Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTISANS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA an agricultural people while they were living inde-pendently in Palestine, they numbered among their ranks a respectable minority of artificers. Later, when the hardships of war and captivity caused them to crowd into the large cities of ancient times, they nat-urally turned to manual occupations as a source of livelihood. The requirements of religious life called for individuals in every community to act as butchers, bakers, weavers, metal- workers, and scribes, in order to conform to the principles of the dietary laws and to provide the necessary ceremonial instruments. The working conditions of the artisan, with his compara-tively limited space requirements, quick production of goods and ready market for his wares seem to have appealed especially to the Jewish mind. Another im-portant incentive to handicraft was the fact that it permitted the Jew to observe his Sabbath. Medieval travelers uniformly report the presence of Jewish artisans over wide areas; in some places they possessed a monopoly of various occupations. It was only under the pressure of persecution, beginning with the Crusades ( 11th to 14th centuries), and because of their exclusion from the guilds in Western and Central Europe, that the Jews were forced into non- manual occupations. Even today many of the Jews of Northern Africa still cling to handicrafts and despise trading. In modern times, after the industrial revolution of the 19th cent. made production a matter of machines rather than of hand labor, the proportion of skilled laborers among the Jews has always been high. In certain of the lighter industries, such as the textile and fur trades, cigar- making, the manufacture of jewelry, and diamond- cutting, their position as workers has been preponderant. Equally noteworthy is the high respect which was paid by the Jews to handicraft. When the Talmud lays down the duty of the father to teach his son a trade,  for if one does not do so, it is like teaching him robbery ( Kid. 29a), it is significant that the word used for trade ( umanuth) applies especially to the work of the artisans. Just as some of the great leaders of Bible times were men of the farm, so many of the famous rabbis of ancient times were men of the forge and the workshop. Thus one of the most noted of the Tal-mudic rabbis bore a name which, translated into Eng-fish, would be John Smith ( Johanan Nappaha); others are recorded as shoemakers, tailors, bakers, potters, fullers, tapestry- makers, and builders. However, there were certain occupations which were lightly esteemed, such as those of ass and camel drivers, sailors, herds-men, dealers in crockery and storekeepers,  for their trades are robbers trades ( Kid. 4: 14). Other trades were to be avoided because they brought the worker into contact with women: those of goldsmith, carder, silk- weaver, spice- dealer, peddler or bath- master. Yet, undoubtedly, even these occupations were pursued by large numbers, for the literature often pays tribute to the importance of handicraft. About 200 B. C. E. Ben Sira declared:  Without them ( skilled workers) a city can not be inhabited, and wherever they dwell they hunger not ( Sirach 38: 25- 32). Four hundred years later Judah Hanasi expressed himself in a similar vein:  Happy is he who sees in his parents home a fine trade; but woe unto him who sees his parents engaged in an unpleasant trade. The world can not exist without a manufacturer of perfumes, nor without a tanner. Happy is he whose trade is the manufacture of perfumes; woe unto him whose trade is tanning II. In Ancient Times. The Bible traces the craft of smith back to Tubal- cain, seventh in the line of descent from Adam ( Gen. 4: 22), and it is clear that artisans arose at a very early period in the civilization of Babylonia and Egypt. The more primitive Israel-ites, on the other hand, long retained the custom of making in their own homes all the articles which they needed. Leaving aside the story of the building of the Taber-nacle in the wilderness as being idealized history, and judging by the evidence furnished by archeology, it is clear that the Hebrews who conquered Palestine slowly learned handicrafts from their Canaanite foes. During the early period handicraft articles seem to have been brought in by traders, or to have been made by guilds of non- Israelite workers. Thus the Kenites, who had been in close relationship with the Israelites since the time of Moses, were perhaps a smith- clan; the Periz-zites, one of the seven Canaanite nations, were prob- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

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Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

The Sephardi Legacy II


Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Kiddush Ha-Shem: An Epic of 1648
One of the earliest historical novels in modern Yiddish literature, Kiddush ha-Shem is a story of Jewish martyrdom during the Chmelnitsky uprising in mid-17th century Ukraine and Poland.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's “spiritual Zionism” is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Jesus of Nazareth
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