Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

with the air, created the light, airy and frolicsome Ariel of The Tempest. ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN, Hellenistic Jew-ish author of a history of the Jews, of which only one fragment, about Job, has survived. ARISTEAS, LETTER OF, a book written in Greek, which gives an account of the origin of the first Greek translation of the Bible ( Septuagint). It is writ-ten as a letter sent by Aristeas, an official of the Egyp-tian king Ptolemy Philadelphus, to his brother Philo-crates. It relates how the king, desirous of improving his library, resolved to have the sacred books of the Jews translated into Greek. He wrote to the high priest Eleazar, who sent to him seventy- two learned men for that purpose. These were entertained at a banquet by the king, who put a number of questions to them in order to test their wisdom, and was exceed-ingly pleased with the wisdom of their replies. They then proceeded to translate the entire Five Books of Moses, and finished in exactly seventy- two clays. Up to comparatively modern times the book was re-garded as a genuine letter, and even at present there are many who defend its authenticity. Hody was the first to demolish its claim to be the work of a contem-porary of Philadelphus, and to point out certain fea-tures of the letter which would brand it as a fiction composed by a Jew: errors in the relationships of per-sons, the general improbability of the translation in so short a time and the tone of glorification of the Jewish religion. Most scholars regard the work as the produc-tion of a Jew of the 2nd cent. B. C. E. It should be noted that the story of the translation is merely brought in to furnish the background for the Hellenis-tic exposition of Jewish teachings contained in the dis-course of the king and the seventy- two translators. See also: SEPTUAGINT. Lit.: The best edition is in Svvetc, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek ( 1914). There is a transla-tion made by Η. T. Andrews in Charles, R. H., The Apocry-pha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. 2 ( 1913) 83 et seq. See also: Thackeray, H. St. J., Early Christian Documents, Society for Promotion of Christian Knowledge; Swete, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, pp. 2, 10- 23, 279, 371, 498- 99. ARISTOBULUS I ( Hebrew name, Judah), Has-monean king of Judea, son of John Hyrcanus, b. about 140 B. C. E.; d. 103 B. C. E. He succeeded his father as prince and high priest, to which he added the title of king, the first of the Hasmoneans to assume this rank. Although his reign was outwardly successful, being marked by the conquest of a large part of Iturea, it was disordered by domestic intrigues. Aristobulus im-prisoned his step- mother and three of his brothers, re-serving his favor for another brother Antigonus. The latter was accidentally killed as a result of the precau-tions with which the king, fearing assassination, had surrounded himself; and Aristobulus died after a reign of barely a year, his death, according to Josephus, re-suiting from his remorse and despair. ARISTOBULUS II, Hasmonean, son of Alexander Jannaeus and Salome Alexandra; b. about 100 B. C. E.; d. 49. He seized the royal crown and the office of high priest from his older brother Hyrcanus II in 67 B. C. E. and successfully maintained it, later, in battle against Coin of the realm of Aristo-bulus I Hyrcanus and the Nabatean Aretas. Dethroned by Pompey and carried into captivity to Rome in 63 B. C. E., he later escaped and in 55 B. C. E. attempted an uprising in Judea against the Romans, but was cap-tured and sent back to Rome. In 49 B. C. E. Julius Caesar gave Aristobulus a Roman army with which the latter might protect Caesars interests in Syria against Pompey; but Aristobulus was poisoned by the friends of Pompey even before he left Rome. ARISTOBULUS III, Hasmonean, son of Alexan-der and Alexandra and grandson of Aristobulus II. When but a youth of seventeen he was named high priest by his brother- in- law Herod the Great, at the instigation of Cleopatra and Mark Antony in 35 B. C. E. Shortly afterwards, while bathing in the river, he was killed by servants, at the secret command of Herod. He was the last male representative of the Hasmoneans. ARISTOBULUS OF ΡANEAS. The name of a philosopher called Aristobulus is attached to a writing supposedly addressed to Ptolemy VI Philometor ( 181- 145 B. C. E.); of the manuscript only fragments have been preserved, its title must have been something like  An Explanation of the Laws of Moses. The book attempts to explain away the anthropomorphisms of the Bible by means of allegorical explanations, and to prove that the Greek poets and philosophers were de-pendent on the Jewish Scriptures. ARISTOTLE, Greek philosopher, teacher of Alex-ander the Great, b. 384 B. C. E.; d. 322 B. C. E. In antiquity Aristotle had little influence on Jewish litera-ture. Hellenistic Judaism was primarily under the influ-ence of Plato and Stoicism. It was affected by Aris-totles doctrines only through the medium of Stoic phi-losophy. However, the Jewish philosophy of religion of the Middle Ages was under Aristotles influence from its very beginning. Even Saadia ( 10th cent.), who in the main followed the Mutazilites, drew upon Aristotle in logic, psychology and metaphysics. And the Jewish thinkers of the 11th and 12th centuries who were de-pendent mainly on Neo- Platonic concepts show strong Aristotelian influence in their views on natural science. In the further development of Jewish philosophy, moreover, not merely isolated ideas, but the whole sys-tem of Aristotle was accepted, and everything was made to conform to its principles. Abraham ibn Daud ( 12th cent.) was the first to adopt the system in its entirety; Maimonides ( 12th cent.) made it supreme in Jewish philosophy. Aristotle then became, in the world of Jewish thought, of later Arabic philosophy, and of the Christian philosophy of the second half of the Middle Ages,  the philosopher par excellence, hon-ored by the devotees of philosophy as the highest em-bodiment of philosophic truth, and attacked by its op-ponents as the arch- enemy of religion. Of the independent and productive Jewish thinkers of the later Middle Ages, Gersonides ( Levi ben Ger-shon; 14th cent.) stood completely upon Aristotelian [ 473] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN ARISTOTLE Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Nazvanie
asdf

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
qwer

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
sdfg

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
asdf

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.