Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 483] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARMILUS ARNHEIM, HEYMANN sect established by Musa al- Zafarani at Tiflis. Musa, known also by the name of Abu- Imran of Tiflis, was born in Baghdad in the 9th cent., but settled in Tiflis. His followers lived at the time of Kirkisani, in 937, and were scattered over all Armenia under the name of Tiflisites. Benjamin of Tudela, about 1170, and Petha-hiah of Regensburg in 1174 found many Jewish com-munities in Armenia. Between the 12th and the 19th centuries the Jews seem to have taken a part in all the vicissitudes of the country. Since 1921 the greatest part of Armenia together with the bordering, formerly Turkish, provinces has formed a Soviet republic within Transcaucasia, which in 1920 numbered a Jewish population of about 2,000. Since the Armenians are considered descendants of the Amalekites, they are called among the Jews of the Orient also Timheh ( Thou shalt blot out, Deut. 25: 19, referring to the Amalekites). ISAAK MARKON. Lit.:  Faustus de Bysance, in Langlois, Victor, Collec-tion des historiens anciens et modernes de lArmenie ( 1867- 69) vol. 1, p. 247; Schürer, Ε., Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, vol. 3 ( 3rd ed.) 7- 9; Harkavy, Α. E., Hayehudim Usefath Haselavim ( 1867) 105- 9; Adler, Ε. N., Jews in Many Lands ( 1905) 177- 85. ARMILUS, representative of Roman power and arch- enemy of the Jews, who will arise at the end of time against the Messiah and will be vanquished by him only after he has brought much distress upon Israel. This legend arose in later Jewish eschatology, in the Gaonic- Arabian period ( 600- 1000). The first reference to the term is found in the Targum to Isa. 11: 4, where it is said that the Messiah will slay  Armi-lus, the wicked; but the mention of Armilus here, as well as of Armalgos in Targum Yerushalmi to Deut. 34: 3, is probably a later interpolation. The Apocalypse of Elijah, a work whose final redac-tion dates from the 8th cent., declares that the Messiah will come in the reign of the last king of Persia. The name of this last king is debated by the rabbis. Saadia ( 882- 942), in his Emunoth Vedeoth ( 8: 6), speaks of an Armilus, king of Edom ( Rome), who will arise and defeat the Messiah ben Joseph, after the latter has wrested Jerusalem from the Christians, but will in turn be defeated by the Messiah ben David. This is the opinion also of Hai Gaon ( d. 1038), who states that the wars with Armilus will precede the final struggle with the hosts of Gog. In the Midrash Vayosha Armi-lus is represented as the successor of Gog. He is de-scribed as a human monstrosity, bald- headed, with one large and one small eye, with leprosy on his forehead, deaf in the right ear and maimed in the right arm, but with an abnormally long left arm. A similar descrip-tion is found in the Νistaroth de Rabbi Shimeon ben Yohai, the latest redaction of which can not antedate the First Crusade ( 1096). Still other accounts repre-sent Armilus as having been engendered by evil men, or by Satan himself, from the marble statue of a beautiful girl which was set up in Rome. In these prophecies Armilus represents himself as Messiah or as God, is ac-cepted by the heathens as such, and only Israel refuses to acknowledge him. He therefore bitterly persecutes the Jews and slays the Ephraimite Messiah, but suc-cumbs to the Messiah of the house of David. There-upon follow the rebuilding of the New Jerusalem, the resurrection and the return of the Ten Lost Tribes. The derivation of the name Armilus is uncertain. It may be a corruption of Ahriman ( Angro- Mainyus), the Persian deity of evil who wages war upon Ahura- Mazda ( Ormuzd), the good deity; or of Romulus, the legendary founder and first king of Rome. See also ANTI- MESSIAH. ABBA FIILLEL SILVER. Lit.: Bousset, W., The Antichrist Legend, A. H. Keane ( 1896) 105- 11; Silver, Α. H., A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel ( 1927) J. D., Otzar Midrashim ( 1915) 386 et seq.; Kohut, Aruch Hashalem, vol. 1 ( 1926) 291- 92. ARMIN, EMIL, painter and woodcarver, b. Rad-auti, Roumania, 1883. He received his first formal training at Czernowitz, came to the United States in 1905, and graduated from the Chicago Art Institute in 1920. He is an art teacher in the schools conducted by the Chicago Board of Jewish Education, and his work has been displayed at numerous exhibitions and is rep-resented in the permanent collections of the Chicago public schools. He is a post- impressionist. Lit.: Jacobsohn, J. Z., Thirty- five Saints Armin ( 1933); Bregstone, P., Chicago and Its 403 · ARMLEDER, organized bands of peasants and rabble in Alsace who waged a systematic campaign of murder and robbery of the Jews from 1336 to 1338. Their name came from the piece of leather which they wound around their arms as a badge, and their leader was known as the  King of the Armleder. The perse-cutions inaugurated by these bands extended from Alsace and the Rhine country to the furthermost parts of Swabia, Austria and Styria, and led to much blood-shed and the annihilation of many Jewish communities, the names of which are recorded in the Nuremberg memoir book. The emperor, Louis of Bavaria, refused to aid the Jews, but finally sent troops when the Arm-leder bands ventured to attack the town of Colmar in Alsace. The hordes fled to France, where they were re-sisted by the local authorities, and in 1339 a knight, Rudolph of Andlau, made an agreement with the  King of the Armleder, granting him an amnesty on condi-tion that he would refrain from assailing the Jews. Lit.: Salfeld, S., Das Martyrologium des Memorbuches ( 1898) 236- 42; Scheid, Elie, Histoire Juifs dAlsace ( 1887) 23- 33; Graetz, H., History Jews, vol. 4, pp. 97- 98. ARMS AND ARMOR, see WAR. ARMY, see WAR. ARNHEIM, HEYMANN, rabbi and author, b. Wongrowitz ( now Poland), 1796; d. Glogau, Ger-many, 1865. In 1824 he was called to Fraustadt as a teacher, and in 1827 to the community school in Glo-gau. He published Leitfaden beim Unterricht mosaischen Religion ( 1830), and in 1836 a transalation of and commentary on Job. This work attracted the attention of scholars, and Zunz even entrusted him with a considerable part of the work in his translation of the Bible. In 1840 Arnheim was appointed preacher and superintendent of the school in Glogau, and there he delivered the first sermon in German. He then pub-lished editions of the Pentateuch, the prayer- book and the poetic sections ( Piyutim) for the special Sabbaths, together with his own translations. In 1849 he became Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

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The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Ezra Studies


Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
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A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.