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CANARDS. Table of Contents:

by Isaak Landman,
CANARDS. Table of Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The Background of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Peculiar Status of the Jews. b. Economic and Political Conditions. 3. Pattern of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. The Charges. b. The Proofs. 4. Circulation of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Their Makers. b. Genealogy of Canards. 5. Anti- Jewish Canards as a Weapon in World Pol-itics. 6. Refutation of Anti- Jewish Canards. 1. Introduction. A canard in its ordinary usage is a general term for a sensational, extravagant, even an absurd report, fabrication or misrepresentation which is disseminated for the purpose of deceiving the public. In the course of history canards have been employed ( 1) to stir up hatred against an acknowledged enemy, ( 2) to furnish a credible and easily understood explana-tion for a natural calamity or a disastrous political sit-uation by supplying a scapegoat, ( 3) to create an imag-inary enemy of society for the purpose of facilitating the seizure of power by a group that seeks it, ( 4) by those in power to act as a lightning rod against a storm that was threatening the regime. The canard is one of the oldest devices known in human history for arousing enmity. It has appeared at the time of practically every great war in the form of atrocity stories and to conjure up a scapegoat. It was employed by Nero at the burning of Rome, to avert a possible revolt on the part of his people, by thrusting the blame upon the Christians. For the Black Death in Central Europe ( 14th cent.) the simplest explanation which appeased the anger of and gave comfort to the masses was that the Jews had poisoned the wells. In the United States the social and economic uncer-tainty and insecurity reflected in the late 1880 s and 1890 s gave rise to the anti- Catholic American Protec-tive Association ( A. P. A.), which propagated the old canard about the secondary political allegiance of Cath-olics and added the sensational canard that the base-ments of Catholic churches were caches of arms col-lected against the day when the Catholics would bring the Pope to rule in America. Economic distress, polit-ical tension and social upheaval were simultaneously instrumental in creating these anti- Catholic canards. In the presidential campaign of 1920 a political canard that Warren G. Harding, the Republican candidate, was of negro extraction, was invented and circularized for purely partisan purposes. The successful activity of Christian missionaries in China caused the re- creation and the dissemination in the Far East of the old canard at one time circulated against Jews ( 1st cent. B. C. E.) and at another against Christians ( 1st cent. C. E.) that children were being kid-napped and killed for religious purposes. Typical of the minor canards was the so- called Knights of Columbus oath, in which, it was charged, members of the order pledged themselves to enmity to the United States. 2. The Background of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Peculiar Status of the Jews. The form which anti- Jewish canards take and the frequency with which they repeat themselves are due to several principal causes: ( 1) A small, close- knit group living within a vastly greater community is always subject to suspicion; ( 2) the religion of the Jews was a veiled and mysterious set of beliefs and practices, unknown or misrepresented to the masses of the people in any country where Jews lived, up to modern times; ( 3) their social isolation in the ghettos, their peculiar customs, especially their Sabbath and dietary laws, set them apart; ( 4) among themselves, up to modern times, they spoke a language different from the vernacular, and their literature was in Hebrew; ( 5) their interests and relationships, both personal and commercial, extended beyond the bound-aries of the city or state in which they lived; ( 6) they were forced to pursue unpopular and despised occu-pations. b. Economic and Political Conditions. This anomalous position of the Jews furnished the oppor-tunity for the fabrication of canards against them in times of political tension, economic distress, religious conflict and social unrest. The accusations of Manetho that the Jews were all atheistic arose out of the back-ground of the decadent Ptolemaic kingdom in Egypt ( 3rd to 1st centuries B. C. E.) which had lost its original power and was slipping into decay. The canard that the Jews were responsible for the Black Death arose at a time when the masses were suffering from an epi-demic which they did not understand and of which those who owed money to Jews took advantage. The modern canard that the Jews, as international financiers, control the stock exchanges through which they aim at the domination of world finance, was a product of the financial crash in Germany in 1873, reappeared at the Panama Canal scandals ( 1893), and was spread again in the United States after the debacle of 1929. The canard of the Jewish conspiracy to attain political world domi-nation originated at the time when the Tsarist regime was threatened with revolution ( 1905) and has been repeated ever since in most countries of the world at times of political instability. The distressed condition Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN |  CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS  | JAB- LEX  | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

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CANARDS. Table of Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The Background of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Peculiar Status of the Jews. b. Economic and Political Conditions. 3. Pattern of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. The Charges. b. The Proofs. 4. Circulation of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Their Makers. b. Genealogy of Canards. 5. Anti- Jewish Canards as a Weapon in World Pol-itics. 6. Refutation of Anti- Jewish Canards. 1. Introduction. A canard in its ordinary usage is a general term for a sensational, extravagant, even an absurd report, fabrication or misrepresentation which is disseminated for the purpose of deceiving the public. In the course of history canards have been employed ( 1) to stir up hatred against an acknowledged enemy, ( 2) to furnish a credible and easily understood explana-tion for a natural calamity or a disastrous political sit-uation by supplying a scapegoat, ( 3) to create an imag-inary enemy of society for the purpose of facilitating the seizure of power by a group that seeks it, ( 4) by those in power to act as a lightning rod against a storm that was threatening the regime. The canard is one of the oldest devices known in human history for arousing enmity. It has appeared at the time of practically every great war in the form of atrocity stories and to conjure up a scapegoat. It was employed by Nero at the burning of Rome, to avert a possible revolt on the part of his people, by thrusting the blame upon the Christians. For the Black Death in Central Europe ( 14th cent.) the simplest explanation which appeased the anger of and gave comfort to the masses was that the Jews had poisoned the wells. In the United States the social and economic uncer-tainty and insecurity reflected in the late 1880' s and 1890' s gave rise to the anti- Catholic American Protec-tive Association ( A. P. A.), which propagated the old canard about the secondary political allegiance of Cath-olics and added the sensational canard that the base-ments of Catholic churches were caches of arms col-lected against the day when the Catholics would bring the Pope to rule in America. Economic distress, polit-ical tension and social upheaval were simultaneously instrumental in creating these anti- Catholic canards. In the presidential campaign of 1920 a political canard that Warren G. Harding, the Republican candidate, was of negro extraction, was invented and circularized for purely partisan purposes. The successful activity of Christian missionaries in China caused the re- creation and the dissemination in the Far East of the old canard at one time circulated against Jews ( 1st cent. B. C. E.) and at another against Christians ( 1st cent. C. E.) that children were being kid-napped and killed for religious purposes. Typical of the minor canards was the so- called Knights of Columbus oath, in which, it was charged, members of the order pledged themselves to enmity to the United States. 2. The Background of Anti- Jewish Canards. a. Peculiar Status of the Jews. The form which anti- Jewish canards take and the frequency with which they repeat themselves are due to several principal causes: ( 1) A small, close- knit group living within a vastly greater community is always subject to suspicion; ( 2) the religion of the Jews was a veiled and mysterious set of beliefs and practices, unknown or misrepresented to the masses of the people in any country where Jews lived, up to modern times; ( 3) their social isolation in the ghettos, their peculiar customs, especially their Sabbath and dietary laws, set them apart; ( 4) among themselves, up to modern times, they spoke a language different from the vernacular, and their literature was in Hebrew; ( 5) their interests and relationships, both personal and commercial, extended beyond the bound-aries of the city or state in which they lived; ( 6) they were forced to pursue unpopular and despised occu-pations. b. Economic and Political Conditions. This anomalous position of the Jews furnished the oppor-tunity for the fabrication of canards against them in times of political tension, economic distress, religious conflict and social unrest. The accusations of Manetho that the Jews were all atheistic arose out of the back-ground of the decadent Ptolemaic kingdom in Egypt ( 3rd to 1st centuries B. C. E.) which had lost its original power and was slipping into decay. The canard that the Jews were responsible for the Black Death arose at a time when the masses were suffering from an epi-demic which they did not understand and of which those who owed money to Jews took advantage. The modern canard that the Jews, as international financiers, control the stock exchanges through which they aim at the domination of world finance, was a product of the financial crash in Germany in 1873, reappeared at the Panama Canal scandals ( 1893), and was spread again in the United States after the debacle of 1929. The canard of the Jewish conspiracy to attain political world domi-nation originated at the time when the Tsarist regime was threatened with revolution ( 1905) and has been repeated ever since in most countries of the world at times of political instability. The distressed condition << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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