Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTISANS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 506] ©  Das Jüdische Antlitz A Lithuanian Jewish watchmaker. From a lithograph dom of occupation in April, 1791. From that time on a number of attempts were made to interest Jewish youths in becoming artisans. Public schools and work-shops and various vocational institutions were opened for Jews in various cities, such as Paris, Strasbourg and Mühlhausen. SIMON MOWSHOWITZ. IV. The Nineteenth Century. A. Central and Eastern Europe. In Prussia the Stein- Hardenberg legis-lation, particularly the edict of emancipation of 1812, granted the Jews equal freedom with all citizens in the artisan trades. Other German states followed Prus-sias example, but the antipathy of the guilds for Jew-ish artisans remained as violent as ever. The legal rights of Jews were repeatedly disregarded. Thus the artisans of Hamburg forced the authorities to renew the Judenordnung of 1710. Later ( 1824) Hamburg introduced a numerus clausus to fix the number of Jewish artisans in proportion to the total number of Jews. In Saxony the admission of Jews to the trades, granted in 1818, had to be revoked because of pressure from the guilds. Subsequently Jews were readmitted, but not as masters. In 1838 Jewish artisans were accepted only in Dresden and Leipzig; twenty- seven master- artisans in the former city, and three in the latter. In Hannover the certificate of baptism was the sole means of becoming an apprentice. About this time a number of societies for the promotion of trades among the Jews were founded in various localities of Germany. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, the participa-tion of the Jews in trades was extensive in the 18th and 19th centuries. In Galicia Emperor Joseph II of Austria had abrogated the order of Empress Maria Theresa confining Jewish artisans to their own community. Henceforth they were to be subject to the same guild supervision and payment of dues as the Christian artisans. Furthermore, they were permitted to estab-lish Jewish guilds. In those parts of the kingdom of Poland which had become part of Russia, a great number of Jews belonged to the artisan class. An official report of 1808 even claimed that the entire skilled trade of this territory was in Jewish hands. Accusation was made that the Jewish artisans in Russia and Galicia practised only those trades which were not too laborious or too unclean, but statistics show that the Jews were represented in all trades, including bricklaying, pottery, roofing and smithing. The development of the crafts among the Jews of Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th cent, is very different from that of Western Europe. In West-ern Europe the skilled trades suffered very severely from the rise of capitalism. Commerce, transportation, and industry began to enjoy an era of prosperity; the artisan class lost in importance. Naturally, then, with no definite assurance of success in trades, the Jews did not flock to the arts and crafts in any large numbers. But in the agrarian countries of Eastern Europe, capitalism progressed only very slowly, and agriculture and the trades did not lose out. The Jewish artisans concentrated in the large cities and created an extensive system of crafts and home industries. Very soon the Eastern European markets could not absorb the supply of Jewish artisans and their products.. Jewish artisans began to emigrate. In particular is it true that Jewish tailors are to be met in all the countries of the east and west. In Russia and Poland at the beginning of the 19th cent. 20 to 25 per cent of the Jews in the Pale were artisans. The Russian census of 1897 ( which, however, has been attacked as unscientific in method), as well as an investigation made by the ICA ( Jewish Coloniza-tion Association) in 1898, show that the number of Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (18251894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

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Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8
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R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

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The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

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