Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTISANS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 506] ©  Das Jüdische Antlitz A Lithuanian Jewish watchmaker. From a lithograph dom of occupation in April, 1791. From that time on a number of attempts were made to interest Jewish youths in becoming artisans. Public schools and work-shops and various vocational institutions were opened for Jews in various cities, such as Paris, Strasbourg and Mühlhausen. SIMON MOWSHOWITZ. IV. The Nineteenth Century. A. Central and Eastern Europe. In Prussia the Stein- Hardenberg legis-lation, particularly the edict of emancipation of 1812, granted the Jews equal freedom with all citizens in the artisan trades. Other German states followed Prus-sias example, but the antipathy of the guilds for Jew-ish artisans remained as violent as ever. The legal rights of Jews were repeatedly disregarded. Thus the artisans of Hamburg forced the authorities to renew the Judenordnung of 1710. Later ( 1824) Hamburg introduced a numerus clausus to fix the number of Jewish artisans in proportion to the total number of Jews. In Saxony the admission of Jews to the trades, granted in 1818, had to be revoked because of pressure from the guilds. Subsequently Jews were readmitted, but not as masters. In 1838 Jewish artisans were accepted only in Dresden and Leipzig; twenty- seven master- artisans in the former city, and three in the latter. In Hannover the certificate of baptism was the sole means of becoming an apprentice. About this time a number of societies for the promotion of trades among the Jews were founded in various localities of Germany. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, the participa-tion of the Jews in trades was extensive in the 18th and 19th centuries. In Galicia Emperor Joseph II of Austria had abrogated the order of Empress Maria Theresa confining Jewish artisans to their own community. Henceforth they were to be subject to the same guild supervision and payment of dues as the Christian artisans. Furthermore, they were permitted to estab-lish Jewish guilds. In those parts of the kingdom of Poland which had become part of Russia, a great number of Jews belonged to the artisan class. An official report of 1808 even claimed that the entire skilled trade of this territory was in Jewish hands. Accusation was made that the Jewish artisans in Russia and Galicia practised only those trades which were not too laborious or too unclean, but statistics show that the Jews were represented in all trades, including bricklaying, pottery, roofing and smithing. The development of the crafts among the Jews of Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th cent, is very different from that of Western Europe. In West-ern Europe the skilled trades suffered very severely from the rise of capitalism. Commerce, transportation, and industry began to enjoy an era of prosperity; the artisan class lost in importance. Naturally, then, with no definite assurance of success in trades, the Jews did not flock to the arts and crafts in any large numbers. But in the agrarian countries of Eastern Europe, capitalism progressed only very slowly, and agriculture and the trades did not lose out. The Jewish artisans concentrated in the large cities and created an extensive system of crafts and home industries. Very soon the Eastern European markets could not absorb the supply of Jewish artisans and their products.. Jewish artisans began to emigrate. In particular is it true that Jewish tailors are to be met in all the countries of the east and west. In Russia and Poland at the beginning of the 19th cent. 20 to 25 per cent of the Jews in the Pale were artisans. The Russian census of 1897 ( which, however, has been attacked as unscientific in method), as well as an investigation made by the ICA ( Jewish Coloniza-tion Association) in 1898, show that the number of Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

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A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Mishnayoth


The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.