Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISLI ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTISANS © M. Rosenfelds  Songs of the Ghetto A Jewish turner in Galicia ( the artists own father) from a line drawing by Ε. M. Lilien own), tanners, saddlers, goldsmiths, dyers, weavers, and tailors; in Navarre, as silk weavers; in Castile, in all branches of industry, including armorers, copper-smiths, barbers, tanners, and even basket makers. Jews were sometimes artisans in Southern France. In 1293 there were three Jewish dyers and one tanner in Montpellier and tailors, weavers, and dyers in Avig-non. Conditions were different in Northern France and in Germany where it was possible to become an artisan only by joining a guild, to which Jews were not admitted. The only Jewish artisans therefore were tailors, slaughterers and bakers who were necessary for religious reasons. There were but few Jewish artisans in England. The chief occupations of the Jews of these sections were trading and money- lending. It was only at the end of the Middle Ages that a new field was opened to the vast army of Jewish writers who had been occupied in transcribing the sacred scriptures and who thus ac-quired a place of honor. This was printing. Soon after the discovery of this art we find skilled Jewish typesetters, and one family of these in Italy, the Son-cinos, acquired world renown. In Poland and Lithuania, handicraft was widespread among the Jews, being next in order after trading, money- lending, agriculture and holding leases. It is especially significant that the artisans in these coun-tries did not merely work for individual orders but to a large extent for the general trade. Hence there was severe opposition to them on the part of Christian artisans, a struggle in which the Jewish workmen were supported by the royal privilege which had granted them the right to practise handicrafts. The Jews turned to these trades because they had been driven out of other occupations. Sometimes the rivalry be-tween Christian and Jewish artisans was settled by an agreement, as in Grodno. In return for certain con-tributions to the Christian guild the Jews were granted permission to pursue various occupations, the right of having Christian apprentices and a seat in the guild tribunals. This had the effect of giving the Christian guilds a certain measure of control, especially in the display of wares. Jewish guilds arose in Poland and Lithuania which, like the guilds in general, had not merely an economic significance but were closely intertwined in their com-munity life by their religious character. They strength-ened the position of the Jewish artisans, though some-times they were in conflict with the community ( Kahal). The extent of the participation of the Jews as artisans at the beginning of modern times can bseee n from census of the Posen chamber of commerce of 1797. Occupation Jewish Christian Tailors 923 676 Locksmiths 238 638 Tavern Keepers 81 1,048 Barbers 47 163 Musicians 26 126 Bakers 51 607 Goldsmiths 22 19 Bookbinders 31 20 Fringe Makers 50 22 Cap Makers 51 24 Button Makers 52 6 Of a total of 4,921 who followed such trades, 1,572 or almost a third were Jews. In 1786 there were only twelve Christian master tailors in Lublin as compared to thirty Jews; only one Christian glazier as compared to thirty Jews; twenty- four Jewish furriers and only six Christian ones; while all the pewterers and copper-smiths were Jews. In Cracow 23 per cent of the 600 Jewish families were artisans. A similar proportion existed in Kalisz, and in some localities it reached 40 per cent. Jewish products were purchased by the nobility because of their superior quality. Jewish artisans were especially numerous in Bo-hemia and Moravia; Prague in particular was the center of an intense Jewish handicraft. Jewish artisans were numerous in Turkey, where Jews had complete freedom of occupation. The chief handicrafts prac-tised there were cloth- weaving, glass work, diamond-cutting, dyeing, goldsmithing, carpentry and tinsmith-ing. They were active in the same trades in Morocco and Algiers, and during the same period there were many Jewish artisans in Palestine, Syria and Persia. On the other hand, there were practically no Jewish artisans in Germany and France in the 18th cent. This was due partly to the fact that Jews were forbidden to practise a trade and partly because of the opposition of the guilds. The only exceptions are a number of tailors and silk- weavers in many places, Jewish glass blowers in the Rhine section, distillers in Berlin and Bielefeld and sable dyers in Königsberg. Special mention should be made of the various seal engravers whose art was at that time famous in Paris and in Hamburg. The pro-hibition on the part of the guilds was ended in France only with the revolution, and Jews were granted free- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 2
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Sephardi Legacy II


The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
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Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

The Conversos of Majorca. Hispania Judaica, v. 5
Life and death in a crypto-Jewish community of Conversos of XVII century Majorca.

History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

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Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.