Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 507] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTISANS Jewish workers in Russia reached 555,229, thus pro-viding support for 1,793,937, or 35.43 per cent of the total Jewish population. According to the same official census, the distribution of Jews of the Pale in the in-dustries was as follows: Number in the Pale of Settlement % Jews Trades Total Jews in Total Metal Foundries 5,338 31 0.6 Ores and Mines 49,836 975 2.0 Various Trades 40,007 2,804 7. Ο Coach & Ship Building 2,533 225 8.9 Forestry & Allied Employ ments 25,729 3,200 I2.4 Smelting 41,464 5,187 I2.5 Physical Culture 49,154 8,541 I7.4 Textile Industry 173,600 33,200 19.1 Building 193,471 36,911 19.1 Metal 189,499 40,082 21.2 Distilling and Brewing 17,031 3,664 2I. 5 Wood Working 152,327 41,359 27.2 Chemical Industry 19,083 6,514 34.1 Food 128,811 44,796 34.8 Art Trades 12,075 5,263 43.6 Animal Products 46,574 20,446 43.9 Clothing Trades 458,757 235,993 51.4 Paper Manufacture 23,163 13,733 59.3 Other Drinks, etc. 3,681 2,313 62.9 Instruments, Apparatus, Watches 7,875 5,240 66.5 Tobacco Trade 10,331 7,597 73.5 As Jews are largely represented in the clothing industry, they are hard hit by seasonal fluctuations. According to the census made by the ICA, the per-centage of distribution among Jewish artisans was: Tailors and Dressmakers 25.6 Shoemakers 14.4 Joiners 6.0 Bakers 4.6 Butchers 4.4 Seamstresses 3.8 Hatters 3.2 Blacksmiths 3.2 Plumbers 2.4 Carpenters 2.3 Potters 2.2 In all other trades the percentage is less than two. A deplorable situation among Jewish artisans was their poor technical preparation. Rarely was it pos-sible for them to go to good trade schools; scarcely ever were Jewish boys apprenticed to good masters. The poverty of their parents did not permit a long training period. As soon as the apprentice had learned the rudiments of his trade, he was compelled to prac-tise it for his living. Thus, though certain individual Jews were among the best in their fields, Jewish crafts in general were on a low technical level. Another reason for the backwardness of the Jewish trades in Russia can be found in Russian legislation, which prohibited compulsory guilds. The Jewish guild was not a public corporation, which could supervise the standard of its members. The earlier Jewish guilds developed into free occupational associa-tions of a charitable and religious character, though they continued to bear the old name of  Hebroth. Later the  Hebroth of the journeymen broke away, and continual quarreling ensued between them and the master  Hebroth. In Roumania the Jews made up a considerable part of the artisans. According to an official census of 1908, © Art collection, Jewish Community, Berlin Jewish scissors grinder in Russia there were 25,184 or 19.6 per cent Jews among the 127,841 craftsmen. Among masters, the percentage of Jews was 26.26; foremen, 8.9; workingmen, 16.72; and apprentices, 18.96. In several districts Jews actually constituted the majority of the artisans, as in Botoshani, 68.7 per cent; Jassy, 66.05 per cent; Dorohoi, 65.57 per cent. Likewise, within several trades Jews formed the majority. This was true of plumbers, modistes, watch-makers, goldsmiths, brushmakers and trunkmakers. As in Russia and Poland, the number of Jews in the tailoring industry was very large, comprising 57 per cent of all Jewish artisans, while only 34.2 per cent of Christian workers were in this field. On the other hand, only 3.6 per cent of the Jews, as compared with 16.7 per cent Christians, worked in the metal industry. In the post- War period it was found in the city of Czernowitz that in fifteen occupational associations, the Jews totalled 90 to 95 per cent of the membership; the only exception was the association of the black-smiths. Out of sixty- four plumbers, sixty- two were Jews; of forty- three dyers, forty- one Jews; of 144 tailors, 117 Jews; and of fifty- five furriers, forty- five were Jews. The condition of Jewish artisans in Rou-mania was bad both because of their large numbers and because of the preference of the authorities for Christian artisans. Equally bad was the condition of the Jewish trades in Galicia where, in 1900, these workers formed 11 per cent of the total and 34 per cent of the urban population. The lack of a large- scale commerce and industry forced the Jews to eke out a miserable exis-tence in petty crafts and commerce, with all the results Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
sdf

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.