Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARKANSAS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA himself and the animals, but differ slightly as to the details of its construction. The most elaborate account is in P, which states that the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 wide and 30 high; it was made of gopher wood, built in three stories, caulked tight with pitch, divided into cells, and pro-vided with a door at the side. Since the narrative fur-ther states that the flood rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, and that the Ark stranded on Mount Ararat while the flood was at its height, it is probable that the author conceived of the Ark as half submerged in the water. The door, which was evidently near the bottom of the Ark, could not be opened until the waters had subsided sufficiently to uncover the tops of the mountains ( Gen. 8: 6, 13b). The J account of the construction of the Ark has not been preserved, but both accounts provide the Ark with a removable roof ( Gen. 6: 16; 8: 13). J, however, seems not to have included a door in his Ark, and differs also from Ρ in providing it with a window which could be opened after the rain had ceased ( Gen. 8: 6). These accounts agree fairly well with the Babylonian flood story, which speaks of the vessel of Ut- napishtim as  a great house afloat, although the latter account gives a different set of dimensions. Josephus makes the statement that in his time the fragments of the Ark were still to be seen in Armenia. Rabbinical traditions supplement the Biblical account by saying that the Ark was made of cedars which Noah had planted 120 years before the flood, and that it was lighted by jewels which gave as much light as the noonday sun. The Mohammedan account of the Ark is a somewhat distorted version of the Biblical and rabbinical stories. See also: FLOOD; NOAH. ARKANSAS, state in the south- central part of the United States, admitted into the Union as a state in 1836; seceding in 1861, it was readmitted shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Its area is 52,525 square miles, with a population of 2,048,000 ( 1937 census), of whom 8,500 are Jews. Historical data of the early settlement of Jews in the state is fragmentary. The oldest and most important of the Jewish communities is in the city of Little Rock. Coming from Cracow, Galicia, in 1838, Jacob, Hyman and Levy Mitchell, three brothers, are thought to have been the citys first settlers, establishing a commercial house there. They were followed four years later by Edward Czarnickow, who settled in Fort Smith, bring-ing after him Louis, a brother, who was followed by Morris Price in 1843; Michael Charles in 1844, and Leopold Lowenthal in 1845. A Jew named Wolf ar-rived in Pine Bluff between 1845 and 1850, and in 1856, Jacob Kempner was the first Jewish resident of Hot Springs; it was as late as 1832 before Jonesboro had its first Jewish settler in the person of Morris Ber-ger. Jewish immigrants settled in various other parts of the state shortly before and following the Civil War. The first congregation to be founded in Arkansas was Bnai Israel of Little Rock. Organized in 1866, it was chartered the following year. In 1873 it dedicated its own temple with Joseph Bloch as rabbi. Other congrega-tions established were Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff, 1867; Beth El in Helena, 1868; House of Israel in Hot ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arkansas. Showing the chief places where Jewish communities Springs, 1876; Mount Sinai in Texarkana, 1884; United Hebrew Congregation in Fort Smith, 1890; Temple Israel in Jonesboro, 1897; Agudas Achim in Little Rock, 1904; Beth El in Newport, 1905; Bnai Israel in Eudora, 1912; Tifereth Israel in Forrest City, 1904, and the Jewish Reform Congregation in El Dorado, 1926. There are also congregations in Camden, Blythe-ville and Wynne. In all, Arkansas has fourteen con-gregations, six of them with buildings and schools of their own; most of them now have the services of resi-dent rabbis. There are six Jewish cemeteries located in different parts of the state. Jews are to be found in almost all towns of Arkansas. Those in the large cities participate in an extensive cul-tural and social life. The Bnai Brith, a Zionist organ-ization, a Council and Junior Council of Jewish Women and the Hadassah are represented in nearly every city; and the women of every congregation be-long to a sisterhood. The first charitable society founded in Arkansas was the Cemetery Organization ( organized in 1871) at Fort Smith. Later, the following charitable, social and educational agencies were founded: Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society ( 1871) at Fort Smith; Jewish Relief Society ( 1899) at Hot Springs; Jewish Ladies Aid Society ( 1878) at Cam-den; Temple Aid Society ( 1892) at Little Rock; Fed-eration of Jewish Charities ( 1910) at Little Rock, and in 1915, at Hot Springs; Hot Springs Relief Society ( 1916); Talmud Torah ( 1917) at Little Rock; Young Mens Hebrew Association at Little Rock; Temple Zion Society ( 1917.) at Pine Bluff; Progressive Club ( 1899) at Fort Smith; Lotus Club in Helena, and the Harmony Club ( 1916) at Pine Bluff. One of the outstanding institutions in the state is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital at Hot Springs, organized in 1910 and sponsored by the Bnai Brith. Many Arkansas Jews have been prominent in the social, public, commercial and financial life of the state. Jonas Levy, one of Little Rocks earliest settlers, was its mayor from 1860 to 1865; Jacob Erb was county judge of Little Rock from 1890 to 1894; Jacob Triebar headed the Masonic Order of Arkansas as Grand Mas- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the Geschichte der Juden, the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

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Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.