Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTHURIAN LEGENDS ARTISANS into the Temple precincts, is probably a softened ver-sion of the same event; he mentions, moreover, the im-position of a tax of fifty drachmas for every lamb of-fered upon the altar, which sounds more like a punish-ment for a rebellion than for a , murder. Eusebius re-cords in his chronicle, under a slightly erroneous date, that about the time of his campaign against Egypt Ar-taxerxes carried away a number of Jews into exile and settled them in Hyrcania and Babylonia. It has also been conjectured that Judith contains veiled allusions to these events. Artaxerxes was the only Persian sov-ereign who acted harshly toward the Jews; the remem-brance of his severity may explain why the latter so readily yielded to Alexander the Great in 332 B. C. E. Lit.: Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 6 ( 1927) 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia ( 1929) 241- 57; Olmstead, A. T., History of Palestine and Syria ( 1931) 617- 20; Oesterley, W. O. E., and Robinson, Τ. H., History of Israel, vol. 2 ( 1932) 139- 41; The Polychrome Bible, Isaiah, pp. 131, 202, 204. ARTHURIAN LEGENDS IN JEWISH LITER-ATURE. It is one of the curiosities of literature that there is a distinct Hebrew version of the cycle of ro-mances dealing with the well- known half- mythical hero of medieval romance, King Arthur. As early as 1279 an anonymous translation was made, under the title Sefer Hi shamed Ηatabelah Haagulah ( The Book of the Destruction of the Round Table). The translator be-gins with two well- known episodes of the Arthurian legends, the history of Uther Pendragon and the birth of Arthur, and the story of Lancelot of the Lake, the invincible, most chivalrous knight. There are also refer-ences to Merlin the magician, the counsellor of Uther and Arthur, to the quest for the Holy Grail, and to the adventures of Sir Galahad and Sir Perceval. Unfortun-ately, only half of this brief history was copied. This Hebrew version, based on an Italian rendering of an earlier French text, presupposes an entire cycle of Arthurian prose romances, different from and probably more ancient than that of Sir Thomas Malory. The Hebrew translator apologizes in his preface for render-ing such tales of bloodshed, intrigue and unchastity into the sacred tongue, one of his motives being to drive away his melancholy. He also believes that some moral lessons in manners and conduct can be derived from these stories of chivalry. The language is simple and direct; expressions are successfully coined for the gaudy accessories and trappings of the age of chivalry, the pageants of tournaments in mail armor and helmet. The Arthurian legends, as well as other romances and epic poems of chivalry, overcame the barrier of race and faith and enjoyed great popularity in Jewish circles for many centuries. As early as the 14th cent. a Judeo- German adaptation was made of the German Arthur romance Wigalois of Wirnt von Gravenberg, written about 1204 to 1210. A Jewish troubadour adapted this romance, omitting purely Christian motives, dis-pensing with the pathetic lyric moralizing strophes of von Gravenberg, and eliminating elaborate descriptions and lengthy speeches. He composed, in doggerel rhyme, under the title König Artus Hof, a romance compact with lively incidents. Of all ancient epic German poems and tales, none seems to have enjoyed greater popularity than those belonging to the Arthurian cycle. Two other adapta- Jewish tailor and butcher of 18th cent. tions, made in the 15th and 16th centuries, are men-tioned. Several manuscripts are still extant, and eight printed editions in the 17th and 18th centuries are re-corded, one in ottava rima ( eight- line stanzas in iambic pentameter), others in couplets, and one in prose. This Judeo- German Arthur romance bears direct evidence on the existence of Jewish minstrels who shared all the characteristics of their German compeers. Besides its historical and philological value, it is of im-portance for the study of the development of romantic literature in general. JOSEPH MARCUS. Lit.: The Hebrew text was edited by A. Berliner in Otzar Tob ( 1885) 1- 11; a translation is given by Gaster, Moses,  The History of the Destruction of the Round Table, in his Studies and Texts, vol. 2 ( 1925- 28) 942- L., Arthurian Legends ( 1912); idem, in Publications Yiddish Scientific Institute, vol. 1 ( 1926) Erik, Max, Wegn Altyiddishen Roman un 93- 142 ARTICLES OF FAITH, THE THIRTEEN, see CREED; DOGMAS; MAIMONIDES. ARTISANS. Table of Contents: I. Introductory. II. In Ancient Times. III. From the Sixth to the Eighteenth Century. IV. The Nineteenth Century. V. The War and the Post- War Period. VI. Jewish Artisans Organizations. I. Introductory. The term  artisan means a worker who completes by his own efforts an article that represents some degree of art or skill. In this article, however,  artisans is employed in its widest possible sense to include every person who earns a living by manual labor. This use of the term becomes necessary in view of the fact that most of the statistics from abroad deal with such groups, and no figures are available which are limited to what the English word means normally. Barbers, tailors, cobblers and dyers, as well as handlers of food- stuffs, are included in this presentation, because they come under the general classification of manual labor. A survey of the rather scanty information of all periods of Jewish history, especially the more complete statistics of modern times, shows clearly that Jews were not and are not now averse to manual labor. Primarily Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Palestine in the 18th Century


Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
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The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Nazvanie
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Talmud: Mesekhet B'rakhot, in 4 volumes
A Study in the development of the Halakha and Haggadah in the Land of Israel and Babylonia.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


THE CONCILIATOR


My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.