Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTISANS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA an agricultural people while they were living inde-pendently in Palestine, they numbered among their ranks a respectable minority of artificers. Later, when the hardships of war and captivity caused them to crowd into the large cities of ancient times, they nat-urally turned to manual occupations as a source of livelihood. The requirements of religious life called for individuals in every community to act as butchers, bakers, weavers, metal- workers, and scribes, in order to conform to the principles of the dietary laws and to provide the necessary ceremonial instruments. The working conditions of the artisan, with his compara-tively limited space requirements, quick production of goods and ready market for his wares seem to have appealed especially to the Jewish mind. Another im-portant incentive to handicraft was the fact that it permitted the Jew to observe his Sabbath. Medieval travelers uniformly report the presence of Jewish artisans over wide areas; in some places they possessed a monopoly of various occupations. It was only under the pressure of persecution, beginning with the Crusades ( 11th to 14th centuries), and because of their exclusion from the guilds in Western and Central Europe, that the Jews were forced into non- manual occupations. Even today many of the Jews of Northern Africa still cling to handicrafts and despise trading. In modern times, after the industrial revolution of the 19th cent. made production a matter of machines rather than of hand labor, the proportion of skilled laborers among the Jews has always been high. In certain of the lighter industries, such as the textile and fur trades, cigar- making, the manufacture of jewelry, and diamond- cutting, their position as workers has been preponderant. Equally noteworthy is the high respect which was paid by the Jews to handicraft. When the Talmud lays down the duty of the father to teach his son a trade,  for if one does not do so, it is like teaching him robbery ( Kid. 29a), it is significant that the word used for trade ( umanuth) applies especially to the work of the artisans. Just as some of the great leaders of Bible times were men of the farm, so many of the famous rabbis of ancient times were men of the forge and the workshop. Thus one of the most noted of the Tal-mudic rabbis bore a name which, translated into Eng-fish, would be John Smith ( Johanan Nappaha); others are recorded as shoemakers, tailors, bakers, potters, fullers, tapestry- makers, and builders. However, there were certain occupations which were lightly esteemed, such as those of ass and camel drivers, sailors, herds-men, dealers in crockery and storekeepers,  for their trades are robbers trades ( Kid. 4: 14). Other trades were to be avoided because they brought the worker into contact with women: those of goldsmith, carder, silk- weaver, spice- dealer, peddler or bath- master. Yet, undoubtedly, even these occupations were pursued by large numbers, for the literature often pays tribute to the importance of handicraft. About 200 B. C. E. Ben Sira declared:  Without them ( skilled workers) a city can not be inhabited, and wherever they dwell they hunger not ( Sirach 38: 25- 32). Four hundred years later Judah Hanasi expressed himself in a similar vein:  Happy is he who sees in his parents home a fine trade; but woe unto him who sees his parents engaged in an unpleasant trade. The world can not exist without a manufacturer of perfumes, nor without a tanner. Happy is he whose trade is the manufacture of perfumes; woe unto him whose trade is tanning II. In Ancient Times. The Bible traces the craft of smith back to Tubal- cain, seventh in the line of descent from Adam ( Gen. 4: 22), and it is clear that artisans arose at a very early period in the civilization of Babylonia and Egypt. The more primitive Israel-ites, on the other hand, long retained the custom of making in their own homes all the articles which they needed. Leaving aside the story of the building of the Taber-nacle in the wilderness as being idealized history, and judging by the evidence furnished by archeology, it is clear that the Hebrews who conquered Palestine slowly learned handicrafts from their Canaanite foes. During the early period handicraft articles seem to have been brought in by traders, or to have been made by guilds of non- Israelite workers. Thus the Kenites, who had been in close relationship with the Israelites since the time of Moses, were perhaps a smith- clan; the Periz-zites, one of the seven Canaanite nations, were prob- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

THE CONCILIATOR


Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

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Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.