Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARK OF THE COVENANT THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 478] ARK OF THE COVENANT ( Hebrew  aron;  aron haberith,  ark of the covenant;  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh;  aron ber-ith Yahveh yosheb hakerubim,  the ark of the cove-nant of Yahveh, Who sits upon the cherubim; also,  aron haeduth,  the ark of the testimony), a wooden chest regarded in ancient Israel as the most sacred ob-ject within the sanctuary. According to Biblical tradition, the ark was made by Moses at Gods command and deposited in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle in the wilderness. Because of its extreme sanctity it could be carried only by the priests. After the settlement of the Israelite tribes in Palestine the ark was deposited in the sanctuary at Shiloh. From there it was captured by the Philistines and carried off to Philistia as trophy of victory. After a short but disastrous stay in the Philistine country, the ark was sent back to the land of Israel. It abode for a time at Kiriath- jearim, whence David, after consider-able difficulty and delay, brought it to Jerusalem. There the king deposited it in a sanctuary which was in the form of a tent- like tabernacle. At the dedication of Solomons Temple, and as the climax of the entire celebration, the ark was brought in by the priests in solemn procession and deposited in the debir, or inner-most chamber, beneath the figures of the cherubim al-ready placed there. Moreover, according to the Biblical tradition, the two tablets of stone, upon which the Decalogue had been engraved by the Deity, were de-posited in the ark, which had in fact been made by Moses expressly for this purpose. And finally the Deity himself was believed to sit or dwell above the ark, upon the golden cover ( kapporeth) resting upon it, between the two figures of the cherubim which likewise rested upon the ark- cover. A careful study of all the passages in the Bible refer-ring to the ark, however, reveals many internal con-tradictions in the narratives, and these references are so numerous and so specific that it is impossible to ac-cept them literally. Modern Biblical scholars have therefore studied them carefully in connection with the analysis, both of the literary sources of the Biblical books and of the religious development that must have taken place in the centuries before and after the Israe-lite conquest of Canaan. They have come to the con-clusion that the attribution of the making of the ark to Moses is only the projecting of later events into the time of the great lawgiver in order to give them a greater validity. The connection of Moses with the ark, they feel, is the confusing element in the tradition, and when this is removed, it is possible to work out a clear and understandable sequence of events and ideas. The history of the ark may be reconstructed as follows: The ark was originally the cult object of the tribe of Ephraim. The first authentic historical record of it was that it stood in the Ephraimite tribal sanctuary at Shi-loh, where it was ministered to by a family of Levitical priests, of whom Eli and his two sons were the last representatives. The ark, in all likelihood, contained one, or perhaps two, sacred stones, or betyls ( beth  el), in which, in accordance with primitive Semitic religious concepts, the tribal deity of Ephraim, Yahveh, was thought to dwell. In this period the ark was known by its simplest and earliest name,  aron Yahveh,  ark of Yahveh. It was thought, among other things, to give Ark of the Covenant with the its worshippers victory in war, for which reason it was regularly carried into battle. Num. 10: 35- 36 probably records the formulas recited when the ark was taken from its sanctuary to be carried into battle, and upon its restoration to its place in the sanctuary. It was also thought to possess the power of choosing the way it wished to go, and of driving its bearers, whether hu-man beings or animals, forward along this way. Ac-cording to one tradition ( Num. 10: 33b), the ark had even, presumably in this manner, guided Israel on its journey through the desert. The ark was captured by the Philistines in the sec-ond battle of Eben- ezer, when the Ephraimites and their associated Israelite tribes were disastrously de-feated. The breaking out of a plague, however, prob-ably the bubonic plague, in the different cities to which the ark was carried, convinced the Philistines that, de-spite its capture, its deity was still powerful and hostile to them, and that they must therefore get rid of it. A further test, viz., that when placed in a wagon without a driver, and drawn by cows which had never been yoked before, and which were loathe to leave their calves, the ark could nevertheless draw these cows straight along the road leading back to the land of Is-rael, corroborated the suspicions of the Philistines. Re-stored to Israelite possession, the ark remained in the village of Kiriath- jearim, half- forgotten for approxi-mately a century ( I Sam. 4: 1 to 7: 1). Thence it was brought up to Jerusalem by David and placed in a position of high honor in the national sanctuary which he had set up there. Its presence here symbolized no doubt that the old tribal god of Ephraim was now one with the national god of all Israel. From there the ark naturally passed into the Temple of Solomon, though not at all in the manner described in I Kings 8: 1- 11. In time, under the influence of the developing con-ception of the national god of Israel, the ark was grad-ually reinterpreted, to conform to the newer and more spiritual conception of the deity. The sacred stone or stones in the ark were now explained as having been deposited there by Moses at the divine command, and as being now sacred not because a god was thought to dwell in them, but because the Decalogue had been in-scribed upon them by God. And since the Decalogue was regarded as the basis of the covenant between the Deity and Israel, the ark now came to be known as  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh. Absolutely nothing is recorded in the Bible with re-gard to the history of the ark during the remaining pre-exilic period. The peculiar reference to the ark in Jer. 3: 16 and the fact that in his plan of the restored Tem- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

THE EVOLUTION OF EXODUS TRADITION
A comprehensive literary inquiry into a history of the Exodus tradition as it has evolved through time. The book examines the narrative of Exodus, compares it to biblical sources as well as to information provided in Apocryphic, Pseudepigrahic, Hellenistic and Midrashic documents.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 1
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. This first volume of the two-volume set takes the story down to the middle of the thirteen century in Castile.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.