Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ARITHMETIC ARIZONA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 474] ©  Geographia Map Co., New York Arizona. The principal Jewish settlements are at Tucson, Phoenix, Douglas, Prescott and Bisbee ground, while Hasdai Crescas ( 1377- 1410) attempted to free Judaism from Aristotles all- embracing influ-ence. Yet although Crescas followed different paths in discussing problems of natural science and philosophy, he did not succeed in overcoming the basic Aristotelian concepts. The Aristotelian system influenced Biblical exegesis and even the sermon. Many Biblical verses and narratives were explained as allegorical interpreta-tions of the ideas of Aristotle. His tremendous influ-ence is due primarily to the systematic completeness and conclusiveness with which he presented his ideas, a fact which gave him the appearance of being the only scientific philosopher, and to the absence of myth-ological elements, such as are often introduced by Plato to illustrate his ideas. These could not but appear of-fensive to monotheistic thought. The story that Aristotle had personal relations with a Jewish sage is told by one of his pupils, Clearchus, who, however, held several fantastic ideas about the Jews. Hellenistic Judaism, which traces all Greek phi-losophy back to Jewish sources, made the same claim. Jews, Mohammedans and Christians of the Middle Ages firmly believed in the Jewish origin of Greek wis-dom in general and of that of Aristotle in particular. As a result, Jewish authors of the late Middle Ages de-veloped a definite Aristotle legend. Thus one legend reports that Alexander the Great appointed Aristotle governor in Jerusalem, and that he owed all his wisdom to the writings of Solomon which he found there. An-other has it that Simon the Just induced him to retract his irreligious views. Some make him a convert to Judaism, while still others speak of him as having been a Jew by birth. JULIUS GUTTMANN. Lit.: Horovitz, S., Die Stellung des Aristoteles bei den Juden des Mittelalters ( 1911); Wolf, Α.,  Aristotle in Me-diaeval Jewish Thought, in Aspects 0J the Hebrew Genius ( 1910) 119- 44; Husik, I., A History of Mediaeval Jewish Philosophy ( 1916) index. ARITHMETIC, see MATHEMATICS. ARIZONA, one of the states in the south- western part of the United States, with an area of 113,810 square miles. A territory, it became a state of the union on February 14, 1912, by virtue of a congres-sional act passed the previous year. Included in its total population of 412,000 ( 1937), are 1,755 Jews. There is no documentary record of early Jewish set-tiers in Arizona. There were forty- eight Jews in the territory during 1877, the number increasing to 2,000 by 1897. In 1907, the Jewish population of the state consisted of five- hundred, and in 1917, of 1,013. It was shortly after Arizona was made a territory, however, that Jews came into prominence in its frater-nal, commercial and political history. The earliest of the Jews to achieve distinction in Arizona was Dr. Herman Bendell, who in 1871 was appointed by Presi-dent Grant as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the territory. Henry Lesinsky owned a rich copper mine there in 1875. Six years later Isaac Levy was appointed Probate Judge of Yuma County. Jake Marx was se-lected by President Cleveland in 1894 to be Receiver of the United States Land Office at Prescott. Marx was also a member of the city council and treasurer of the Territory Insane Asylum, a post to which he had been appointed by Governor Zulick. In 1888, Morris Goldwater was grandmaster of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Arizona; at the same time, Abraham Meyer Cohn and Abraham Marx were two of the five elected Grand Officers. It was the same Morris Goldwater who served as Mayor of Prescott in 1878, was re- elected in 1895 and 1912, served as a member of the County Board of School Examiners for six years, as chairman of the Democratic Central Com-mittee from 1888 to 1889, and was vice- president of the Prescott National Bank. His father, Abraham Gold-water, was one of the pioneer settlers of Arizona and one of the first to establish a business enterprise there. Harry Arizona Drachman, of Tucson, was the first native- born Arizonian to become a Grand Master, and headed the Arizona Masons from 1912 to 1913. In 1922, Mrs. Barnett E. Marks was elected to represent Phoenix in the state legislature. Only one congregation, without a building of its own, existed in Arizona until 1907. In 1917, however, there were three congregations in the state, one of which ( Temple Emanu El of Tucson) had a building worth $ 12,500 and a congregational school with two teachers and fifteen pupils. The fourth congregation was organ-ized in 1927. Of these congregations, Temple Emanu El ( organized in 1909) and Talmud Torah Tucson He-brew Congregation ( organized in 1927) are situated in Tucson, which has a Jewish population of about 400; Congregation Emanuel ( organized in 1918) is lo-cated in Phoenix, which has a Jewish population of about 425; and Congregation Sons of Israel ( organ-ized in 1907) is located in Douglas, which has a Jewish population of about 100. Jews prominent in public office in Arizona during nearly a century include also the following: Herman Ehrenburg, delegate, territorial convention ( 1860). Charles Mayer, recorder, Tucson ( 1875- 1882). Michael Goldwater, mayor, Prescott ( 1882). Sam and Phil Drachman, members, 3rd and 4th territorial legis-latures. Morris Goldwater, member, 12th territorial legislature ( 1883); member, 20th territorial legislature Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or converse, knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

Notes on the New Translation of the Torah
Written with admirable clarity of style and thought, this volume of Notes is capable of being read and appreciated by anyone interested in the process by which modern and classical biblical scholarship are fused together to deepen our understanding of the single most significant book in the Jewish tradition.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with Jewish Worthies, this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Multi-platform, electronic edition of masoretic text of the Holy Scriptures placed next to classic Jewish translation.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Khurbm: 19141922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

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The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.