Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 493] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ART JEWS IN The superb craftsmanship of Samuel Yellin, American gates of the Harkness Memorial monly followed by Jews, a number of whom served the various Courts in this capacity. Among the best-known may be mentioned Michael Samuel, Jehiel Michel, Michel Abraham, and Joseph Abraham. As may be seen from, this list, the profession was followed especially in a few families, being transmitted from father to son, whence the surname Chosem-schreiber, found at this period. It is not to be imagined, that this development met with no opposition. Haham Zebi Ashkenazi strongly objected to sitting for his portrait, though one was painted without his knowledge; his son, Jacob Emden, censured the strik-ing of a medal— two- dimensional, and thus more ob-jectionable than a one- dimensional painting or engrav-ing— in honour of the appointment of Eliezer of Brody as rabbi of Amsterdam in 1735. Certain Polish Jewish pietists visiting Italy secured removal of the statue of Moses which had long adorned a well- head in the Sienese Ghetto. Besides the visual arts in their ordinary sense, there were certain categories, of Jewish ritual application, for synagogal or domestic use, for which the services of non- Jews as well as of Jews were sometimes enlisted. Illuminations were employed ( even after the inven-tion of printing) for the Haggadah for Passover eve, the Scroll of Esther, and the Marriage Contract. Em-broidered curtains were hung before the Ark, and mantles placed upon the Scroll of the Law. The latter were provided, too, with silver finíals ( crowns), pointers, and breastplates. In the home, there were used Hanukah lamps, sometimes exquisitely made, of silver, copper, pewter, or bronze, as well as Sabbath lamps, spice- boxes, Passover plates and goblets. The tombstones all over Europe were often exqui-sitely carved, while in Amsterdam and Hamburg they would often bear representations of Biblical scenes. The synagogues, whether in Spain, Italy, or Germany, invariably bore the traces of the environment in which they were constructed, and can be ascribed to Jewish architects and workmen only in a minority of cases. An independent Jewish synagogal artistic tradition, in the fullest sense of the word, may be traced only in Russia and Poland— particularly in the wooden syna-metal worker, is exemplified in the Quadrangle, Yale University gogues, with archaic frescoes adorning the interiors. With the 19th cent., when Jews began to enter every field of endeavor, art was not excluded. In every country ( see article following this for America), Jew-ish artists made names for themselves. Those of prime rank are treated in separate biographical sketches. Following is a classified listing of the best known among those prominent during the 19th and 20th cen-turies: Painters: Anna Abrahams, Jakob Adler, Jules Adler, Isaac Lwowitsch Asknazy, Raphael Bachi, Leo Bakst, Charles Antoine Henri Baron, Arpad Bäsch, Gyula Bäsch, Emanuel S. van Beever, Eduard J. F. Bende-mann, Rudolf C. E. Bendemann, Charlotte Berend, David Bles, Karl Blosz, Julius Bodenstein, Gustave Böhm, David Bomberg, Rosa Bonheur, Eva Bonnier, Felix and Hans Borchardt, Jacob Émile Edouard, Lajos Bruck, Joseph Budko, Maurits Calisch, Marc Chagall, Abraham Cooper, Ezechiel Davidson, Julius Ehrentraut, Julius Feld, Wilhelm Feldman, Adolf Fényes, Benjamin Eugen Fichel, Adolf Franck, Fried-rich Friedländer, Julius Friedlaender, Robert Genin, Mark Gertler, Grigory Gluckmann, Bruno Gold- Schmitt, August I. Grosz, Isaac Hirsch Grünewald, Oskar Haberer, Marie Henriques, Hans Herrman, A specimen of the art in the Sarajevo the Akedah Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.