Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARK OF THE COVENANT THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 478] ARK OF THE COVENANT ( Hebrew  aron;  aron haberith,  ark of the covenant;  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh;  aron ber-ith Yahveh yosheb hakerubim,  the ark of the cove-nant of Yahveh, Who sits upon the cherubim; also,  aron haeduth,  the ark of the testimony), a wooden chest regarded in ancient Israel as the most sacred ob-ject within the sanctuary. According to Biblical tradition, the ark was made by Moses at Gods command and deposited in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle in the wilderness. Because of its extreme sanctity it could be carried only by the priests. After the settlement of the Israelite tribes in Palestine the ark was deposited in the sanctuary at Shiloh. From there it was captured by the Philistines and carried off to Philistia as trophy of victory. After a short but disastrous stay in the Philistine country, the ark was sent back to the land of Israel. It abode for a time at Kiriath- jearim, whence David, after consider-able difficulty and delay, brought it to Jerusalem. There the king deposited it in a sanctuary which was in the form of a tent- like tabernacle. At the dedication of Solomons Temple, and as the climax of the entire celebration, the ark was brought in by the priests in solemn procession and deposited in the debir, or inner-most chamber, beneath the figures of the cherubim al-ready placed there. Moreover, according to the Biblical tradition, the two tablets of stone, upon which the Decalogue had been engraved by the Deity, were de-posited in the ark, which had in fact been made by Moses expressly for this purpose. And finally the Deity himself was believed to sit or dwell above the ark, upon the golden cover ( kapporeth) resting upon it, between the two figures of the cherubim which likewise rested upon the ark- cover. A careful study of all the passages in the Bible refer-ring to the ark, however, reveals many internal con-tradictions in the narratives, and these references are so numerous and so specific that it is impossible to ac-cept them literally. Modern Biblical scholars have therefore studied them carefully in connection with the analysis, both of the literary sources of the Biblical books and of the religious development that must have taken place in the centuries before and after the Israe-lite conquest of Canaan. They have come to the con-clusion that the attribution of the making of the ark to Moses is only the projecting of later events into the time of the great lawgiver in order to give them a greater validity. The connection of Moses with the ark, they feel, is the confusing element in the tradition, and when this is removed, it is possible to work out a clear and understandable sequence of events and ideas. The history of the ark may be reconstructed as follows: The ark was originally the cult object of the tribe of Ephraim. The first authentic historical record of it was that it stood in the Ephraimite tribal sanctuary at Shi-loh, where it was ministered to by a family of Levitical priests, of whom Eli and his two sons were the last representatives. The ark, in all likelihood, contained one, or perhaps two, sacred stones, or betyls ( beth  el), in which, in accordance with primitive Semitic religious concepts, the tribal deity of Ephraim, Yahveh, was thought to dwell. In this period the ark was known by its simplest and earliest name,  aron Yahveh,  ark of Yahveh. It was thought, among other things, to give Ark of the Covenant with the its worshippers victory in war, for which reason it was regularly carried into battle. Num. 10: 35- 36 probably records the formulas recited when the ark was taken from its sanctuary to be carried into battle, and upon its restoration to its place in the sanctuary. It was also thought to possess the power of choosing the way it wished to go, and of driving its bearers, whether hu-man beings or animals, forward along this way. Ac-cording to one tradition ( Num. 10: 33b), the ark had even, presumably in this manner, guided Israel on its journey through the desert. The ark was captured by the Philistines in the sec-ond battle of Eben- ezer, when the Ephraimites and their associated Israelite tribes were disastrously de-feated. The breaking out of a plague, however, prob-ably the bubonic plague, in the different cities to which the ark was carried, convinced the Philistines that, de-spite its capture, its deity was still powerful and hostile to them, and that they must therefore get rid of it. A further test, viz., that when placed in a wagon without a driver, and drawn by cows which had never been yoked before, and which were loathe to leave their calves, the ark could nevertheless draw these cows straight along the road leading back to the land of Is-rael, corroborated the suspicions of the Philistines. Re-stored to Israelite possession, the ark remained in the village of Kiriath- jearim, half- forgotten for approxi-mately a century ( I Sam. 4: 1 to 7: 1). Thence it was brought up to Jerusalem by David and placed in a position of high honor in the national sanctuary which he had set up there. Its presence here symbolized no doubt that the old tribal god of Ephraim was now one with the national god of all Israel. From there the ark naturally passed into the Temple of Solomon, though not at all in the manner described in I Kings 8: 1- 11. In time, under the influence of the developing con-ception of the national god of Israel, the ark was grad-ually reinterpreted, to conform to the newer and more spiritual conception of the deity. The sacred stone or stones in the ark were now explained as having been deposited there by Moses at the divine command, and as being now sacred not because a god was thought to dwell in them, but because the Decalogue had been in-scribed upon them by God. And since the Decalogue was regarded as the basis of the covenant between the Deity and Israel, the ark now came to be known as  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh. Absolutely nothing is recorded in the Bible with re-gard to the history of the ark during the remaining pre-exilic period. The peculiar reference to the ark in Jer. 3: 16 and the fact that in his plan of the restored Tem- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Talmud: Mesekhet B'rakhot, in 4 volumes
A Study in the development of the Halakha and Haggadah in the Land of Israel and Babylonia.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Jesus of Nazareth
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Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

BOOKS OF KINGS


The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

Luah Hashanah 5780


JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Ezra Studies


Mishnayoth


Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.