Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARLOSOROFF ARMENIA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 482] creasing restrictions and degradations, including the prohibiting of Jews from testifying against a Christian, from working on Sundays, and from visiting the public baths on any day of the week except Friday. In 1344 riots broke out, and these were repeated so frequently in the following years that Louis III ( 1417- 34) had to appoint special officers to protect the Jews. New attacks, of still greater violence, occurred in 1484 and 1485; as a result, many Jews were compelled to accept baptism. Finally, in 1488, all the Jews were expelled from the city, to which they never returned. Some of the savants and poets who lived in Arles or had relations with the Jewish community there were: Judah ben Moses of Arles ( 11th cent.); Abraham ben David of Posquiéres ( 12th cent.); Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon and Gershon ben Solomon ( 13th cent.); Levi ben Abraham ( 14th cent.); Joseph Caspi, Don Comprad of Arles, Tanhum ben Moses ( 14th cent.). Among the Jewish physicians of Arles were Maestro Bendit and Benedit du Canet, both of whom were court physicians; Asher ben Moses ( about 1468); Maestro Salves Vidal. SIMON COHEN. Lit.: Gross, Henri, Gallia Judaica ( 1897) 73- 90; La grande encyclopedie, vol. 1, pp. 970- 75; Dictionnaire géné-rale de Biographie et dhistoire, under Arles. ARLOSOROFF, VICTOR HAYIM, leader of the Hapoel Hatzair, a Zionist Labor group, b. Romny, Ukraine, Russia, 1899; assassinated at Tel- Aviv, Pales-tine, 1933. From 1905 to 1924 he lived in Germany, then went to Palestine. He was one of the founders of the Hithahduth ( Zionist Labor Party) and a member of the Zionist Actions Committee. He frequently criti-cized the Zionist financial and economic policies. In 1923 he proposed the raising of a loan from interna-tional bankers for the financing of Jewish reconstruc-tion in Palestine, and worked out a plan providing for the security and repayment of principal and interest. From 1923 until his death he was a member of the Financial and Administrative Council of the Interna-tional Zionist Organization. He visited the United States in 1929 as a member of the Weizmann delega-tion to the Palestine Foundation Fund ( Keren Haye-sod). He was elected a member of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine at Basel in July, 1931. Arlosoroff was slain at Tel- Aviv on the night of June 16, 1933 by two unidentified men generally believed to have been Revisionists actuated by political motives. The murder caused a sensation in Palestine and in Zionist circles throughout the world. Of the many Re-visionists arrested in connection with the murder, two suspects; Zevi Rosenblatt and Abraham Stavsky, were finally brought to trial on April 23, 1934. The former was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence, and the latter received the death sentence in a decision handed down by the District Court on June 8th. Stav-skys case was appealed, and on July 20, 1934 the Court of Appeal reversed the death sentence and ac-quitted him also on the ground of insufficient evidence. Arlosoroffs murder has never been solved. Arlosoroff wrote: Der jüdische Volkssozialismus ( on the theoretical basis of the Hithahduth movement; Berlin, 1919); Lage und nächste Aufgabe unserer Kolonisation ( Berlin, 1922); Studien über die marxis-tische Soziologie der Klasse ( Berlin, 1922); Die Kolo- Victor Hayim Arlosoroff, Zionist Labor Keren Hayesod Head Office, Jerusalem nisationsfinanzen der Jewish Agency and many essays and articles in Hapoel Hatzair ( Tel- Aviv, 1921 et seq.). Selected essays, addresses, letters and biographical data on Arlosoroff were published, with an introduction by Georg Landauer, under the title of Chaim Arlosoroff, Leben und Werk. works were published in four volumes in Hebrew at Tel Aviv in 1934 as of Kithbe Hayim Arlosoroff. ARMAGEDDON, see PHRASES, BIBLICAL. ARMENIA, country in the Near East, in the west-ern part of Asia Minor, east of the Caspian Sea and bounded on the south by Lake Van, and on the north by the valley of the river Araxes and Ararat. It is sup-posed to have been the haven of refuge for some of the descendants of the Jews who were carried away from Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. According to the re-ports of the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene ( 7th cent.), the noble family of the Bagratuni, independent princes during the Middle Ages, who had the privilege of placing the crown on the monarchs head, are said to have been descended from these Jews. This tradition is certainly good evidence for the im-portance of Jews in ancient Armenia. The Jews were engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. They attained great prosperity under the rule of the  princes of the exile. About the year 300, Christianity had already made its way into Armenia. The Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium, in the 4th cent., describes the invasion of the Persians at the time of Emperor Sapor II, and states that they carried away over 90,000 Jew-ish families, about 400,000 individuals. Although this number is certainly an exaggeration, it does indicate that Armenia had an extensive Jewish population. The Talmud makes mention of a Jacob of Armenia and of an academy at Nisibis, which might be the Nisi-bis in Armenia. The wine of Etchmiadzin ( the modern religious center of the Armenians) is also mentioned. The Karaite Kirkisani, in the 10th cent., speaks of a Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

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JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

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Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

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STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

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Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

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What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

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THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

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Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

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A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis
The JPS Torah Commentary series guides readers through the words and ideas of the Torah. Each volume is the work of a scholar who stands at the pinnacle of his field.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.