Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARK OF THE COVENANT THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 478] ARK OF THE COVENANT ( Hebrew  aron;  aron haberith,  ark of the covenant;  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh;  aron ber-ith Yahveh yosheb hakerubim,  the ark of the cove-nant of Yahveh, Who sits upon the cherubim; also,  aron haeduth,  the ark of the testimony), a wooden chest regarded in ancient Israel as the most sacred ob-ject within the sanctuary. According to Biblical tradition, the ark was made by Moses at Gods command and deposited in the Holy of Holies in the Tabernacle in the wilderness. Because of its extreme sanctity it could be carried only by the priests. After the settlement of the Israelite tribes in Palestine the ark was deposited in the sanctuary at Shiloh. From there it was captured by the Philistines and carried off to Philistia as trophy of victory. After a short but disastrous stay in the Philistine country, the ark was sent back to the land of Israel. It abode for a time at Kiriath- jearim, whence David, after consider-able difficulty and delay, brought it to Jerusalem. There the king deposited it in a sanctuary which was in the form of a tent- like tabernacle. At the dedication of Solomons Temple, and as the climax of the entire celebration, the ark was brought in by the priests in solemn procession and deposited in the debir, or inner-most chamber, beneath the figures of the cherubim al-ready placed there. Moreover, according to the Biblical tradition, the two tablets of stone, upon which the Decalogue had been engraved by the Deity, were de-posited in the ark, which had in fact been made by Moses expressly for this purpose. And finally the Deity himself was believed to sit or dwell above the ark, upon the golden cover ( kapporeth) resting upon it, between the two figures of the cherubim which likewise rested upon the ark- cover. A careful study of all the passages in the Bible refer-ring to the ark, however, reveals many internal con-tradictions in the narratives, and these references are so numerous and so specific that it is impossible to ac-cept them literally. Modern Biblical scholars have therefore studied them carefully in connection with the analysis, both of the literary sources of the Biblical books and of the religious development that must have taken place in the centuries before and after the Israe-lite conquest of Canaan. They have come to the con-clusion that the attribution of the making of the ark to Moses is only the projecting of later events into the time of the great lawgiver in order to give them a greater validity. The connection of Moses with the ark, they feel, is the confusing element in the tradition, and when this is removed, it is possible to work out a clear and understandable sequence of events and ideas. The history of the ark may be reconstructed as follows: The ark was originally the cult object of the tribe of Ephraim. The first authentic historical record of it was that it stood in the Ephraimite tribal sanctuary at Shi-loh, where it was ministered to by a family of Levitical priests, of whom Eli and his two sons were the last representatives. The ark, in all likelihood, contained one, or perhaps two, sacred stones, or betyls ( beth  el), in which, in accordance with primitive Semitic religious concepts, the tribal deity of Ephraim, Yahveh, was thought to dwell. In this period the ark was known by its simplest and earliest name,  aron Yahveh,  ark of Yahveh. It was thought, among other things, to give Ark of the Covenant with the its worshippers victory in war, for which reason it was regularly carried into battle. Num. 10: 35- 36 probably records the formulas recited when the ark was taken from its sanctuary to be carried into battle, and upon its restoration to its place in the sanctuary. It was also thought to possess the power of choosing the way it wished to go, and of driving its bearers, whether hu-man beings or animals, forward along this way. Ac-cording to one tradition ( Num. 10: 33b), the ark had even, presumably in this manner, guided Israel on its journey through the desert. The ark was captured by the Philistines in the sec-ond battle of Eben- ezer, when the Ephraimites and their associated Israelite tribes were disastrously de-feated. The breaking out of a plague, however, prob-ably the bubonic plague, in the different cities to which the ark was carried, convinced the Philistines that, de-spite its capture, its deity was still powerful and hostile to them, and that they must therefore get rid of it. A further test, viz., that when placed in a wagon without a driver, and drawn by cows which had never been yoked before, and which were loathe to leave their calves, the ark could nevertheless draw these cows straight along the road leading back to the land of Is-rael, corroborated the suspicions of the Philistines. Re-stored to Israelite possession, the ark remained in the village of Kiriath- jearim, half- forgotten for approxi-mately a century ( I Sam. 4: 1 to 7: 1). Thence it was brought up to Jerusalem by David and placed in a position of high honor in the national sanctuary which he had set up there. Its presence here symbolized no doubt that the old tribal god of Ephraim was now one with the national god of all Israel. From there the ark naturally passed into the Temple of Solomon, though not at all in the manner described in I Kings 8: 1- 11. In time, under the influence of the developing con-ception of the national god of Israel, the ark was grad-ually reinterpreted, to conform to the newer and more spiritual conception of the deity. The sacred stone or stones in the ark were now explained as having been deposited there by Moses at the divine command, and as being now sacred not because a god was thought to dwell in them, but because the Decalogue had been in-scribed upon them by God. And since the Decalogue was regarded as the basis of the covenant between the Deity and Israel, the ark now came to be known as  aron berith Yahveh,  ark of the covenant of Yahveh. Absolutely nothing is recorded in the Bible with re-gard to the history of the ark during the remaining pre-exilic period. The peculiar reference to the ark in Jer. 3: 16 and the fact that in his plan of the restored Tem- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

The Sephardi Legacy II


The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

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To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.