Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARNHEΜ ARNOLD, MATTHEW rabbi of the Beth Hamidrash in Glogau; this position he held until 1860. Arnheim was an excellent Hebrew stylist; he wrote a Hebrew grammar and numerous articles. Lit.: Rosin, David,  Die Zunzschc Bibel, in Monats-schrift für die Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums ( 1894) 508; Fünn, S. J., Keneseth Yisrael ( 1886- 90) 156. ARNHEM, capital of the province of Geldern, Hol-land, situated on the right bank of the Rhine. The earliest allusion to the Jews of Arnhem is made in 1348, the year of the Black Death. About the middle of the 15th cent. a Jew was appointed municipal physi-cian. In 1450, on Ash Wednesday, it is reported that a Jew was baptized. In the years immediately following, oppressive restrictions were imposed on the Jews: they were ordered to wear the yellow badge and to place a similar mark on their meats; they were forbidden to take interest, or to make any loans at all to Christians. For about a hundred years nothing is heard of them; the oppression of the rulers probably drove them out of Holland. Then in 1663 there is record of a decree that the Jews of Arnhem be entirely excluded from the meat industry. In 1737, however, they were granted substan-tial political and civil rights, and in 1755 were allotted a tract of 4,000 square feet for a cemetery. Ten years later a synagogue with an approved constitution was officially incorporated. Since about 1898 the Jewish population of the city, numbering approximately 1,400 out of a total population of 84,000, has remained prac-tically stationary. The meat trade and retail dry goods trade engage a large part of the community. An out-standing Jewish personality of the 19th cent, in Arnhem was Israel Waterman, leader of the Reform Movement among the Dutch Jews. ARNHOLD, EDUARD, industrialist, b. Dessau, Germany, 1849; d. Berlin, 1925. Through his manage-ment of the well- known coal firm of Caesar Wollheim, Arnhold controlled a considerable portion of the Upper Silesian mining industry, of which he organized the coal output. In addition, he wielded great power in the ma-chinery and chemical industries, and was considered a specialist in transportation. His cooperation on the central committee of the Reichsbank, in the Berlin chamber of commerce, in the imperial economic coun-cil, and in the administrative council of the German railroad association served the public interests. The German government consulted him repeatedly as an economic expert. Even in imperial Germany he was appointed a member of the Prussian House of Lords and an honorary member of the academy of arts in Berlin. His private collection of paintings was admired as one of the most important private galleries in the entire world of art. Lit.: Arnhold, Eduard, ein Gedenkbuch ( privately printed, 1928); Degener, Wer ists ( 1928). ARNHOLD, GEORG, banker and consul, brother of Eduard, b. Dessau, Germany, 1859; d. Dresden, Germany, 1926. He was the senior partner of the old-established banking firm of Arnhold Bros, in Dresden ( this was merged with the Dresden Bank in 1938). He performed great services in behalf of the economic life of Saxony, and various brewery and china interests were united under his control. He was active also in social welfare work, having established in Dresden the THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 484] central peoples kitchens and a swimming- pool. Arn-hold, who was one of the first pacifists, joined a peace society as early as the end of the 19th cent. and gave it his energetic support. ARNOLD, MATTHEW ( 1822- 88), son of the famous headmaster of Rugby ( Dr. Thomas Arnold), poet, critic of letters and religion, and Η. M. layman inspector of schools for the Education Department, from 1851 to 1886, for the Westminster district of London. In this latter capacity he inspected the Jew-ish schools. At the May, 1884, banquet of the Jews Free School, as one of the speakers, he took occasion to praise the educational standard of the Jewish schools and to point out the cultural value of the study of the Hebrew language in any scheme of secular education. His friendship with the Rothschilds and the Monte-fiores, particularly Lady Rothschild ( nee Louisa Montefiore), niece of Sir Moses Montefiore and wife of Sir Anthony de Rothschild, and through them with the intellectual elite of London Jewry, began in the early days of Sir Anthonys presidency of the Jews Free School and continued , during the entire incum-bency of his educational post. Arnolds correspondence with Lady Rothschild during the years 1863 to 1874, almost as great in number as to any of his immediate family, is published in his Letters. The chief Jewish interest of Arnold consists in the fact that he put into circulation a certain number of new and striking ideas and expressions about the role of Israel in the worlds cultural history. Besides, he did this in unforgettable, almost lyrical prose, and in new words and phrases, in the coining of which he was a master. That which Israel stood for in history he termed Hebraism. As applied by him, Hebraism is that mode of human thought and action of which the an-cient Hebrew is taken as the type; the moral, as op-posed to the intellectual, theory of life ( see his  He-braism and Hellenism in Culture and Anarchy, Lon-don, 1869).  The uppermost idea with Hellenism is to see things as they are; the uppermost idea with He-braism is conduct and obedience. . . . The Jew stood for the beauty of holiness; the Greek for the holiness of beauty. . . . The governing idea of Hellenism is spontaneity of conscience; that of Hebraism, strictness of conscience. In his Literature and Dogma ( London, 1873) his God and the Bible ( London, 1875) he continued this interpretation, positing the following propositions: 1. No people ever stressed as strongly as did Israel that conduct is all- important, in an age when none of its contemporaries was concerned with it; 2. Israel uniquely conceived God not as a person but as an  Eternal power, not ourselves, which makes for right-eousness; he further maintained that the English nation is so constituted that it can be brought to a more philosophical conception of religion through Ju-daism and its phenomena rather than through Hellen-ism, and that Puritanism is Hebraism in action, which came about as a protest against the  unrighteous con-duct of the pre- Cromwellian era. His enthusiasm for the Bible as literature and as a guide to right  conduct led him to edit the two portions of the book Isaiah, with prefaces and notes. He did this in A Bible Read-ing: for Schools; the Great Prophecy Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.


Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

The Sephardi Legacy II

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.


The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.