Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 481] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARKIN, AARON ARLES ter from 1906 to 1907, and was judge cf the United States District Court at Little Rock. Rudolph Ney, an active participant in the communal life of Fort Smith, was founder of one of the largest dry goods enterprises of the state; I. Nakdimen was president of the City National Bank of Fort Smith; Louis Cohen was direc-tor of the Red Cross chapter and president of the Lions Club; Myron Laska, son of Rabbi Lasker, was vice- president and director of the Federal Bank and Trust Company of Little Rock and chairman of the United Jewish Campaign; Simon Bloom was Mayor of Pine Bluff from 1913 to 1919, and Harold Blumenthal was a cotton factor, merchant and a Past Exalted Ruler of the local lodge of Elks. Grover M. Mosco-witz, United States judge for the Eastern District of New York, is a native Arkansan; and M. Jacobs, at one time one of the oldest Masons in the state and one of the oldest Jews in America, died there in 1934. Jews prominent in public office in the state of Ark-kansas during nearly a century include also the fol-lowing: Aaron Meyers, mayor, Helena ( 1878- 80). Louis Alt-heimer, delegate, National Convention ( 1892). Joseph Wolf and Jacob Erb, aldermen, Little Rock ( 1889- 93). Charles Jacobson, assistant state attorney general ( 1900); secretary, Governor and Senator Jeff Davis ( 1901- 08); assemblyman ( 1909); state senator ( 1911- 13). Louis Wolsey, president, Little Rock board of education ( 1906). Jacob Fink, mayor, Helena ( 1908). Louis Joseph, assemblyman ( 1912- 16); judge, municipal court, Texarkansas ( 1927). Joseph Gates, mayor, Roan-oke ( 1909). Eli Newman, councilman, Helena ( 1922- 24). Samuel Frauenthal, judge, Arkansas supreme court ( 1909- 23). Samuel M. Levine, state senator, Pine Bluff ( 1933- ). Samuel Seligson, assemblyman from Little Rock ( 1939). The Jews of Arkansas are engaged for the most part in mercantile pursuits; there are also well known cot-ton factors and oil men. In the trades, the chief voca-tions of the Jews are printing, tailoring and photog-raphy. JOSEPH LEISER. Lit.: Herndon, D. T., Centennial History of Arkansas, vol. 2 ( 1922) 23, 100, 136, 396, 739, 895, 984; Thomas, D., Arkansas and its People, vol. 3 ( 1930) 272- 73; Teitelbaum, S.,  Fort Smith, Arkansas and the Jewish Community in The Southwest Jewish Chronicle, Sept., 1935; Linfield, H., Communal Organization of the Jews in the United States, 1g2y ( 1930) 149- 66; Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, vol. 6 ( 1897) 144, 149, 158; vol. 19 ( 1910) 96. ARKIN, AARON, pathologist and bacteriologist, b. Libau, Latvia, 1888. He was professor of pathology and bacteriology at the West Virginia University School of Medicine from 1914 to 1922, and research associate at the University of Vienna from 1922 to 1926. In 1927 he was appointed assistant professor of medicine at Rush Medical College and in 1928 associate professor at the University of Chicago. Arkin is the author of numerous original researches and publications in bac-teriology, medicine and pathology. ARLES, city in the southeastern part of France, at one time the capital of Provence. The origin of the Jewish community there is lost in antiquity. According to legend, the emperor Vespasian placed a number of Jews on three vessels, which were abandoned in the open sea by their captains, but finally landed in France. One of these vessels was said to have come to Arles. The first document mentioning the Jews of Arles is dated 425, and refers to certain careers, for example the magistracy and the bearing of arms, from which they were to be debarred. However, these re-strictions were not of long duration, because of the friendly feelings of Saint Hilary, bishop of Arles, to-ward the Jews of Arles. In 476 Provence fell to the Visigoths, and as long as the latter remained Arians, the Jews were permitted to retain full civic rights. In 508, when Arles was be-sieged by Clovis, the Jews valiantly aided in its defense. After the fall of the city they were involved in a series of charges and countercharges of treason, which re-suited in the execution of a Jewish soldier. At the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th cent. the Jews suffered under the fanaticism of the Merovingian kings, who made violent efforts to convert them; but after the accession of the Carlovingian line in 638 their con-dition improved. Toward the end of the 9th cent, the Jews of Arles were transferred to the jurisdiction of the bishop, and from that time on they were subjected to regular and heavy taxes. After the death of Louis le Débonnaire, Boso, the count of Provence, with the aid of Pope John VIII and the clergy, made Arles the capital of the king-dom of Burgundy, which they had founded. Bishop Roland of Arles was extremely friendly toward the Jews of Arles; indeed, in 850 the Jews of several com-munities, including Lyon and Macon, sent their chil-dren to Arles to prevent their being baptized in their home communities. The condition of the Jews of Arles throughout this entire period was fairly favorable, and by the second half of the 12th cent, the community numbered about 200 families. They possessed a separate quarter of their own, with a synagogue in the Rue Neuve; their principal trade was that of selling kermes, a product used in dry- salting. In 1147 the German emperor Con-rad III accorded Raymond of Montredon, archbishop of Arles, jurisdiction over all the Jews of his diocese; the archbishop heavily taxed the Jews of Arles, but al-lowed no one to interfere with them, for they were un-der his suzerainty and protection. In comparison with the condition of the Jews of other French cities, that of the Jews of Arles was favorable, for they did not suffer at all at the hands of the crusaders. In 1276 the Jews came once more under the control of the reigning counts, a condition which exposed them again to the attacks of the clergy. Charles I of Anjou in 1276 withdrew from Archbishop Bertrand of Mal-ferrat his jurisdiction over the Jews; as a result the Jews of Arles suffered considerably, for there was now no one to prevent the clergy from arousing the Chris-tian inhabitants to fanaticism against them. Although Charles I protected the Jews, their situation became much worse under his successors. The clergy induced Charles II ( 1285- 1309) to issue anti- Jewish ordinances forbidding them to hold public office and compelling them to continue the wearing of the yellow badge. During the first half of the 14th cent., under Robert of Anjou, this situation improved, but the second half of the century, under Joanna, was characterized by in- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

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La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

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The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Jesus of Nazareth
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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THE EVOLUTION OF EXODUS TRADITION
A comprehensive literary inquiry into a history of the Exodus tradition as it has evolved through time. The book examines the narrative of Exodus, compares it to biblical sources as well as to information provided in Apocryphic, Pseudepigrahic, Hellenistic and Midrashic documents.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.