Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISLI ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTISANS © M. Rosenfelds  Songs of the Ghetto A Jewish turner in Galicia ( the artists own father) from a line drawing by Ε. M. Lilien own), tanners, saddlers, goldsmiths, dyers, weavers, and tailors; in Navarre, as silk weavers; in Castile, in all branches of industry, including armorers, copper-smiths, barbers, tanners, and even basket makers. Jews were sometimes artisans in Southern France. In 1293 there were three Jewish dyers and one tanner in Montpellier and tailors, weavers, and dyers in Avig-non. Conditions were different in Northern France and in Germany where it was possible to become an artisan only by joining a guild, to which Jews were not admitted. The only Jewish artisans therefore were tailors, slaughterers and bakers who were necessary for religious reasons. There were but few Jewish artisans in England. The chief occupations of the Jews of these sections were trading and money- lending. It was only at the end of the Middle Ages that a new field was opened to the vast army of Jewish writers who had been occupied in transcribing the sacred scriptures and who thus ac-quired a place of honor. This was printing. Soon after the discovery of this art we find skilled Jewish typesetters, and one family of these in Italy, the Son-cinos, acquired world renown. In Poland and Lithuania, handicraft was widespread among the Jews, being next in order after trading, money- lending, agriculture and holding leases. It is especially significant that the artisans in these coun-tries did not merely work for individual orders but to a large extent for the general trade. Hence there was severe opposition to them on the part of Christian artisans, a struggle in which the Jewish workmen were supported by the royal privilege which had granted them the right to practise handicrafts. The Jews turned to these trades because they had been driven out of other occupations. Sometimes the rivalry be-tween Christian and Jewish artisans was settled by an agreement, as in Grodno. In return for certain con-tributions to the Christian guild the Jews were granted permission to pursue various occupations, the right of having Christian apprentices and a seat in the guild tribunals. This had the effect of giving the Christian guilds a certain measure of control, especially in the display of wares. Jewish guilds arose in Poland and Lithuania which, like the guilds in general, had not merely an economic significance but were closely intertwined in their com-munity life by their religious character. They strength-ened the position of the Jewish artisans, though some-times they were in conflict with the community ( Kahal). The extent of the participation of the Jews as artisans at the beginning of modern times can bseee n from census of the Posen chamber of commerce of 1797. Occupation Jewish Christian Tailors 923 676 Locksmiths 238 638 Tavern Keepers 81 1,048 Barbers 47 163 Musicians 26 126 Bakers 51 607 Goldsmiths 22 19 Bookbinders 31 20 Fringe Makers 50 22 Cap Makers 51 24 Button Makers 52 6 Of a total of 4,921 who followed such trades, 1,572 or almost a third were Jews. In 1786 there were only twelve Christian master tailors in Lublin as compared to thirty Jews; only one Christian glazier as compared to thirty Jews; twenty- four Jewish furriers and only six Christian ones; while all the pewterers and copper-smiths were Jews. In Cracow 23 per cent of the 600 Jewish families were artisans. A similar proportion existed in Kalisz, and in some localities it reached 40 per cent. Jewish products were purchased by the nobility because of their superior quality. Jewish artisans were especially numerous in Bo-hemia and Moravia; Prague in particular was the center of an intense Jewish handicraft. Jewish artisans were numerous in Turkey, where Jews had complete freedom of occupation. The chief handicrafts prac-tised there were cloth- weaving, glass work, diamond-cutting, dyeing, goldsmithing, carpentry and tinsmith-ing. They were active in the same trades in Morocco and Algiers, and during the same period there were many Jewish artisans in Palestine, Syria and Persia. On the other hand, there were practically no Jewish artisans in Germany and France in the 18th cent. This was due partly to the fact that Jews were forbidden to practise a trade and partly because of the opposition of the guilds. The only exceptions are a number of tailors and silk- weavers in many places, Jewish glass blowers in the Rhine section, distillers in Berlin and Bielefeld and sable dyers in Königsberg. Special mention should be made of the various seal engravers whose art was at that time famous in Paris and in Hamburg. The pro-hibition on the part of the guilds was ended in France only with the revolution, and Jews were granted free- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

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Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (18251894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

Luah Hashannah 5778
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis
The JPS Torah Commentary series guides readers through the words and ideas of the Torah. Each volume is the work of a scholar who stands at the pinnacle of his field.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the Geschichte der Juden, the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of or maybe because of its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. The Washington Times

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrumentand on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.