Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTHURIAN LEGENDS ARTISANS into the Temple precincts, is probably a softened ver-sion of the same event; he mentions, moreover, the im-position of a tax of fifty drachmas for every lamb of-fered upon the altar, which sounds more like a punish-ment for a rebellion than for a , murder. Eusebius re-cords in his chronicle, under a slightly erroneous date, that about the time of his campaign against Egypt Ar-taxerxes carried away a number of Jews into exile and settled them in Hyrcania and Babylonia. It has also been conjectured that Judith contains veiled allusions to these events. Artaxerxes was the only Persian sov-ereign who acted harshly toward the Jews; the remem-brance of his severity may explain why the latter so readily yielded to Alexander the Great in 332 B. C. E. Lit.: Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 6 ( 1927) 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia ( 1929) 241- 57; Olmstead, A. T., History of Palestine and Syria ( 1931) 617- 20; Oesterley, W. O. E., and Robinson, Τ. H., History of Israel, vol. 2 ( 1932) 139- 41; The Polychrome Bible, Isaiah, pp. 131, 202, 204. ARTHURIAN LEGENDS IN JEWISH LITER-ATURE. It is one of the curiosities of literature that there is a distinct Hebrew version of the cycle of ro-mances dealing with the well- known half- mythical hero of medieval romance, King Arthur. As early as 1279 an anonymous translation was made, under the title Sefer Hi shamed Ηatabelah Haagulah ( The Book of the Destruction of the Round Table). The translator be-gins with two well- known episodes of the Arthurian legends, the history of Uther Pendragon and the birth of Arthur, and the story of Lancelot of the Lake, the invincible, most chivalrous knight. There are also refer-ences to Merlin the magician, the counsellor of Uther and Arthur, to the quest for the Holy Grail, and to the adventures of Sir Galahad and Sir Perceval. Unfortun-ately, only half of this brief history was copied. This Hebrew version, based on an Italian rendering of an earlier French text, presupposes an entire cycle of Arthurian prose romances, different from and probably more ancient than that of Sir Thomas Malory. The Hebrew translator apologizes in his preface for render-ing such tales of bloodshed, intrigue and unchastity into the sacred tongue, one of his motives being to drive away his melancholy. He also believes that some moral lessons in manners and conduct can be derived from these stories of chivalry. The language is simple and direct; expressions are successfully coined for the gaudy accessories and trappings of the age of chivalry, the pageants of tournaments in mail armor and helmet. The Arthurian legends, as well as other romances and epic poems of chivalry, overcame the barrier of race and faith and enjoyed great popularity in Jewish circles for many centuries. As early as the 14th cent. a Judeo- German adaptation was made of the German Arthur romance Wigalois of Wirnt von Gravenberg, written about 1204 to 1210. A Jewish troubadour adapted this romance, omitting purely Christian motives, dis-pensing with the pathetic lyric moralizing strophes of von Gravenberg, and eliminating elaborate descriptions and lengthy speeches. He composed, in doggerel rhyme, under the title König Artus Hof, a romance compact with lively incidents. Of all ancient epic German poems and tales, none seems to have enjoyed greater popularity than those belonging to the Arthurian cycle. Two other adapta- Jewish tailor and butcher of 18th cent. tions, made in the 15th and 16th centuries, are men-tioned. Several manuscripts are still extant, and eight printed editions in the 17th and 18th centuries are re-corded, one in ottava rima ( eight- line stanzas in iambic pentameter), others in couplets, and one in prose. This Judeo- German Arthur romance bears direct evidence on the existence of Jewish minstrels who shared all the characteristics of their German compeers. Besides its historical and philological value, it is of im-portance for the study of the development of romantic literature in general. JOSEPH MARCUS. Lit.: The Hebrew text was edited by A. Berliner in Otzar Tob ( 1885) 1- 11; a translation is given by Gaster, Moses,  The History of the Destruction of the Round Table, in his Studies and Texts, vol. 2 ( 1925- 28) 942- L., Arthurian Legends ( 1912); idem, in Publications Yiddish Scientific Institute, vol. 1 ( 1926) Erik, Max, Wegn Altyiddishen Roman un 93- 142 ARTICLES OF FAITH, THE THIRTEEN, see CREED; DOGMAS; MAIMONIDES. ARTISANS. Table of Contents: I. Introductory. II. In Ancient Times. III. From the Sixth to the Eighteenth Century. IV. The Nineteenth Century. V. The War and the Post- War Period. VI. Jewish Artisans Organizations. I. Introductory. The term  artisan means a worker who completes by his own efforts an article that represents some degree of art or skill. In this article, however,  artisans is employed in its widest possible sense to include every person who earns a living by manual labor. This use of the term becomes necessary in view of the fact that most of the statistics from abroad deal with such groups, and no figures are available which are limited to what the English word means normally. Barbers, tailors, cobblers and dyers, as well as handlers of food- stuffs, are included in this presentation, because they come under the general classification of manual labor. A survey of the rather scanty information of all periods of Jewish history, especially the more complete statistics of modern times, shows clearly that Jews were not and are not now averse to manual labor. Primarily Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Ezra Studies


Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
asdf

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
sdfg

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7
qwer

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
qwer

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
wert

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

USCJ eLuah 5776
asdf

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

Luah HaShanah 5776
sdfg

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
asdf