Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARKANSAS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA himself and the animals, but differ slightly as to the details of its construction. The most elaborate account is in P, which states that the Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 wide and 30 high; it was made of gopher wood, built in three stories, caulked tight with pitch, divided into cells, and pro-vided with a door at the side. Since the narrative fur-ther states that the flood rose fifteen cubits above the highest mountains, and that the Ark stranded on Mount Ararat while the flood was at its height, it is probable that the author conceived of the Ark as half submerged in the water. The door, which was evidently near the bottom of the Ark, could not be opened until the waters had subsided sufficiently to uncover the tops of the mountains ( Gen. 8: 6, 13b). The J account of the construction of the Ark has not been preserved, but both accounts provide the Ark with a removable roof ( Gen. 6: 16; 8: 13). J, however, seems not to have included a door in his Ark, and differs also from Ρ in providing it with a window which could be opened after the rain had ceased ( Gen. 8: 6). These accounts agree fairly well with the Babylonian flood story, which speaks of the vessel of Ut- napishtim as  a great house afloat, although the latter account gives a different set of dimensions. Josephus makes the statement that in his time the fragments of the Ark were still to be seen in Armenia. Rabbinical traditions supplement the Biblical account by saying that the Ark was made of cedars which Noah had planted 120 years before the flood, and that it was lighted by jewels which gave as much light as the noonday sun. The Mohammedan account of the Ark is a somewhat distorted version of the Biblical and rabbinical stories. See also: FLOOD; NOAH. ARKANSAS, state in the south- central part of the United States, admitted into the Union as a state in 1836; seceding in 1861, it was readmitted shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War. Its area is 52,525 square miles, with a population of 2,048,000 ( 1937 census), of whom 8,500 are Jews. Historical data of the early settlement of Jews in the state is fragmentary. The oldest and most important of the Jewish communities is in the city of Little Rock. Coming from Cracow, Galicia, in 1838, Jacob, Hyman and Levy Mitchell, three brothers, are thought to have been the citys first settlers, establishing a commercial house there. They were followed four years later by Edward Czarnickow, who settled in Fort Smith, bring-ing after him Louis, a brother, who was followed by Morris Price in 1843; Michael Charles in 1844, and Leopold Lowenthal in 1845. A Jew named Wolf ar-rived in Pine Bluff between 1845 and 1850, and in 1856, Jacob Kempner was the first Jewish resident of Hot Springs; it was as late as 1832 before Jonesboro had its first Jewish settler in the person of Morris Ber-ger. Jewish immigrants settled in various other parts of the state shortly before and following the Civil War. The first congregation to be founded in Arkansas was Bnai Israel of Little Rock. Organized in 1866, it was chartered the following year. In 1873 it dedicated its own temple with Joseph Bloch as rabbi. Other congrega-tions established were Anshe Emeth in Pine Bluff, 1867; Beth El in Helena, 1868; House of Israel in Hot ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arkansas. Showing the chief places where Jewish communities Springs, 1876; Mount Sinai in Texarkana, 1884; United Hebrew Congregation in Fort Smith, 1890; Temple Israel in Jonesboro, 1897; Agudas Achim in Little Rock, 1904; Beth El in Newport, 1905; Bnai Israel in Eudora, 1912; Tifereth Israel in Forrest City, 1904, and the Jewish Reform Congregation in El Dorado, 1926. There are also congregations in Camden, Blythe-ville and Wynne. In all, Arkansas has fourteen con-gregations, six of them with buildings and schools of their own; most of them now have the services of resi-dent rabbis. There are six Jewish cemeteries located in different parts of the state. Jews are to be found in almost all towns of Arkansas. Those in the large cities participate in an extensive cul-tural and social life. The Bnai Brith, a Zionist organ-ization, a Council and Junior Council of Jewish Women and the Hadassah are represented in nearly every city; and the women of every congregation be-long to a sisterhood. The first charitable society founded in Arkansas was the Cemetery Organization ( organized in 1871) at Fort Smith. Later, the following charitable, social and educational agencies were founded: Hebrew Ladies Benevolent Society ( 1871) at Fort Smith; Jewish Relief Society ( 1899) at Hot Springs; Jewish Ladies Aid Society ( 1878) at Cam-den; Temple Aid Society ( 1892) at Little Rock; Fed-eration of Jewish Charities ( 1910) at Little Rock, and in 1915, at Hot Springs; Hot Springs Relief Society ( 1916); Talmud Torah ( 1917) at Little Rock; Young Mens Hebrew Association at Little Rock; Temple Zion Society ( 1917.) at Pine Bluff; Progressive Club ( 1899) at Fort Smith; Lotus Club in Helena, and the Harmony Club ( 1916) at Pine Bluff. One of the outstanding institutions in the state is the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital at Hot Springs, organized in 1910 and sponsored by the Bnai Brith. Many Arkansas Jews have been prominent in the social, public, commercial and financial life of the state. Jonas Levy, one of Little Rocks earliest settlers, was its mayor from 1860 to 1865; Jacob Erb was county judge of Little Rock from 1890 to 1894; Jacob Triebar headed the Masonic Order of Arkansas as Grand Mas- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 5

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.


A comprehensive literary inquiry into a history of the Exodus tradition as it has evolved through time. The book examines the narrative of Exodus, compares it to biblical sources as well as to information provided in Apocryphic, Pseudepigrahic, Hellenistic and Midrashic documents.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.


Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Collected Writings in Jewish Studies
This collection of articles in Jewish Studies has been authored by, what many consider, the most important scholar of the rabbinic life and literature in the post WWII period.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Multi-platform, electronic edition of masoretic text of the Holy Scriptures placed next to classic Jewish translation.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4


Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.