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DISRAELI THE UNIVERSAL

by Isaak Landman,
DISRAELI THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA inimical to Christianity, and particularly whether those Talmudic passages directed against the Minim ( sec-taries) and the Goyim ( the pagan peoples) referred to the Christians. The classical land for such compulsory disputations, in which apostates formed the special opponents of the Jews, was Spain. Some of the best- known disputations were: Paris ( 1240), in the presence of Queen Blanche, with four rabbis representing the Jews, among them the famous Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, and the apostate Nicholas Donin representing the opposition; Barcelona ( 1263), in the presence of the king of Aragon, between Nah-manides and the apostate Pablo Christiani— although Nahmanides was acknowledged as victor by all those present, the disputation did not in the least improve the lot or condition of the Jews; Avila ( 1375), in which the entire Jewish community was forced to par-ticipate— in this disputation Moses Kohen de Tordesil-las, who was well- versed in the sources of Christianity, espoused the cause of the Jews, and in his book Ezer Haemunah records the contents of this and of other disputations. At about the same time there occurred a disputation between Shemtob ben Shaprut and Cardinal Pedro di Luna, who later became Pope Benedict XIII and against whom Shemtobs Eben Bohan was directed. The most violent of all religious disputations was that of Tortosa in 1413- 14, which lasted for more than eighteen months. Supporting the Christian side were Pope Benedict and the apostate Hieronymus de Santa Fé ( formerly Joshua Lorki); the Jews were repre-sented by twenty- two noted Jewish scholars of Aragon, including the renowned philosopher Joseph Albo. Many cardinals and other church dignitaries and a large number of auditors were in attendance. A religious disputation arranged by King Basilius the Macedonian is reported to have taken place be-tween the Jewish and Christian clergy in the Byzantine empire. A disputation is believed to have been held in Rome about 1450 between John Capistrano and the learned Jew Gamaliel, and another in Poppelsdorf near Bonn about 1500 between the apostate Victor von Karben and Jewish scholars of the Rhineland. The religious disputations which occurred in Poland at the end of the 16th cent. between Jews, including the Karaite Isaac ben Abraham Troki, and Christian sectarians were academic in character. Friendly disputations were occasionally held at the courts of various princes, such as the court of Fer-rara, where, about 1500, under Ercole dEste I, Abra-ham Farissol disputed with two learned monks; or that at Hannover, where, about 1700, Joseph Stadt-hagen engaged in a disputation. Disputations of Jews with the followers of Jacob Leibowicz Frank were held in 1757 and 1759. There are many purely literary disputations in which the Jewish authors often mentioned well- known names, such as those of contemporary kings, as opponents of the Jews, or as instrumental in arranging the dispu-tations. The classical illustration of this kind of disputation is that immortalized in the Kuzari of the poet Judah Halevi. Bulan, a king of the Khazars in the 8th cent., arranged a disputation between a Chris-tian, a Mohammedan, and a Jew; as a result, he was induced to embrace Judaism, together with his sub- A typical disputation between monks and rabbis. From a woodcut illustration by F. W. Bader in  Heinrich Heines Werke published by Sigmund Bensiger jects. Lipmann- Mühlhausens Nitzahon, composed about 1400 in the form of a disputation, was extremely popular. Disputational works were written by Chris-tians too, as, for example, the Scrutinium Scripturarum of Solomon Paulus of Burgos ( 1434), one of the most vehement apostates of all time. M. WEINBERG. Lit.: Graetz, History of the Jews, vol. 3, pp. 175- 76, 343; vol. 4, pp. 140- 42, 207- 15; vol. 5, pp. 280- 87; Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten, vol. 1, pp. 27, 176; vol. 2, p. 32 et seq.; Friedländer, Μ., Patristische und talmudische Studien ( 1878) 20 et seq., 80- 137; Loeb, Isidore,  La controverse re-ligieuse entre les Chretiens et les Juifs au Moyen Age, Revue de lhistoire des religions ( 1888), vols. 17 and 18; Ziegler, Religiöse Disputationen im Mittelalter ( 1894). DISRAELI, BENJAMIN ( Earl of Beaconsfield), English statesman, prime minister, and author, b. Lon-don, 1804; d. London, 1881. He was the eldest of the four sons and one daughter of Isaac DIsraeli and Maria Basevi, and proudly claimed descent from one of the families which had fled from the Torquemada terrors in Spain to Italian soil. It is known that his grandfather, Benjamin DIsraeli ( also Israeli), emi-grated from Cento, Italy, in 1748 to become an English citizen, married a daughter of the Villa Reals and left a fortune of £ 35,000. Disraelis father gained a reputa-tion as a man of letters, largely through his Curiosities of Literature. He remained a nominal member of the Bevis Marks synagogue until his resignation, in 1817, after a four years quarrel with the elders. A Voltairean Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN |  CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS  | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO  | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

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DISRAELI THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA inimical to Christianity, and particularly whether those Talmudic passages directed against the Minim ( sec-taries) and the Goyim ( the pagan peoples) referred to the Christians. The classical land for such compulsory disputations, in which apostates formed the special opponents of the Jews, was Spain. Some of the best- known disputations were: Paris ( 1240), in the presence of Queen Blanche, with four rabbis representing the Jews, among them the famous Moses ben Jacob of Coucy, and the apostate Nicholas Donin representing the opposition; Barcelona ( 1263), in the presence of the king of Aragon, between Nah-manides and the apostate Pablo Christiani— although Nahmanides was acknowledged as victor by all those present, the disputation did not in the least improve the lot or condition of the Jews; Avila ( 1375), in which the entire Jewish community was forced to par-ticipate— in this disputation Moses Kohen de Tordesil-las, who was well- versed in the sources of Christianity, espoused the cause of the Jews, and in his book Ezer Haemunah records the contents of this and of other disputations. At about the same time there occurred a disputation between Shemtob ben Shaprut and Cardinal Pedro di Luna, who later became Pope Benedict XIII and against whom Shemtob's Eben Bohan was directed. The most violent of all religious disputations was that of Tortosa in 1413- 14, which lasted for more than eighteen months. Supporting the Christian side were Pope Benedict and the apostate Hieronymus de Santa Fé ( formerly Joshua Lorki); the Jews were repre-sented by twenty- two noted Jewish scholars of Aragon, including the renowned philosopher Joseph Albo. Many cardinals and other church dignitaries and a large number of auditors were in attendance. A religious disputation arranged by King Basilius the Macedonian is reported to have taken place be-tween the Jewish and Christian clergy in the Byzantine empire. A disputation is believed to have been held in Rome about 1450 between John Capistrano and the learned Jew Gamaliel, and another in Poppelsdorf near Bonn about 1500 between the apostate Victor von Karben and Jewish scholars of the Rhineland. The religious disputations which occurred in Poland at the end of the 16th cent. between Jews, including the Karaite Isaac ben Abraham Troki, and Christian sectarians were academic in character. Friendly disputations were occasionally held at the courts of various princes, such as the court of Fer-rara, where, about 1500, under Ercole d'Este I, Abra-ham Farissol disputed with two learned monks; or that at Hannover, where, about 1700, Joseph Stadt-hagen engaged in a disputation. Disputations of Jews with the followers of Jacob Leibowicz Frank were held in 1757 and 1759. There are many purely literary disputations in which the Jewish authors often mentioned well- known names, such as those of contemporary kings, as opponents of the Jews, or as instrumental in arranging the dispu-tations. The classical illustration of this kind of disputation is that immortalized in the Kuzari of the poet Judah Halevi. Bulan, a king of the Khazars in the 8th cent., arranged a disputation between a Chris-tian, a Mohammedan, and a Jew; as a result, he was induced to embrace Judaism, together with his sub- A typical disputation between monks and rabbis. From a woodcut illustration by F. W. Bader in \\" Heinrich Heines Werke\\" published by Sigmund Bensiger jects. Lipmann- Mühlhausen's Nitzahon, composed about 1400 in the form of a disputation, was extremely popular. Disputational works were written by Chris-tians too, as, for example, the Scrutinium Scripturarum of Solomon Paulus of Burgos ( 1434), one of the most vehement apostates of all time. M. WEINBERG. Lit.: Graetz, History of the Jews, vol. 3, pp. 175- 76, 343; vol. 4, pp. 140- 42, 207- 15; vol. 5, pp. 280- 87; Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten, vol. 1, pp. 27, 176; vol. 2, p. 32 et seq.; Friedländer, Μ., Patristische und talmudische Studien ( 1878) 20 et seq., 80- 137; Loeb, Isidore, \\" La controverse re-ligieuse entre les Chretiens et les Juifs au Moyen Age,\\" Revue de l'histoire des religions ( 1888), vols. 17 and 18; Ziegler, Religiöse Disputationen im Mittelalter ( 1894). DISRAELI, BENJAMIN ( Earl of Beaconsfield), English statesman, prime minister, and author, b. Lon-don, 1804; d. London, 1881. He was the eldest of the four sons and one daughter of Isaac D'Israeli and Maria Basevi, and proudly claimed descent from one of the families which had fled from the Torquemada terrors in Spain to Italian soil. It is known that his grandfather, Benjamin D'Israeli ( also Israeli), emi-grated from Cento, Italy, in 1748 to become an English citizen, married a daughter of the Villa Reals and left a fortune of £ 35,000. Disraeli's father gained a reputa-tion as a man of letters, largely through his Curiosities of Literature. He remained a nominal member of the Bevis Marks synagogue until his resignation, in 1817, after a four years' quarrel with the elders. A Voltairean << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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