; ( 4) titles listed by family names, e. g. Abraham, Abraham. The words of and the are disregarded, but not bar, hen or ibn. CROSS REFERENCES. Special care has been taken to assist the reader by extensive cross- references, so that information desired may be obtained with the least amount of effort. The See also paragraphs at the conclusion of articles ( always present in general subjects) will aid the reader in securing additional details on the subjects under examina-tion or on kindred topics. ABBREVIATIONS. Essential abbreviations employed through-out the encyclopedia include— b. ( born), d. ( died), cent. ( century), ed. ( edition), edit. ( edited by), trans. ( trans-lated by). A list of abbreviations pertaining to the Biblical references follows: Kin Kinnim Μ. Κ Moed Katan M. S Maaser Shcni Maas Maaseroth Mach Machshirin Mash Mashkin Mak Makkoth Meg Megillah Meil Meilah Men Menahoth Mid Middoth Ned Nedarim Neg Negaim Nez Nezikin Nid Niddah Ohal Ohaloth Pes Pesahim R. Η Rosh Hashanah Sab Sabbath San Sanhedrin Shebi Shebiith Shebu Shebuoth Shek Shekalim Suk Sukkah Τ. Y Tebul Yom Taan Taanith Tem Temurah Toh Toharoth Uktz Uktzin Yad Yadaim Yeb Yebamoth Zebah Zebahim Gal Galatians Eph Ephesians Phil Philippians Col Colossians Thess Thessalonians Tim Timothy Philem Philemon Heb Hebrews Rev Revelation TALMUD Α. Z Abodah Zarah Arach Arachin Β. Β Baba Bathra Β. Κ Baba Kamma Β. Μ Baba Metzia Bech Bechoroth Ber Berachoth Betz Betzah Bik Bikkurim Eduy Eduyoth Erub Erubin Git Gittin Hag Hagigah Hal Hallah Hor Horayoth Hul Hullin Ker Kerithoth Keth Kethuboth Kid KiddushinAAR- AZU  | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO |  GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS  | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageAssociate Editors and Contributors of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIACONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME FIVERules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsDedication PageGOD - IZS ( V )AAR - AZU ( I )BAA - CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Talmud: Mesekhet B'rakhot, in 4 volumes
A Study in the development of the Halakha and Haggadah in the Land of Israel and Babylonia.

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Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.