Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTAPANUS ARTAXERXES III OCHUS many prizes for his important work as an etcher, and figures in the American Etchers Series. Louis Lozowick, b. Russia, 1892, is the creator of lithographs which have won him various first prizes. Joseph Margulies, b. Austria, 1896, is, a painter per-haps better known as an etcher, especially of portraits. Abbo Ostrowsky is an artist who has encouraged and guided talent as a Founder and Director of the Educational Alliance Art School. Philip Reisman, Louis C. Rosenberg, and B. J. Rosenmeyer have made their mark, the last- named especially as a lithographer. Ernest David Roth has achieved fame as a delightful etcher. Rudolph Ruzicka, b. Bohemia, 1883, is a lithographer distinguished as an illustrator of books. Howard Simon, wood engraver, completes our record of living American artists of Jewish blood, a record which may well be far from perfect. In tabulating so wide a field, the writer is aware of the probability of omissions, but has at least sought to be generous on the side of inclusions. Artists of the Past Very few important names emerge from among the dead. The most distinguished American Jewish painter of the 19th cent. was Louis Loeb ( b. Cleve-land, 1886; d. 1909), an artist who won many first prizes and medals and whose noble canvas, Temple of the Winds, is in the Metropolitan Museum. Moses Ezekiel ( 1844- 1917) ranks as the most notable sculp-tor, certainly among Southern artists, Richmond, Vir-ginia, having been his birthplace. The finest mural painter was Robert F. Blum ( 1857- 1903), a winner of many medals, whose mural decoration in Mendelssohn Hall, New York, was his masterpiece. Henry Wolf ( 1852- 1916) had a wide reputation as one of the best wood engravers of his time. The names of other ar-tists deserving creditable mention are those of J. C. Adler, the sculptor Max Bachman, Saul Bernstein, Katherine M. Cohen, Harry Cohen, Gustave Henry Mosler, and the more distinguished Henry Mosler, Max Rosenthal and Toby Rosenthal. Yet with the exception of Louis Loeb and Robert Blum, the paint-ers in this group were less important than a far larger number of Jewish painters among the living. If one analyzes the names in the lists recorded above, it will become apparent how considerable a propor-tion— approximately one- third— of those artists were born abroad, the preponderantly greater number in Russia. But while many of those artists have intro-duced or followed the traditions and methods of schools of art in Europe, they have in most instances become so affected, even if unconsciously, by the land of their adoption, that an American school has come into being. Altogether, it can be fairly stated that, while Jews played an insignificant role in the art life of America during the 19th cent., they have developed as a very notable factor in the 20th cent. As for the moot question of  Jewish art, that in our opinion does not offer important opportunities for discussion, being a doubtful subject at best. In modern times, there are, of course, Jewish artists ( such as Rubin, in Palestine) who have devoted their talents to Jewish subjects and Palestinian landscapes. Yet even they, artists who are Jews, have been directly affected by artists who are non- Jews. GEORGE S. HELLMAN. [ 500] ARTAPANUS, Jewish writer who lived in Alex-andria during the 2nd cent. B. C. E. He wrote a Jewish history in which he tried to prove that all nations owe their religious culture and science and arts either to the Jewish patriarchs or to Moses. He declared that Moses is the same as Hermes ( Thoth) of Egyptian lore and Musaeus of the Greek legend; he held that the latter was not the pupil, but the teacher of Orpheus. Lit.: Schürer, Ε., A History of the Jewish People the Time of Jesus Christ, division 1, vol. 1, vol. 3, pp. 198, 206- 8. ARTAXERXES I LONGIMANUS, king of Per-sia from 465 to 425 B. C. E. He is regarded by the majority of scholars as the Artaxerxes ( Artachshasta) mentioned in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. It was to him that the Samaritans wrote giving information that the Judeans were rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, in reply to which Artaxerxes issued an order that the work should be stopped. On the other hand, the mem-oirs of Nehemiah as quoted in the book of that name portray him as a monarch easily moved by the distress of his servant, and accordingly appointing Nehemiah governor of Judea with full power to act. According to Ezra 7, he granted Ezra a princely sum for the res-toration of the Temple. About the middle of Artaxer-xes reign, Megabyzus, the satrap of Syria, revolted against him and for years retained the position of a separate sovereign. It is not known whether this seces-sion had any effect on the fortunes of Judea. Lit.: The Cambridge Ancient History, 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia 173- 92; Olmstcad, A. T., History of Palestine and ( 1931) 583- 94; Graetz, H., History of the Jews, ( 1927) 366, 371- 74, 383 · ARTAXERXES II MNEMON, king of Persia from 405 to 359 B. C. E. During his reign there were a number of wars and revolts in the countries near Pales-tine. Egypt successfully maintained its independence. Evagoras of Salamis built up an independent kingdom in Asia Minor and Syria ( about 390- 380 B. C. E.), and received support from an  Arabian king, probably either an Idumean or a Nabatean monarch. About 360 B. C. E. there was a general revolt of the western prov-inces, including Syria and Phoenicia. These events may have had repercussions in Palestine, but there are no details available as to the Jewish history of the period and no definite indications in Biblical literature. Lit.: The Cambridge Ancient History, 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia 202- 40; Olmstead, A. T., History of Palestine and ( 1931) 612- 17. ARTAXERXES III OCHUS, king of Persia from 359 to 338 B. C. E. The early part of his reign was taken up with sanguinary campaigns to restore to the Persian empire those countries adjacent to Palestine which had revolted under Artaxerxes II. The Phoeni-cian cities were reduced in 350 B. C. E., a rebellion of Sidon was crushed in 345- 344, and Egypt was recon-quered in 343- 342. During this period there seems to have been a revolt in Judea which was quickly sup-pressed; Isa. 63: 18, which laments that enemies had  trodden down the sanctuary, appears to refer to this occurrence. Josephus story ( Antiquities, book 11, chap. 7, section 1) of a high priestly fratricide and of how Bagoas ( Bagoses), the Persian general, forced his way THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

Тора (Torah: the New Russian Translation)
Новый перевод Торы на русский язык является результатом двадцатипятилетнего труда коллектива, в который вошли ряд самых выдающихся ученых-библеистов России, США и Израиля.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Mishnayoth


History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Nazvanie
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.