Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 483] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARMILUS ARNHEIM, HEYMANN sect established by Musa al- Zafarani at Tiflis. Musa, known also by the name of Abu- Imran of Tiflis, was born in Baghdad in the 9th cent., but settled in Tiflis. His followers lived at the time of Kirkisani, in 937, and were scattered over all Armenia under the name of Tiflisites. Benjamin of Tudela, about 1170, and Petha-hiah of Regensburg in 1174 found many Jewish com-munities in Armenia. Between the 12th and the 19th centuries the Jews seem to have taken a part in all the vicissitudes of the country. Since 1921 the greatest part of Armenia together with the bordering, formerly Turkish, provinces has formed a Soviet republic within Transcaucasia, which in 1920 numbered a Jewish population of about 2,000. Since the Armenians are considered descendants of the Amalekites, they are called among the Jews of the Orient also Timheh ( Thou shalt blot out, Deut. 25: 19, referring to the Amalekites). ISAAK MARKON. Lit.:  Faustus de Bysance, in Langlois, Victor, Collec-tion des historiens anciens et modernes de lArmenie ( 1867- 69) vol. 1, p. 247; Schürer, Ε., Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, vol. 3 ( 3rd ed.) 7- 9; Harkavy, Α. E., Hayehudim Usefath Haselavim ( 1867) 105- 9; Adler, Ε. N., Jews in Many Lands ( 1905) 177- 85. ARMILUS, representative of Roman power and arch- enemy of the Jews, who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah and will be vanquished by him only after he has brought much distress upon Israel. This legend arose in later Jewish eschatology, in the Gaonic- Arabian period ( 600- 1000). The first reference to the term is found in the Targum to Isa. 11: 4, where it is said that the Messiah will slay  Armi-lus, the wicked; but the mention of Armilus here, as well as of Armalgos in Targum Yerushalmi to Deut. 34: 3, is probably a later interpolation. The Apocalypse of Elijah, a work whose final redac-tion dates from the 8th cent., declares that the Messiah will come in the reign of the last king of Persia. The name of this last king is debated by the rabbis. Saadia ( 882- 942), in his Emunoth Vedeoth ( 8: 6), speaks of an Armilus, king of Edom ( Rome), who will arise and defeat the Messiah ben Joseph, after the latter has wrested Jerusalem from the Christians, but will in turn be defeated by the Messiah ben David. This is the opinion also of Hai Gaon ( d. 1038), who states that the wars with Armilus will precede the final struggle with the hosts of Gog. In the Midrash Vayosha Armi-lus is represented as the successor of Gog. He is de-scribed as a human monstrosity, bald- headed, with one large and one small eye, with leprosy on his forehead, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, but with an abnormally long left arm. A similar descrip-tion is found in the Νistaroth de Rabbi Shimeon ben Yohai, the latest redaction of which can not antedate the First Crusade ( 1096). Still other accounts repre-sent Armilus as having been engendered by evil men, or by Satan himself, from the marble statue of a beautiful girl which was set up in Rome. In these prophecies Armilus represents himself as Messiah or as God, is ac-cepted by the heathens as such, and only Israel refuses to acknowledge him. He therefore bitterly persecutes the Jews and slays the Ephraimite Messiah, but suc-cumbs to the Messiah of the house of David. There-upon follow the rebuilding of the New Jerusalem, the resurrection and the return of the Ten Lost Tribes. The derivation of the name Armilus is uncertain. It may be a corruption of Ahriman ( Angro- Mainyus), the Persian deity of evil who wages war upon Ahura- Mazda ( Ormuzd), the good deity; or of Romulus, the legendary founder and first king of Rome. See also ANTI- MESSIAH. ABBA FIILLEL SILVER. Lit.: Bousset, W., The Antichrist Legend, A. H. Keane ( 1896) 105- 11; Silver, Α. H., A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel ( 1927) J. D., Otzar Midrashim ( 1915) 386 et seq.; Kohut, Aruch Hashalem, vol. 1 ( 1926) 291- 92. ARMIN, EMIL, painter and woodcarver, b. Rad-auti, Roumania, 1883. He received his first formal training at Czernowitz, came to the United States in 1905, and graduated from the Chicago Art Institute in 1920. He is an art teacher in the schools conducted by the Chicago Board of Jewish Education, and his work has been displayed at numerous exhibitions and is rep-resented in the permanent collections of the Chicago public schools. He is a post- impressionist. Lit.: Jacobsohn, J. Z., Thirty- five Saints Armin ( 1933); Bregstone, P., Chicago and Its 403 · ARMLEDER, organized bands of peasants and rabble in Alsace who waged a systematic campaign of murder and robbery of the Jews from 1336 to 1338. Their name came from the piece of leather which they wound around their arms as a badge, and their leader was known as the  King of the Armleder. The perse-cutions inaugurated by these bands extended from Alsace and the Rhine country to the furthermost parts of Swabia, Austria and Styria, and led to much blood-shed and the annihilation of many Jewish communities, the names of which are recorded in the Nuremberg memoir book. The emperor, Louis of Bavaria, refused to aid the Jews, but finally sent troops when the Arm-leder bands ventured to attack the town of Colmar in Alsace. The hordes fled to France, where they were re-sisted by the local authorities, and in 1339 a knight, Rudolph of Andlau, made an agreement with the  King of the Armleder, granting him an amnesty on condi-tion that he would refrain from assailing the Jews. Lit.: Salfeld, S., Das Martyrologium des Memorbuches ( 1898) 236- 42; Scheid, Elie, Histoire Juifs dAlsace ( 1887) 23- 33; Graetz, H., History Jews, vol. 4, pp. 97- 98. ARMS AND ARMOR, see WAR. ARMY, see WAR. ARNHEIM, HEYMANN, rabbi and author, b. Wongrowitz ( now Poland), 1796; d. Glogau, Ger-many, 1865. In 1824 he was called to Fraustadt as a teacher, and in 1827 to the community school in Glo-gau. He published Leitfaden beim Unterricht mosaischen Religion ( 1830), and in 1836 a transalation of and commentary on Job. This work attracted the attention of scholars, and Zunz even entrusted him with a considerable part of the work in his translation of the Bible. In 1840 Arnheim was appointed preacher and superintendent of the school in Glogau, and there he delivered the first sermon in German. He then pub-lished editions of the Pentateuch, the prayer- book and the poetic sections ( Piyutim) for the special Sabbaths, together with his own translations. In 1849 he became Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

Mishnayoth


The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

The Conversos of Majorca. Hispania Judaica, v. 5
Life and death in a crypto-Jewish community of Conversos of XVII century Majorca.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Sephardi Legacy II


Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.