Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 483] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARMILUS ARNHEIM, HEYMANN sect established by Musa al- Zafarani at Tiflis. Musa, known also by the name of Abu- Imran of Tiflis, was born in Baghdad in the 9th cent., but settled in Tiflis. His followers lived at the time of Kirkisani, in 937, and were scattered over all Armenia under the name of Tiflisites. Benjamin of Tudela, about 1170, and Petha-hiah of Regensburg in 1174 found many Jewish com-munities in Armenia. Between the 12th and the 19th centuries the Jews seem to have taken a part in all the vicissitudes of the country. Since 1921 the greatest part of Armenia together with the bordering, formerly Turkish, provinces has formed a Soviet republic within Transcaucasia, which in 1920 numbered a Jewish population of about 2,000. Since the Armenians are considered descendants of the Amalekites, they are called among the Jews of the Orient also Timheh ( Thou shalt blot out, Deut. 25: 19, referring to the Amalekites). ISAAK MARKON. Lit.:  Faustus de Bysance, in Langlois, Victor, Collec-tion des historiens anciens et modernes de lArmenie ( 1867- 69) vol. 1, p. 247; Schürer, Ε., Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, vol. 3 ( 3rd ed.) 7- 9; Harkavy, Α. E., Hayehudim Usefath Haselavim ( 1867) 105- 9; Adler, Ε. N., Jews in Many Lands ( 1905) 177- 85. ARMILUS, representative of Roman power and arch- enemy of the Jews, who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah and will be vanquished by him only after he has brought much distress upon Israel. This legend arose in later Jewish eschatology, in the Gaonic- Arabian period ( 600- 1000). The first reference to the term is found in the Targum to Isa. 11: 4, where it is said that the Messiah will slay  Armi-lus, the wicked; but the mention of Armilus here, as well as of Armalgos in Targum Yerushalmi to Deut. 34: 3, is probably a later interpolation. The Apocalypse of Elijah, a work whose final redac-tion dates from the 8th cent., declares that the Messiah will come in the reign of the last king of Persia. The name of this last king is debated by the rabbis. Saadia ( 882- 942), in his Emunoth Vedeoth ( 8: 6), speaks of an Armilus, king of Edom ( Rome), who will arise and defeat the Messiah ben Joseph, after the latter has wrested Jerusalem from the Christians, but will in turn be defeated by the Messiah ben David. This is the opinion also of Hai Gaon ( d. 1038), who states that the wars with Armilus will precede the final struggle with the hosts of Gog. In the Midrash Vayosha Armi-lus is represented as the successor of Gog. He is de-scribed as a human monstrosity, bald- headed, with one large and one small eye, with leprosy on his forehead, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, but with an abnormally long left arm. A similar descrip-tion is found in the Νistaroth de Rabbi Shimeon ben Yohai, the latest redaction of which can not antedate the First Crusade ( 1096). Still other accounts repre-sent Armilus as having been engendered by evil men, or by Satan himself, from the marble statue of a beautiful girl which was set up in Rome. In these prophecies Armilus represents himself as Messiah or as God, is ac-cepted by the heathens as such, and only Israel refuses to acknowledge him. He therefore bitterly persecutes the Jews and slays the Ephraimite Messiah, but suc-cumbs to the Messiah of the house of David. There-upon follow the rebuilding of the New Jerusalem, the resurrection and the return of the Ten Lost Tribes. The derivation of the name Armilus is uncertain. It may be a corruption of Ahriman ( Angro- Mainyus), the Persian deity of evil who wages war upon Ahura- Mazda ( Ormuzd), the good deity; or of Romulus, the legendary founder and first king of Rome. See also ANTI- MESSIAH. ABBA FIILLEL SILVER. Lit.: Bousset, W., The Antichrist Legend, A. H. Keane ( 1896) 105- 11; Silver, Α. H., A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel ( 1927) J. D., Otzar Midrashim ( 1915) 386 et seq.; Kohut, Aruch Hashalem, vol. 1 ( 1926) 291- 92. ARMIN, EMIL, painter and woodcarver, b. Rad-auti, Roumania, 1883. He received his first formal training at Czernowitz, came to the United States in 1905, and graduated from the Chicago Art Institute in 1920. He is an art teacher in the schools conducted by the Chicago Board of Jewish Education, and his work has been displayed at numerous exhibitions and is rep-resented in the permanent collections of the Chicago public schools. He is a post- impressionist. Lit.: Jacobsohn, J. Z., Thirty- five Saints Armin ( 1933); Bregstone, P., Chicago and Its 403 · ARMLEDER, organized bands of peasants and rabble in Alsace who waged a systematic campaign of murder and robbery of the Jews from 1336 to 1338. Their name came from the piece of leather which they wound around their arms as a badge, and their leader was known as the  King of the Armleder. The perse-cutions inaugurated by these bands extended from Alsace and the Rhine country to the furthermost parts of Swabia, Austria and Styria, and led to much blood-shed and the annihilation of many Jewish communities, the names of which are recorded in the Nuremberg memoir book. The emperor, Louis of Bavaria, refused to aid the Jews, but finally sent troops when the Arm-leder bands ventured to attack the town of Colmar in Alsace. The hordes fled to France, where they were re-sisted by the local authorities, and in 1339 a knight, Rudolph of Andlau, made an agreement with the  King of the Armleder, granting him an amnesty on condi-tion that he would refrain from assailing the Jews. Lit.: Salfeld, S., Das Martyrologium des Memorbuches ( 1898) 236- 42; Scheid, Elie, Histoire Juifs dAlsace ( 1887) 23- 33; Graetz, H., History Jews, vol. 4, pp. 97- 98. ARMS AND ARMOR, see WAR. ARMY, see WAR. ARNHEIM, HEYMANN, rabbi and author, b. Wongrowitz ( now Poland), 1796; d. Glogau, Ger-many, 1865. In 1824 he was called to Fraustadt as a teacher, and in 1827 to the community school in Glo-gau. He published Leitfaden beim Unterricht mosaischen Religion ( 1830), and in 1836 a transalation of and commentary on Job. This work attracted the attention of scholars, and Zunz even entrusted him with a considerable part of the work in his translation of the Bible. In 1840 Arnheim was appointed preacher and superintendent of the school in Glogau, and there he delivered the first sermon in German. He then pub-lished editions of the Pentateuch, the prayer- book and the poetic sections ( Piyutim) for the special Sabbaths, together with his own translations. In 1849 he became Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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