Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 481] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARKIN, AARON ARLES ter from 1906 to 1907, and was judge cf the United States District Court at Little Rock. Rudolph Ney, an active participant in the communal life of Fort Smith, was founder of one of the largest dry goods enterprises of the state; I. Nakdimen was president of the City National Bank of Fort Smith; Louis Cohen was direc-tor of the Red Cross chapter and president of the Lions Club; Myron Laska, son of Rabbi Lasker, was vice- president and director of the Federal Bank and Trust Company of Little Rock and chairman of the United Jewish Campaign; Simon Bloom was Mayor of Pine Bluff from 1913 to 1919, and Harold Blumenthal was a cotton factor, merchant and a Past Exalted Ruler of the local lodge of Elks. Grover M. Mosco-witz, United States judge for the Eastern District of New York, is a native Arkansan; and M. Jacobs, at one time one of the oldest Masons in the state and one of the oldest Jews in America, died there in 1934. Jews prominent in public office in the state of Ark-kansas during nearly a century include also the fol-lowing: Aaron Meyers, mayor, Helena ( 1878- 80). Louis Alt-heimer, delegate, National Convention ( 1892). Joseph Wolf and Jacob Erb, aldermen, Little Rock ( 1889- 93). Charles Jacobson, assistant state attorney general ( 1900); secretary, Governor and Senator Jeff Davis ( 1901- 08); assemblyman ( 1909); state senator ( 1911- 13). Louis Wolsey, president, Little Rock board of education ( 1906). Jacob Fink, mayor, Helena ( 1908). Louis Joseph, assemblyman ( 1912- 16); judge, municipal court, Texarkansas ( 1927). Joseph Gates, mayor, Roan-oke ( 1909). Eli Newman, councilman, Helena ( 1922- 24). Samuel Frauenthal, judge, Arkansas supreme court ( 1909- 23). Samuel M. Levine, state senator, Pine Bluff ( 1933- ). Samuel Seligson, assemblyman from Little Rock ( 1939). The Jews of Arkansas are engaged for the most part in mercantile pursuits; there are also well known cot-ton factors and oil men. In the trades, the chief voca-tions of the Jews are printing, tailoring and photog-raphy. JOSEPH LEISER. Lit.: Herndon, D. T., Centennial History of Arkansas, vol. 2 ( 1922) 23, 100, 136, 396, 739, 895, 984; Thomas, D., Arkansas and its People, vol. 3 ( 1930) 272- 73; Teitelbaum, S.,  Fort Smith, Arkansas and the Jewish Community in The Southwest Jewish Chronicle, Sept., 1935; Linfield, H., Communal Organization of the Jews in the United States, 1g2y ( 1930) 149- 66; Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, vol. 6 ( 1897) 144, 149, 158; vol. 19 ( 1910) 96. ARKIN, AARON, pathologist and bacteriologist, b. Libau, Latvia, 1888. He was professor of pathology and bacteriology at the West Virginia University School of Medicine from 1914 to 1922, and research associate at the University of Vienna from 1922 to 1926. In 1927 he was appointed assistant professor of medicine at Rush Medical College and in 1928 associate professor at the University of Chicago. Arkin is the author of numerous original researches and publications in bac-teriology, medicine and pathology. ARLES, city in the southeastern part of France, at one time the capital of Provence. The origin of the Jewish community there is lost in antiquity. According to legend, the emperor Vespasian placed a number of Jews on three vessels, which were abandoned in the open sea by their captains, but finally landed in France. One of these vessels was said to have come to Arles. The first document mentioning the Jews of Arles is dated 425, and refers to certain careers, for example the magistracy and the bearing of arms, from which they were to be debarred. However, these re-strictions were not of long duration, because of the friendly feelings of Saint Hilary, bishop of Arles, to-ward the Jews of Arles. In 476 Provence fell to the Visigoths, and as long as the latter remained Arians, the Jews were permitted to retain full civic rights. In 508, when Arles was be-sieged by Clovis, the Jews valiantly aided in its defense. After the fall of the city they were involved in a series of charges and countercharges of treason, which re-suited in the execution of a Jewish soldier. At the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th cent. the Jews suffered under the fanaticism of the Merovingian kings, who made violent efforts to convert them; but after the accession of the Carlovingian line in 638 their con-dition improved. Toward the end of the 9th cent, the Jews of Arles were transferred to the jurisdiction of the bishop, and from that time on they were subjected to regular and heavy taxes. After the death of Louis le Débonnaire, Boso, the count of Provence, with the aid of Pope John VIII and the clergy, made Arles the capital of the king-dom of Burgundy, which they had founded. Bishop Roland of Arles was extremely friendly toward the Jews of Arles; indeed, in 850 the Jews of several com-munities, including Lyon and Macon, sent their chil-dren to Arles to prevent their being baptized in their home communities. The condition of the Jews of Arles throughout this entire period was fairly favorable, and by the second half of the 12th cent, the community numbered about 200 families. They possessed a separate quarter of their own, with a synagogue in the Rue Neuve; their principal trade was that of selling kermes, a product used in dry- salting. In 1147 the German emperor Con-rad III accorded Raymond of Montredon, archbishop of Arles, jurisdiction over all the Jews of his diocese; the archbishop heavily taxed the Jews of Arles, but al-lowed no one to interfere with them, for they were un-der his suzerainty and protection. In comparison with the condition of the Jews of other French cities, that of the Jews of Arles was favorable, for they did not suffer at all at the hands of the crusaders. In 1276 the Jews came once more under the control of the reigning counts, a condition which exposed them again to the attacks of the clergy. Charles I of Anjou in 1276 withdrew from Archbishop Bertrand of Mal-ferrat his jurisdiction over the Jews; as a result the Jews of Arles suffered considerably, for there was now no one to prevent the clergy from arousing the Chris-tian inhabitants to fanaticism against them. Although Charles I protected the Jews, their situation became much worse under his successors. The clergy induced Charles II ( 1285- 1309) to issue anti- Jewish ordinances forbidding them to hold public office and compelling them to continue the wearing of the yellow badge. During the first half of the 14th cent., under Robert of Anjou, this situation improved, but the second half of the century, under Joanna, was characterized by in- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


The Sephardi Legacy II


Palestine in the 18th Century


Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8
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JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

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Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

THE BOOK OF JUDGES


History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (1825–1894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.