Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

with the air, created the light, airy and frolicsome Ariel of The Tempest. ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN, Hellenistic Jew-ish author of a history of the Jews, of which only one fragment, about Job, has survived. ARISTEAS, LETTER OF, a book written in Greek, which gives an account of the origin of the first Greek translation of the Bible ( Septuagint). It is writ-ten as a letter sent by Aristeas, an official of the Egyp-tian king Ptolemy Philadelphus, to his brother Philo-crates. It relates how the king, desirous of improving his library, resolved to have the sacred books of the Jews translated into Greek. He wrote to the high priest Eleazar, who sent to him seventy- two learned men for that purpose. These were entertained at a banquet by the king, who put a number of questions to them in order to test their wisdom, and was exceed-ingly pleased with the wisdom of their replies. They then proceeded to translate the entire Five Books of Moses, and finished in exactly seventy- two clays. Up to comparatively modern times the book was re-garded as a genuine letter, and even at present there are many who defend its authenticity. Hody was the first to demolish its claim to be the work of a contem-porary of Philadelphus, and to point out certain fea-tures of the letter which would brand it as a fiction composed by a Jew: errors in the relationships of per-sons, the general improbability of the translation in so short a time and the tone of glorification of the Jewish religion. Most scholars regard the work as the produc-tion of a Jew of the 2nd cent. B. C. E. It should be noted that the story of the translation is merely brought in to furnish the background for the Hellenis-tic exposition of Jewish teachings contained in the dis-course of the king and the seventy- two translators. See also: SEPTUAGINT. Lit.: The best edition is in Svvetc, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek ( 1914). There is a transla-tion made by Η. T. Andrews in Charles, R. H., The Apocry-pha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. 2 ( 1913) 83 et seq. See also: Thackeray, H. St. J., Early Christian Documents, Society for Promotion of Christian Knowledge; Swete, H. B., Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, pp. 2, 10- 23, 279, 371, 498- 99. ARISTOBULUS I ( Hebrew name, Judah), Has-monean king of Judea, son of John Hyrcanus, b. about 140 B. C. E.; d. 103 B. C. E. He succeeded his father as prince and high priest, to which he added the title of king, the first of the Hasmoneans to assume this rank. Although his reign was outwardly successful, being marked by the conquest of a large part of Iturea, it was disordered by domestic intrigues. Aristobulus im-prisoned his step- mother and three of his brothers, re-serving his favor for another brother Antigonus. The latter was accidentally killed as a result of the precau-tions with which the king, fearing assassination, had surrounded himself; and Aristobulus died after a reign of barely a year, his death, according to Josephus, re-suiting from his remorse and despair. ARISTOBULUS II, Hasmonean, son of Alexander Jannaeus and Salome Alexandra; b. about 100 B. C. E.; d. 49. He seized the royal crown and the office of high priest from his older brother Hyrcanus II in 67 B. C. E. and successfully maintained it, later, in battle against Coin of the realm of Aristo-bulus I Hyrcanus and the Nabatean Aretas. Dethroned by Pompey and carried into captivity to Rome in 63 B. C. E., he later escaped and in 55 B. C. E. attempted an uprising in Judea against the Romans, but was cap-tured and sent back to Rome. In 49 B. C. E. Julius Caesar gave Aristobulus a Roman army with which the latter might protect Caesars interests in Syria against Pompey; but Aristobulus was poisoned by the friends of Pompey even before he left Rome. ARISTOBULUS III, Hasmonean, son of Alexan-der and Alexandra and grandson of Aristobulus II. When but a youth of seventeen he was named high priest by his brother- in- law Herod the Great, at the instigation of Cleopatra and Mark Antony in 35 B. C. E. Shortly afterwards, while bathing in the river, he was killed by servants, at the secret command of Herod. He was the last male representative of the Hasmoneans. ARISTOBULUS OF ΡANEAS. The name of a philosopher called Aristobulus is attached to a writing supposedly addressed to Ptolemy VI Philometor ( 181- 145 B. C. E.); of the manuscript only fragments have been preserved, its title must have been something like  An Explanation of the Laws of Moses. The book attempts to explain away the anthropomorphisms of the Bible by means of allegorical explanations, and to prove that the Greek poets and philosophers were de-pendent on the Jewish Scriptures. ARISTOTLE, Greek philosopher, teacher of Alex-ander the Great, b. 384 B. C. E.; d. 322 B. C. E. In antiquity Aristotle had little influence on Jewish litera-ture. Hellenistic Judaism was primarily under the influ-ence of Plato and Stoicism. It was affected by Aris-totles doctrines only through the medium of Stoic phi-losophy. However, the Jewish philosophy of religion of the Middle Ages was under Aristotles influence from its very beginning. Even Saadia ( 10th cent.), who in the main followed the Mutazilites, drew upon Aristotle in logic, psychology and metaphysics. And the Jewish thinkers of the 11th and 12th centuries who were de-pendent mainly on Neo- Platonic concepts show strong Aristotelian influence in their views on natural science. In the further development of Jewish philosophy, moreover, not merely isolated ideas, but the whole sys-tem of Aristotle was accepted, and everything was made to conform to its principles. Abraham ibn Daud ( 12th cent.) was the first to adopt the system in its entirety; Maimonides ( 12th cent.) made it supreme in Jewish philosophy. Aristotle then became, in the world of Jewish thought, of later Arabic philosophy, and of the Christian philosophy of the second half of the Middle Ages,  the philosopher par excellence, hon-ored by the devotees of philosophy as the highest em-bodiment of philosophic truth, and attacked by its op-ponents as the arch- enemy of religion. Of the independent and productive Jewish thinkers of the later Middle Ages, Gersonides ( Levi ben Ger-shon; 14th cent.) stood completely upon Aristotelian [ 473] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARISTEAS THE HISTORIAN ARISTOTLE Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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Ezra Studies


History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
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JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Religion and Zionism First Encounters


Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.