Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 481] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARKIN, AARON ARLES ter from 1906 to 1907, and was judge cf the United States District Court at Little Rock. Rudolph Ney, an active participant in the communal life of Fort Smith, was founder of one of the largest dry goods enterprises of the state; I. Nakdimen was president of the City National Bank of Fort Smith; Louis Cohen was direc-tor of the Red Cross chapter and president of the Lions Club; Myron Laska, son of Rabbi Lasker, was vice- president and director of the Federal Bank and Trust Company of Little Rock and chairman of the United Jewish Campaign; Simon Bloom was Mayor of Pine Bluff from 1913 to 1919, and Harold Blumenthal was a cotton factor, merchant and a Past Exalted Ruler of the local lodge of Elks. Grover M. Mosco-witz, United States judge for the Eastern District of New York, is a native Arkansan; and M. Jacobs, at one time one of the oldest Masons in the state and one of the oldest Jews in America, died there in 1934. Jews prominent in public office in the state of Ark-kansas during nearly a century include also the fol-lowing: Aaron Meyers, mayor, Helena ( 1878- 80). Louis Alt-heimer, delegate, National Convention ( 1892). Joseph Wolf and Jacob Erb, aldermen, Little Rock ( 1889- 93). Charles Jacobson, assistant state attorney general ( 1900); secretary, Governor and Senator Jeff Davis ( 1901- 08); assemblyman ( 1909); state senator ( 1911- 13). Louis Wolsey, president, Little Rock board of education ( 1906). Jacob Fink, mayor, Helena ( 1908). Louis Joseph, assemblyman ( 1912- 16); judge, municipal court, Texarkansas ( 1927). Joseph Gates, mayor, Roan-oke ( 1909). Eli Newman, councilman, Helena ( 1922- 24). Samuel Frauenthal, judge, Arkansas supreme court ( 1909- 23). Samuel M. Levine, state senator, Pine Bluff ( 1933- ). Samuel Seligson, assemblyman from Little Rock ( 1939). The Jews of Arkansas are engaged for the most part in mercantile pursuits; there are also well known cot-ton factors and oil men. In the trades, the chief voca-tions of the Jews are printing, tailoring and photog-raphy. JOSEPH LEISER. Lit.: Herndon, D. T., Centennial History of Arkansas, vol. 2 ( 1922) 23, 100, 136, 396, 739, 895, 984; Thomas, D., Arkansas and its People, vol. 3 ( 1930) 272- 73; Teitelbaum, S.,  Fort Smith, Arkansas and the Jewish Community in The Southwest Jewish Chronicle, Sept., 1935; Linfield, H., Communal Organization of the Jews in the United States, 1g2y ( 1930) 149- 66; Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, vol. 6 ( 1897) 144, 149, 158; vol. 19 ( 1910) 96. ARKIN, AARON, pathologist and bacteriologist, b. Libau, Latvia, 1888. He was professor of pathology and bacteriology at the West Virginia University School of Medicine from 1914 to 1922, and research associate at the University of Vienna from 1922 to 1926. In 1927 he was appointed assistant professor of medicine at Rush Medical College and in 1928 associate professor at the University of Chicago. Arkin is the author of numerous original researches and publications in bac-teriology, medicine and pathology. ARLES, city in the southeastern part of France, at one time the capital of Provence. The origin of the Jewish community there is lost in antiquity. According to legend, the emperor Vespasian placed a number of Jews on three vessels, which were abandoned in the open sea by their captains, but finally landed in France. One of these vessels was said to have come to Arles. The first document mentioning the Jews of Arles is dated 425, and refers to certain careers, for example the magistracy and the bearing of arms, from which they were to be debarred. However, these re-strictions were not of long duration, because of the friendly feelings of Saint Hilary, bishop of Arles, to-ward the Jews of Arles. In 476 Provence fell to the Visigoths, and as long as the latter remained Arians, the Jews were permitted to retain full civic rights. In 508, when Arles was be-sieged by Clovis, the Jews valiantly aided in its defense. After the fall of the city they were involved in a series of charges and countercharges of treason, which re-suited in the execution of a Jewish soldier. At the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th cent. the Jews suffered under the fanaticism of the Merovingian kings, who made violent efforts to convert them; but after the accession of the Carlovingian line in 638 their con-dition improved. Toward the end of the 9th cent, the Jews of Arles were transferred to the jurisdiction of the bishop, and from that time on they were subjected to regular and heavy taxes. After the death of Louis le Débonnaire, Boso, the count of Provence, with the aid of Pope John VIII and the clergy, made Arles the capital of the king-dom of Burgundy, which they had founded. Bishop Roland of Arles was extremely friendly toward the Jews of Arles; indeed, in 850 the Jews of several com-munities, including Lyon and Macon, sent their chil-dren to Arles to prevent their being baptized in their home communities. The condition of the Jews of Arles throughout this entire period was fairly favorable, and by the second half of the 12th cent, the community numbered about 200 families. They possessed a separate quarter of their own, with a synagogue in the Rue Neuve; their principal trade was that of selling kermes, a product used in dry- salting. In 1147 the German emperor Con-rad III accorded Raymond of Montredon, archbishop of Arles, jurisdiction over all the Jews of his diocese; the archbishop heavily taxed the Jews of Arles, but al-lowed no one to interfere with them, for they were un-der his suzerainty and protection. In comparison with the condition of the Jews of other French cities, that of the Jews of Arles was favorable, for they did not suffer at all at the hands of the crusaders. In 1276 the Jews came once more under the control of the reigning counts, a condition which exposed them again to the attacks of the clergy. Charles I of Anjou in 1276 withdrew from Archbishop Bertrand of Mal-ferrat his jurisdiction over the Jews; as a result the Jews of Arles suffered considerably, for there was now no one to prevent the clergy from arousing the Chris-tian inhabitants to fanaticism against them. Although Charles I protected the Jews, their situation became much worse under his successors. The clergy induced Charles II ( 1285- 1309) to issue anti- Jewish ordinances forbidding them to hold public office and compelling them to continue the wearing of the yellow badge. During the first half of the 14th cent., under Robert of Anjou, this situation improved, but the second half of the century, under Joanna, was characterized by in- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Jesus of Nazareth
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New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

eLuach
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History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.