Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTISANS Jewish tinsmiths in ably Hittite iron- workers, since pirzi ( taken over into Hebrew as barzel) is the Hittite word for iron. The perazon ( Judges 5: 6- 7) which ceased in Israel during the oppressive rule of Sisera is perhaps not  high-ways or  villages, as it is usually translated, but a term for  smithy or  smithcraft; this would explain why the Israelites had neither shield nor spear ( verse 8). Another interesting sidelight is the fact that the Philistine supremacy of the nth cent. B. C. E. was accompanied by a monopoly on smithing, so that  there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel ( I Sam. 13: 19- 22). In the next century, when Solomon was building the Temple, his chief artificer was the son of a Tyrian father and an Israelite mother, while Israelite and Phoenician builders worked side by side. One of the earliest occupations to develop into a definite handicraft was that of cheese- making. The valley between the hills of Jerusalem bore to a very late date the name of the  cheese- makers valley ( Josephus, Jewish War, book 5, chap. 4, section 1); the malben mentioned in II Sam. 12: 31 is probably not the  brickkiln, as it is usually translated, but the main street of the town where the cheesemakers made and sold their wares ( lebben, a term still used in Pales-tine). The potter was evidently a familiar figure, judging from the number of allusions to his work; and this very early form of handicraft so impressed the minds of the ancient Hebrews that the word for potter ( yotzer) came to have the meaning  creator. Again, the Bible mentions the  fullers field as one of the outstanding landmarks of Jerusalem ( Isa. 7: 3). Other forms of handicraft mentioned in early times are linen- © Art collection of the Jewish Community, Berlin 20th cent. Jerusalem making, stone- cutting, baking and the compounding of ointments. It is the period of the Second Temple and after, however, that sees the increase in the proportion of Jewish artisans. The Talmudic literature contains hun-dreds of references to almost every kind of occupation, as well as to the tools of their trades. Baking became largely a professional occupation, and the making of clothing was more frequently done outside the home. Goldsmiths, silversmiths and coppersmiths appeared in larger numbers, while the refinements of city life attracted many to such occupations as bathing attend-ant, compounder of perfumes, hair- dresser and barber. New professions which are mentioned in the period following the return from the Exile ( about 500 B. C. E.) include embossers, mortar- makers, tailors, millers, butchers and tanners. On the whole, however, the Jews were better artisans outside of Palestine than in that country, since those who migrated elsewhere or who were carried away as slaves found it easier to take up a handicraft than to revert to agriculture. Hence we hear of skilled work-men being brought from Alexandria to execute tasks which native workmen of Palestine could not do. In the same city there was a splendid and world- renowned synagogue, in which the various artisans had separate sections and benches, so that a worker from a foreign country could easily find his place in the congregation among the workers in his own craft. At that period there was a certain amount of organization among Jewish workers. In addition to the Levitical families with whom certain crafts, such as the compounding of the incense, were hereditary. there was an organization Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the forgotten million that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 12
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

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History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Luah Hashannah 5778
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

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Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.