Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARLOSOROFF ARMENIA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 482] creasing restrictions and degradations, including the prohibiting of Jews from testifying against a Christian, from working on Sundays, and from visiting the public baths on any day of the week except Friday. In 1344 riots broke out, and these were repeated so frequently in the following years that Louis III ( 1417- 34) had to appoint special officers to protect the Jews. New attacks, of still greater violence, occurred in 1484 and 1485; as a result, many Jews were compelled to accept baptism. Finally, in 1488, all the Jews were expelled from the city, to which they never returned. Some of the savants and poets who lived in Arles or had relations with the Jewish community there were: Judah ben Moses of Arles ( 11th cent.); Abraham ben David of Posquiéres ( 12th cent.); Samuel ben Judah ibn Tibbon and Gershon ben Solomon ( 13th cent.); Levi ben Abraham ( 14th cent.); Joseph Caspi, Don Comprad of Arles, Tanhum ben Moses ( 14th cent.). Among the Jewish physicians of Arles were Maestro Bendit and Benedit du Canet, both of whom were court physicians; Asher ben Moses ( about 1468); Maestro Salves Vidal. SIMON COHEN. Lit.: Gross, Henri, Gallia Judaica ( 1897) 73- 90; La grande encyclopedie, vol. 1, pp. 970- 75; Dictionnaire géné-rale de Biographie et dhistoire, under Arles. ARLOSOROFF, VICTOR HAYIM, leader of the Hapoel Hatzair, a Zionist Labor group, b. Romny, Ukraine, Russia, 1899; assassinated at Tel- Aviv, Pales-tine, 1933. From 1905 to 1924 he lived in Germany, then went to Palestine. He was one of the founders of the Hithahduth ( Zionist Labor Party) and a member of the Zionist Actions Committee. He frequently criti-cized the Zionist financial and economic policies. In 1923 he proposed the raising of a loan from interna-tional bankers for the financing of Jewish reconstruc-tion in Palestine, and worked out a plan providing for the security and repayment of principal and interest. From 1923 until his death he was a member of the Financial and Administrative Council of the Interna-tional Zionist Organization. He visited the United States in 1929 as a member of the Weizmann delega-tion to the Palestine Foundation Fund ( Keren Haye-sod). He was elected a member of the Executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine at Basel in July, 1931. Arlosoroff was slain at Tel- Aviv on the night of June 16, 1933 by two unidentified men generally believed to have been Revisionists actuated by political motives. The murder caused a sensation in Palestine and in Zionist circles throughout the world. Of the many Re-visionists arrested in connection with the murder, two suspects; Zevi Rosenblatt and Abraham Stavsky, were finally brought to trial on April 23, 1934. The former was acquitted on the ground of insufficient evidence, and the latter received the death sentence in a decision handed down by the District Court on June 8th. Stav-skys case was appealed, and on July 20, 1934 the Court of Appeal reversed the death sentence and ac-quitted him also on the ground of insufficient evidence. Arlosoroffs murder has never been solved. Arlosoroff wrote: Der jüdische Volkssozialismus ( on the theoretical basis of the Hithahduth movement; Berlin, 1919); Lage und nächste Aufgabe unserer Kolonisation ( Berlin, 1922); Studien über die marxis-tische Soziologie der Klasse ( Berlin, 1922); Die Kolo- Victor Hayim Arlosoroff, Zionist Labor Keren Hayesod Head Office, Jerusalem nisationsfinanzen der Jewish Agency and many essays and articles in Hapoel Hatzair ( Tel- Aviv, 1921 et seq.). Selected essays, addresses, letters and biographical data on Arlosoroff were published, with an introduction by Georg Landauer, under the title of Chaim Arlosoroff, Leben und Werk. works were published in four volumes in Hebrew at Tel Aviv in 1934 as of Kithbe Hayim Arlosoroff. ARMAGEDDON, see PHRASES, BIBLICAL. ARMENIA, country in the Near East, in the west-ern part of Asia Minor, east of the Caspian Sea and bounded on the south by Lake Van, and on the north by the valley of the river Araxes and Ararat. It is sup-posed to have been the haven of refuge for some of the descendants of the Jews who were carried away from Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar. According to the re-ports of the Armenian historian Moses of Chorene ( 7th cent.), the noble family of the Bagratuni, independent princes during the Middle Ages, who had the privilege of placing the crown on the monarchs head, are said to have been descended from these Jews. This tradition is certainly good evidence for the im-portance of Jews in ancient Armenia. The Jews were engaged in agriculture and handicrafts. They attained great prosperity under the rule of the  princes of the exile. About the year 300, Christianity had already made its way into Armenia. The Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium, in the 4th cent., describes the invasion of the Persians at the time of Emperor Sapor II, and states that they carried away over 90,000 Jew-ish families, about 400,000 individuals. Although this number is certainly an exaggeration, it does indicate that Armenia had an extensive Jewish population. The Talmud makes mention of a Jacob of Armenia and of an academy at Nisibis, which might be the Nisi-bis in Armenia. The wine of Etchmiadzin ( the modern religious center of the Armenians) is also mentioned. The Karaite Kirkisani, in the 10th cent., speaks of a Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 8
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

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Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaam as tribulaoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive. The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

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Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Ezra Studies


A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...