Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARTAPANUS ARTAXERXES III OCHUS many prizes for his important work as an etcher, and figures in the American Etchers Series. Louis Lozowick, b. Russia, 1892, is the creator of lithographs which have won him various first prizes. Joseph Margulies, b. Austria, 1896, is, a painter per-haps better known as an etcher, especially of portraits. Abbo Ostrowsky is an artist who has encouraged and guided talent as a Founder and Director of the Educational Alliance Art School. Philip Reisman, Louis C. Rosenberg, and B. J. Rosenmeyer have made their mark, the last- named especially as a lithographer. Ernest David Roth has achieved fame as a delightful etcher. Rudolph Ruzicka, b. Bohemia, 1883, is a lithographer distinguished as an illustrator of books. Howard Simon, wood engraver, completes our record of living American artists of Jewish blood, a record which may well be far from perfect. In tabulating so wide a field, the writer is aware of the probability of omissions, but has at least sought to be generous on the side of inclusions. Artists of the Past Very few important names emerge from among the dead. The most distinguished American Jewish painter of the 19th cent. was Louis Loeb ( b. Cleve-land, 1886; d. 1909), an artist who won many first prizes and medals and whose noble canvas, Temple of the Winds, is in the Metropolitan Museum. Moses Ezekiel ( 1844- 1917) ranks as the most notable sculp-tor, certainly among Southern artists, Richmond, Vir-ginia, having been his birthplace. The finest mural painter was Robert F. Blum ( 1857- 1903), a winner of many medals, whose mural decoration in Mendelssohn Hall, New York, was his masterpiece. Henry Wolf ( 1852- 1916) had a wide reputation as one of the best wood engravers of his time. The names of other ar-tists deserving creditable mention are those of J. C. Adler, the sculptor Max Bachman, Saul Bernstein, Katherine M. Cohen, Harry Cohen, Gustave Henry Mosler, and the more distinguished Henry Mosler, Max Rosenthal and Toby Rosenthal. Yet with the exception of Louis Loeb and Robert Blum, the paint-ers in this group were less important than a far larger number of Jewish painters among the living. If one analyzes the names in the lists recorded above, it will become apparent how considerable a propor-tion— approximately one- third— of those artists were born abroad, the preponderantly greater number in Russia. But while many of those artists have intro-duced or followed the traditions and methods of schools of art in Europe, they have in most instances become so affected, even if unconsciously, by the land of their adoption, that an American school has come into being. Altogether, it can be fairly stated that, while Jews played an insignificant role in the art life of America during the 19th cent., they have developed as a very notable factor in the 20th cent. As for the moot question of  Jewish art, that in our opinion does not offer important opportunities for discussion, being a doubtful subject at best. In modern times, there are, of course, Jewish artists ( such as Rubin, in Palestine) who have devoted their talents to Jewish subjects and Palestinian landscapes. Yet even they, artists who are Jews, have been directly affected by artists who are non- Jews. GEORGE S. HELLMAN. [ 500] ARTAPANUS, Jewish writer who lived in Alex-andria during the 2nd cent. B. C. E. He wrote a Jewish history in which he tried to prove that all nations owe their religious culture and science and arts either to the Jewish patriarchs or to Moses. He declared that Moses is the same as Hermes ( Thoth) of Egyptian lore and Musaeus of the Greek legend; he held that the latter was not the pupil, but the teacher of Orpheus. Lit.: Schürer, Ε., A History of the Jewish People the Time of Jesus Christ, division 1, vol. 1, vol. 3, pp. 198, 206- 8. ARTAXERXES I LONGIMANUS, king of Per-sia from 465 to 425 B. C. E. He is regarded by the majority of scholars as the Artaxerxes ( Artachshasta) mentioned in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. It was to him that the Samaritans wrote giving information that the Judeans were rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, in reply to which Artaxerxes issued an order that the work should be stopped. On the other hand, the mem-oirs of Nehemiah as quoted in the book of that name portray him as a monarch easily moved by the distress of his servant, and accordingly appointing Nehemiah governor of Judea with full power to act. According to Ezra 7, he granted Ezra a princely sum for the res-toration of the Temple. About the middle of Artaxer-xes reign, Megabyzus, the satrap of Syria, revolted against him and for years retained the position of a separate sovereign. It is not known whether this seces-sion had any effect on the fortunes of Judea. Lit.: The Cambridge Ancient History, 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia 173- 92; Olmstcad, A. T., History of Palestine and ( 1931) 583- 94; Graetz, H., History of the Jews, ( 1927) 366, 371- 74, 383 · ARTAXERXES II MNEMON, king of Persia from 405 to 359 B. C. E. During his reign there were a number of wars and revolts in the countries near Pales-tine. Egypt successfully maintained its independence. Evagoras of Salamis built up an independent kingdom in Asia Minor and Syria ( about 390- 380 B. C. E.), and received support from an  Arabian king, probably either an Idumean or a Nabatean monarch. About 360 B. C. E. there was a general revolt of the western prov-inces, including Syria and Phoenicia. These events may have had repercussions in Palestine, but there are no details available as to the Jewish history of the period and no definite indications in Biblical literature. Lit.: The Cambridge Ancient History, 168- 99; Rogers, R. W., History of Ancient Persia 202- 40; Olmstead, A. T., History of Palestine and ( 1931) 612- 17. ARTAXERXES III OCHUS, king of Persia from 359 to 338 B. C. E. The early part of his reign was taken up with sanguinary campaigns to restore to the Persian empire those countries adjacent to Palestine which had revolted under Artaxerxes II. The Phoeni-cian cities were reduced in 350 B. C. E., a rebellion of Sidon was crushed in 345- 344, and Egypt was recon-quered in 343- 342. During this period there seems to have been a revolt in Judea which was quickly sup-pressed; Isa. 63: 18, which laments that enemies had  trodden down the sanctuary, appears to refer to this occurrence. Josephus story ( Antiquities, book 11, chap. 7, section 1) of a high priestly fratricide and of how Bagoas ( Bagoses), the Persian general, forced his way THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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