Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTHURIAN LEGENDS ARTISANS into the Temple precincts, is probably a softened ver-sion of the same event; he mentions, moreover, the im-position of a tax of fifty drachmas for every lamb of-fered upon the altar, which sounds more like a punish-ment for a rebellion than for a , murder. Eusebius re-cords in his chronicle, under a slightly erroneous date, that about the time of his campaign against Egypt Ar-taxerxes carried away a number of Jews into exile and settled them in Hyrcania and Babylonia. It has also been conjectured that Judith contains veiled allusions to these events. Artaxerxes was the only Persian sov-ereign who acted harshly toward the Jews; the remem-brance of his severity may explain why the latter so readily yielded to Alexander the Great in 332 B. C. E. Lit.: Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 6 ( 1927) 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia ( 1929) 241- 57; Olmstead, A. T., History of Palestine and Syria ( 1931) 617- 20; Oesterley, W. O. E., and Robinson, Τ. H., History of Israel, vol. 2 ( 1932) 139- 41; The Polychrome Bible, Isaiah, pp. 131, 202, 204. ARTHURIAN LEGENDS IN JEWISH LITER-ATURE. It is one of the curiosities of literature that there is a distinct Hebrew version of the cycle of ro-mances dealing with the well- known half- mythical hero of medieval romance, King Arthur. As early as 1279 an anonymous translation was made, under the title Sefer Hi shamed Ηatabelah Haagulah ( The Book of the Destruction of the Round Table). The translator be-gins with two well- known episodes of the Arthurian legends, the history of Uther Pendragon and the birth of Arthur, and the story of Lancelot of the Lake, the invincible, most chivalrous knight. There are also refer-ences to Merlin the magician, the counsellor of Uther and Arthur, to the quest for the Holy Grail, and to the adventures of Sir Galahad and Sir Perceval. Unfortun-ately, only half of this brief history was copied. This Hebrew version, based on an Italian rendering of an earlier French text, presupposes an entire cycle of Arthurian prose romances, different from and probably more ancient than that of Sir Thomas Malory. The Hebrew translator apologizes in his preface for render-ing such tales of bloodshed, intrigue and unchastity into the sacred tongue, one of his motives being to drive away his melancholy. He also believes that some moral lessons in manners and conduct can be derived from these stories of chivalry. The language is simple and direct; expressions are successfully coined for the gaudy accessories and trappings of the age of chivalry, the pageants of tournaments in mail armor and helmet. The Arthurian legends, as well as other romances and epic poems of chivalry, overcame the barrier of race and faith and enjoyed great popularity in Jewish circles for many centuries. As early as the 14th cent. a Judeo- German adaptation was made of the German Arthur romance Wigalois of Wirnt von Gravenberg, written about 1204 to 1210. A Jewish troubadour adapted this romance, omitting purely Christian motives, dis-pensing with the pathetic lyric moralizing strophes of von Gravenberg, and eliminating elaborate descriptions and lengthy speeches. He composed, in doggerel rhyme, under the title König Artus Hof, a romance compact with lively incidents. Of all ancient epic German poems and tales, none seems to have enjoyed greater popularity than those belonging to the Arthurian cycle. Two other adapta- Jewish tailor and butcher of 18th cent. tions, made in the 15th and 16th centuries, are men-tioned. Several manuscripts are still extant, and eight printed editions in the 17th and 18th centuries are re-corded, one in ottava rima ( eight- line stanzas in iambic pentameter), others in couplets, and one in prose. This Judeo- German Arthur romance bears direct evidence on the existence of Jewish minstrels who shared all the characteristics of their German compeers. Besides its historical and philological value, it is of im-portance for the study of the development of romantic literature in general. JOSEPH MARCUS. Lit.: The Hebrew text was edited by A. Berliner in Otzar Tob ( 1885) 1- 11; a translation is given by Gaster, Moses,  The History of the Destruction of the Round Table, in his Studies and Texts, vol. 2 ( 1925- 28) 942- L., Arthurian Legends ( 1912); idem, in Publications Yiddish Scientific Institute, vol. 1 ( 1926) Erik, Max, Wegn Altyiddishen Roman un 93- 142 ARTICLES OF FAITH, THE THIRTEEN, see CREED; DOGMAS; MAIMONIDES. ARTISANS. Table of Contents: I. Introductory. II. In Ancient Times. III. From the Sixth to the Eighteenth Century. IV. The Nineteenth Century. V. The War and the Post- War Period. VI. Jewish Artisans Organizations. I. Introductory. The term  artisan means a worker who completes by his own efforts an article that represents some degree of art or skill. In this article, however,  artisans is employed in its widest possible sense to include every person who earns a living by manual labor. This use of the term becomes necessary in view of the fact that most of the statistics from abroad deal with such groups, and no figures are available which are limited to what the English word means normally. Barbers, tailors, cobblers and dyers, as well as handlers of food- stuffs, are included in this presentation, because they come under the general classification of manual labor. A survey of the rather scanty information of all periods of Jewish history, especially the more complete statistics of modern times, shows clearly that Jews were not and are not now averse to manual labor. Primarily Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (1825–1894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
sdf

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.