Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

with the air, created the light, airy and frolicsome Ariel of The Tempest. ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN, Hellenistic Jew-ish author of a history of the Jews, of which only one fragment, about Job, has survived. ARISTEAS, LETTER OF, a book written in Greek, which gives an account of the origin of the first Greek translation of the Bible ( Septuagint). It is writ-ten as a letter sent by Aristeas, an official of the Egyp-tian king Ptolemy Philadelphus, to his brother Philo-crates. It relates how the king, desirous of improving his library, resolved to have the sacred books of the Jews translated into Greek. He wrote to the high priest Eleazar, who sent to him seventy- two learned men for that purpose. These were entertained at a banquet by the king, who put a number of questions to them in order to test their wisdom, and was exceed-ingly pleased with the wisdom of their replies. They then proceeded to translate the entire Five Books of Moses, and finished in exactly seventy- two clays. Up to comparatively modern times the book was re-garded as a genuine letter, and even at present there are many who defend its authenticity. Hody was the first to demolish its claim to be the work of a contem-porary of Philadelphus, and to point out certain fea-tures of the letter which would brand it as a fiction composed by a Jew: errors in the relationships of per-sons, the general improbability of the translation in so short a time and the tone of glorification of the Jewish religion. Most scholars regard the work as the produc-tion of a Jew of the 2nd cent. B. C. E. It should be noted that the story of the translation is merely brought in to furnish the background for the Hellenis-tic exposition of Jewish teachings contained in the dis-course of the king and the seventy- two translators. See also: SEPTUAGINT. Lit.: The best edition is in Svvetc, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek ( 1914). There is a transla-tion made by Η. T. Andrews in Charles, R. H., The Apocry-pha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. 2 ( 1913) 83 et seq. See also: Thackeray, H. St. J., Early Christian Documents, Society for Promotion of Christian Knowledge; Swete, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, pp. 2, 10- 23, 279, 371, 498- 99. ARISTOBULUS I ( Hebrew name, Judah), Has-monean king of Judea, son of John Hyrcanus, b. about 140 B. C. E.; d. 103 B. C. E. He succeeded his father as prince and high priest, to which he added the title of king, the first of the Hasmoneans to assume this rank. Although his reign was outwardly successful, being marked by the conquest of a large part of Iturea, it was disordered by domestic intrigues. Aristobulus im-prisoned his step- mother and three of his brothers, re-serving his favor for another brother Antigonus. The latter was accidentally killed as a result of the precau-tions with which the king, fearing assassination, had surrounded himself; and Aristobulus died after a reign of barely a year, his death, according to Josephus, re-suiting from his remorse and despair. ARISTOBULUS II, Hasmonean, son of Alexander Jannaeus and Salome Alexandra; b. about 100 B. C. E.; d. 49. He seized the royal crown and the office of high priest from his older brother Hyrcanus II in 67 B. C. E. and successfully maintained it, later, in battle against Coin of the realm of Aristo-bulus I Hyrcanus and the Nabatean Aretas. Dethroned by Pompey and carried into captivity to Rome in 63 B. C. E., he later escaped and in 55 B. C. E. attempted an uprising in Judea against the Romans, but was cap-tured and sent back to Rome. In 49 B. C. E. Julius Caesar gave Aristobulus a Roman army with which the latter might protect Caesars interests in Syria against Pompey; but Aristobulus was poisoned by the friends of Pompey even before he left Rome. ARISTOBULUS III, Hasmonean, son of Alexan-der and Alexandra and grandson of Aristobulus II. When but a youth of seventeen he was named high priest by his brother- in- law Herod the Great, at the instigation of Cleopatra and Mark Antony in 35 B. C. E. Shortly afterwards, while bathing in the river, he was killed by servants, at the secret command of Herod. He was the last male representative of the Hasmoneans. ARISTOBULUS OF ΡANEAS. The name of a philosopher called Aristobulus is attached to a writing supposedly addressed to Ptolemy VI Philometor ( 181- 145 B. C. E.); of the manuscript only fragments have been preserved, its title must have been something like  An Explanation of the Laws of Moses. The book attempts to explain away the anthropomorphisms of the Bible by means of allegorical explanations, and to prove that the Greek poets and philosophers were de-pendent on the Jewish Scriptures. ARISTOTLE, Greek philosopher, teacher of Alex-ander the Great, b. 384 B. C. E.; d. 322 B. C. E. In antiquity Aristotle had little influence on Jewish litera-ture. Hellenistic Judaism was primarily under the influ-ence of Plato and Stoicism. It was affected by Aris-totles doctrines only through the medium of Stoic phi-losophy. However, the Jewish philosophy of religion of the Middle Ages was under Aristotles influence from its very beginning. Even Saadia ( 10th cent.), who in the main followed the Mutazilites, drew upon Aristotle in logic, psychology and metaphysics. And the Jewish thinkers of the 11th and 12th centuries who were de-pendent mainly on Neo- Platonic concepts show strong Aristotelian influence in their views on natural science. In the further development of Jewish philosophy, moreover, not merely isolated ideas, but the whole sys-tem of Aristotle was accepted, and everything was made to conform to its principles. Abraham ibn Daud ( 12th cent.) was the first to adopt the system in its entirety; Maimonides ( 12th cent.) made it supreme in Jewish philosophy. Aristotle then became, in the world of Jewish thought, of later Arabic philosophy, and of the Christian philosophy of the second half of the Middle Ages,  the philosopher par excellence, hon-ored by the devotees of philosophy as the highest em-bodiment of philosophic truth, and attacked by its op-ponents as the arch- enemy of religion. Of the independent and productive Jewish thinkers of the later Middle Ages, Gersonides ( Levi ben Ger-shon; 14th cent.) stood completely upon Aristotelian [ 473] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN ARISTOTLE Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, a chronicle of heart-rending events recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

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Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

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Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Education in Israel
Education in Israel gives a full account of the present school system in Israel and should be of interest to educationists of the modern world. For Israel is a microcosm of the modern world.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

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Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as anchor and compass for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.