Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTISANS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 508 ] © Joint Distribution Commitee Jewish shoemaker in postwar eastern Europe of a cut- throat competition. In order to train a com-petent class of Jewish artisans, the orphan asylums undertook the trade instruction of their boy charges. A notable instance in this regard is the city of Lem-berg. Endowments, such as the Baron de Hirsch and the Markus- Bernheim funds, were established to assist Jewish trade apprentices and to pay for instruction in trade. B. Western Europe. Jewish craftsmen have played a very modest role in France and Germany. In France the Jewish artisans have been almost exclusively East-ern European Jews. In 1910 the Eastern European Jewish artisans in Paris alone numbered about 16,000; of these, 71.4 per cent were in the clothing industry and 26.7 per cent in wood, leather, or metal. Cap-making is almost exclusively in Jewish hands. After the World War a new wave of artisans from Eastern Europe flowed into France, with Paris as its goal. The census of occupations of 1907 in Germany made it possible to ascertain the number of Jews in the crafts. Particularly numerous were the tailors, with a total of 14,222; so, too, the butchers and bakers, who numbered 9,005. It is not known how many of these listed as tailors were making their living mainly by selling goods for clothing, which is the principal busi-ness of tailoring establishments in Germany. In no other trades did the German Jews reach a percentage proportionate to that of their numbers in the total population, namely 1 per cent. Of butchers, who, for religious reasons, are indispensable, we find 7,590 as compared to 212,500 non- Jewish butchers. In those branches of crafts requiring purely physical work the number of Jews is negligible. According to the census of 1907, the distribution of the Jews in the trades was as follows: Je ws No η- Jews ( round Coopers 32 46,000 Joiners 901 457,000 Bricklayers 106 601,000 Carpenters 24 219,000 Roofers 56 42,000 Stone Masons 81 56,500 Plumbers 534 88,000 Blacksmiths 56 214,000 Locksmiths 501 373,000 Knife Grinders, etc. 45 44,000 File Cutters 6 9,600 Cartwrights 312 107,000 Shipbuilders 33 46,000 Spinners 301 196,000 Weavers 1,612 510,000 Knitters 425 95,000 Tanners 334 49,000 Saddlers 561 83,000 Turners 213 49,000 Shoemakers 1,813 369,000 In all these crafts it is evident that the 1 per cent Jewish total in the general population is nowhere nearly approximated. To what extent the artisans mentioned in the table are really plying a trade can not be deduced from the statistical data available. A large number of those listed as craftsmen are probably merely small business people who perhaps have never manufactured any piece that is for sale in their stores, although according to the statistics they would be rated as having a complete manufacturing to selling establishment of hats, watches, plumbing, etc. It can be safely assumed, for instance, that Jews classed as tailors are often dealers in cloth, while those listed as spinners and knitters probably include Jewish pro- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Kiddush Ha-Shem: An Epic of 1648
One of the earliest historical novels in modern Yiddish literature, Kiddush ha-Shem is a story of Jewish martyrdom during the Chmelnitsky uprising in mid-17th century Ukraine and Poland.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 5
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Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Талмуд (Мишна и Тосефта)
Электронное издание классического перевода на русский язык всех шести томов Мишны и Тосефты.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.