Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 483] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARMILUS ARNHEIM, HEYMANN sect established by Musa al- Zafarani at Tiflis. Musa, known also by the name of Abu- Imran of Tiflis, was born in Baghdad in the 9th cent., but settled in Tiflis. His followers lived at the time of Kirkisani, in 937, and were scattered over all Armenia under the name of Tiflisites. Benjamin of Tudela, about 1170, and Petha-hiah of Regensburg in 1174 found many Jewish com-munities in Armenia. Between the 12th and the 19th centuries the Jews seem to have taken a part in all the vicissitudes of the country. Since 1921 the greatest part of Armenia together with the bordering, formerly Turkish, provinces has formed a Soviet republic within Transcaucasia, which in 1920 numbered a Jewish population of about 2,000. Since the Armenians are considered descendants of the Amalekites, they are called among the Jews of the Orient also Timheh ( Thou shalt blot out, Deut. 25: 19, referring to the Amalekites). ISAAK MARKON. Lit.:  Faustus de Bysance, in Langlois, Victor, Collec-tion des historiens anciens et modernes de lArmenie ( 1867- 69) vol. 1, p. 247; Schürer, Ε., Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, vol. 3 ( 3rd ed.) 7- 9; Harkavy, Α. E., Hayehudim Usefath Haselavim ( 1867) 105- 9; Adler, Ε. N., Jews in Many Lands ( 1905) 177- 85. ARMILUS, representative of Roman power and arch- enemy of the Jews, who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah and will be vanquished by him only after he has brought much distress upon Israel. This legend arose in later Jewish eschatology, in the Gaonic- Arabian period ( 600- 1000). The first reference to the term is found in the Targum to Isa. 11: 4, where it is said that the Messiah will slay  Armi-lus, the wicked; but the mention of Armilus here, as well as of Armalgos in Targum Yerushalmi to Deut. 34: 3, is probably a later interpolation. The Apocalypse of Elijah, a work whose final redac-tion dates from the 8th cent., declares that the Messiah will come in the reign of the last king of Persia. The name of this last king is debated by the rabbis. Saadia ( 882- 942), in his Emunoth Vedeoth ( 8: 6), speaks of an Armilus, king of Edom ( Rome), who will arise and defeat the Messiah ben Joseph, after the latter has wrested Jerusalem from the Christians, but will in turn be defeated by the Messiah ben David. This is the opinion also of Hai Gaon ( d. 1038), who states that the wars with Armilus will precede the final struggle with the hosts of Gog. In the Midrash Vayosha Armi-lus is represented as the successor of Gog. He is de-scribed as a human monstrosity, bald- headed, with one large and one small eye, with leprosy on his forehead, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, but with an abnormally long left arm. A similar descrip-tion is found in the Νistaroth de Rabbi Shimeon ben Yohai, the latest redaction of which can not antedate the First Crusade ( 1096). Still other accounts repre-sent Armilus as having been engendered by evil men, or by Satan himself, from the marble statue of a beautiful girl which was set up in Rome. In these prophecies Armilus represents himself as Messiah or as God, is ac-cepted by the heathens as such, and only Israel refuses to acknowledge him. He therefore bitterly persecutes the Jews and slays the Ephraimite Messiah, but suc-cumbs to the Messiah of the house of David. There-upon follow the rebuilding of the New Jerusalem, the resurrection and the return of the Ten Lost Tribes. The derivation of the name Armilus is uncertain. It may be a corruption of Ahriman ( Angro- Mainyus), the Persian deity of evil who wages war upon Ahura- Mazda ( Ormuzd), the good deity; or of Romulus, the legendary founder and first king of Rome. See also ANTI- MESSIAH. ABBA FIILLEL SILVER. Lit.: Bousset, W., The Antichrist Legend, A. H. Keane ( 1896) 105- 11; Silver, Α. H., A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel ( 1927) J. D., Otzar Midrashim ( 1915) 386 et seq.; Kohut, Aruch Hashalem, vol. 1 ( 1926) 291- 92. ARMIN, EMIL, painter and woodcarver, b. Rad-auti, Roumania, 1883. He received his first formal training at Czernowitz, came to the United States in 1905, and graduated from the Chicago Art Institute in 1920. He is an art teacher in the schools conducted by the Chicago Board of Jewish Education, and his work has been displayed at numerous exhibitions and is rep-resented in the permanent collections of the Chicago public schools. He is a post- impressionist. Lit.: Jacobsohn, J. Z., Thirty- five Saints Armin ( 1933); Bregstone, P., Chicago and Its 403 · ARMLEDER, organized bands of peasants and rabble in Alsace who waged a systematic campaign of murder and robbery of the Jews from 1336 to 1338. Their name came from the piece of leather which they wound around their arms as a badge, and their leader was known as the  King of the Armleder. The perse-cutions inaugurated by these bands extended from Alsace and the Rhine country to the furthermost parts of Swabia, Austria and Styria, and led to much blood-shed and the annihilation of many Jewish communities, the names of which are recorded in the Nuremberg memoir book. The emperor, Louis of Bavaria, refused to aid the Jews, but finally sent troops when the Arm-leder bands ventured to attack the town of Colmar in Alsace. The hordes fled to France, where they were re-sisted by the local authorities, and in 1339 a knight, Rudolph of Andlau, made an agreement with the  King of the Armleder, granting him an amnesty on condi-tion that he would refrain from assailing the Jews. Lit.: Salfeld, S., Das Martyrologium des Memorbuches ( 1898) 236- 42; Scheid, Elie, Histoire Juifs dAlsace ( 1887) 23- 33; Graetz, H., History Jews, vol. 4, pp. 97- 98. ARMS AND ARMOR, see WAR. ARMY, see WAR. ARNHEIM, HEYMANN, rabbi and author, b. Wongrowitz ( now Poland), 1796; d. Glogau, Ger-many, 1865. In 1824 he was called to Fraustadt as a teacher, and in 1827 to the community school in Glo-gau. He published Leitfaden beim Unterricht mosaischen Religion ( 1830), and in 1836 a transalation of and commentary on Job. This work attracted the attention of scholars, and Zunz even entrusted him with a considerable part of the work in his translation of the Bible. In 1840 Arnheim was appointed preacher and superintendent of the school in Glogau, and there he delivered the first sermon in German. He then pub-lished editions of the Pentateuch, the prayer- book and the poetic sections ( Piyutim) for the special Sabbaths, together with his own translations. In 1849 he became Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

Luah Hashanah 5780


A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Nazvanie
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Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Palestine in the 18th Century


The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

Mishnayoth


Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.