Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARKANSAS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA himself and the animals, but differ slightly as to the details of its construction. The most elaborate account is in P, which states that the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 wide and 30 high; it was made of gopher wood, built in three stories, caulked tight with pitch, divided into cells, and pro-vided with a door at the side. Since the narrative fur-ther states that the flood rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, and that the Ark stranded on Mount Ararat while the flood was at its height, it is probable that the author conceived of the Ark as half submerged in the water. The door, which was evidently near the bottom of the Ark, could not be opened until the waters had subsided sufficiently to uncover the tops of the mountains ( Gen. 8: 6, 13b). The J account of the construction of the Ark has not been preserved, but both accounts provide the Ark with a removable roof ( Gen. 6: 16; 8: 13). J, however, seems not to have included a door in his Ark, and differs also from Ρ in providing it with a window which could be opened after the rain had ceased ( Gen. 8: 6). These accounts agree fairly well with the Babylonian flood story, which speaks of the vessel of Ut- napishtim as  a great house afloat, although the latter account gives a different set of dimensions. Josephus makes the statement that in his time the fragments of the Ark were still to be seen in Armenia. Rabbinical traditions supplement the Biblical account by saying that the Ark was made of cedars which Noah had planted 120 years before the flood, and that it was lighted by jewels which gave as much light as the noonday sun. The Mohammedan account of the Ark is a somewhat distorted version of the Biblical and rabbinical stories. See also: FLOOD; NOAH. ARKANSAS, state in the south- central part of the United States, admitted into the Union as a state in 1836; seceding in 1861, it was readmitted shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Its area is 52,525 square miles, with a population of 2,048,000 ( 1937 census), of whom 8,500 are Jews. Historical data of the early settlement of Jews in the state is fragmentary. The oldest and most important of the Jewish communities is in the city of Little Rock. Coming from Cracow, Galicia, in 1838, Jacob, Hyman and Levy Mitchell, three brothers, are thought to have been the citys first settlers, establishing a commercial house there. They were followed four years later by Edward Czarnickow, who settled in Fort Smith, bring-ing after him Louis, a brother, who was followed by Morris Price in 1843; Michael Charles in 1844, and Leopold Lowenthal in 1845. A Jew named Wolf ar-rived in Pine Bluff between 1845 and 1850, and in 1856, Jacob Kempner was the first Jewish resident of Hot Springs; it was as late as 1832 before Jonesboro had its first Jewish settler in the person of Morris Ber-ger. Jewish immigrants settled in various other parts of the state shortly before and following the Civil War. The first congregation to be founded in Arkansas was Bnai Israel of Little Rock. Organized in 1866, it was chartered the following year. In 1873 it dedicated its own temple with Joseph Bloch as rabbi. Other congrega-tions established were Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff, 1867; Beth El in Helena, 1868; House of Israel in Hot ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arkansas. Showing the chief places where Jewish communities Springs, 1876; Mount Sinai in Texarkana, 1884; United Hebrew Congregation in Fort Smith, 1890; Temple Israel in Jonesboro, 1897; Agudas Achim in Little Rock, 1904; Beth El in Newport, 1905; Bnai Israel in Eudora, 1912; Tifereth Israel in Forrest City, 1904, and the Jewish Reform Congregation in El Dorado, 1926. There are also congregations in Camden, Blythe-ville and Wynne. In all, Arkansas has fourteen con-gregations, six of them with buildings and schools of their own; most of them now have the services of resi-dent rabbis. There are six Jewish cemeteries located in different parts of the state. Jews are to be found in almost all towns of Arkansas. Those in the large cities participate in an extensive cul-tural and social life. The Bnai Brith, a Zionist organ-ization, a Council and Junior Council of Jewish Women and the Hadassah are represented in nearly every city; and the women of every congregation be-long to a sisterhood. The first charitable society founded in Arkansas was the Cemetery Organization ( organized in 1871) at Fort Smith. Later, the following charitable, social and educational agencies were founded: Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society ( 1871) at Fort Smith; Jewish Relief Society ( 1899) at Hot Springs; Jewish Ladies Aid Society ( 1878) at Cam-den; Temple Aid Society ( 1892) at Little Rock; Fed-eration of Jewish Charities ( 1910) at Little Rock, and in 1915, at Hot Springs; Hot Springs Relief Society ( 1916); Talmud Torah ( 1917) at Little Rock; Young Mens Hebrew Association at Little Rock; Temple Zion Society ( 1917.) at Pine Bluff; Progressive Club ( 1899) at Fort Smith; Lotus Club in Helena, and the Harmony Club ( 1916) at Pine Bluff. One of the outstanding institutions in the state is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital at Hot Springs, organized in 1910 and sponsored by the Bnai Brith. Many Arkansas Jews have been prominent in the social, public, commercial and financial life of the state. Jonas Levy, one of Little Rocks earliest settlers, was its mayor from 1860 to 1865; Jacob Erb was county judge of Little Rock from 1890 to 1894; Jacob Triebar headed the Masonic Order of Arkansas as Grand Mas- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

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The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

Luah HaShanah 5776
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BOOKS OF KINGS


Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7
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THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition