Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 471] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARGENTINA lands of origin: Morocco, the Balkan countries, Syria and Palestine; these Moroccan Jews form the oldest Sephardic group in Argentina. They number about 350 families. The Sephardim from the Balkan lands number about 8,000. The Syrian Sephardim came principally from Damascus and Aleppo, and number about 10,000. They are the richest and the most nu-merous of the Sephardic groups. The Syrian Sephardim are extremely Orthodox, and have several synagogues and Talmud Torahs in which Bible and Talmud are taught in Arabic. The smallest Sephardic group is that of the Palestinian Sephardim, numbering about one hundred families. The Sephardic Jews of these four groups have their own rigid divisions; each group has its own synagogues, Talmud Torahs, charitable organi-zations, and separate cemeteries; thus the Sephardim of Buenos Aires alone have seven separate cemeteries. Among the Ashkenazim of Argentina, a group of 30,- 000 is concentrated in the various colonies of the ICA. These colonies occupy a total area of nearly 1,500,000 acres, with 3,042 families of colonists, of whom more than one- third are land- owners, and with 2,183 fami-lies of agricultural workers, artisans and tradesmen. Most of the colonists are prosperous ( the average value per colonist of the live- stock and buildings is $ 4,000). In all, about fifty per cent of the Argentinian Jews are, according to the latest figures, engaged in commerce and trade; twenty- five per cent are artisans; ten per cent, workmen; fifteen per cent, farmers and colonists. In all the colonies there are co- operative loan offices, benevolent societies, libraries, and Zionist groups. The schools founded and for more than twenty years main-tained by the ICA are now in charge of the state, ex-cept as regards religious instruction. This instruction is given by some sixty teachers chosen by the board of directors of the Religious Court which has its seat at Buenos Aires and is subsidized by the ICA. Each agri-cultural centre has its own synagogue and a Shohet ( ritual slaughterer) who is at the same time Mohel and cantor. The success of the agricultural colonies has been one of the principal factors which led the government to favor the immigration of Jews into the country. Outside of the colonies the Jews are intermingled everywhere with the non- Jewish population. Neverthe-less, at the beginning of their residence in the country, they like to live side by side with other Jews. This is why certain streets of Buenos Aires ( such as Lavalle, Corrientes, and Junin), without being ghettos, give the impression of being inhabited by a majority of Jews. Here one hears Yiddish spoken fluently, and the shops have signs written in Hebrew characters. Here are 10- cated the Jewish theatres, the offices of the two great dailies, Die Yedische Zeitung and Die Presse, several Jewish banks, the most important cf which is El Banco Popular Israelita, founded in 1919, commercial co-operatives, the principal ones being Sociedad Comercial Israelita Ltda., founded in 1916 and now having 582 members, and the Cooperación Comercial Israelita Argentina Ltda., founded in 1917 and now with 585 members, finally co- operative associations of furniture manufacturers, tailors, and the like. Of especial impor-tance is the Jewish Immigrants Protective Society, with its headquarters at Buenos Aires; it is supported by the American HIAS through the HICEM, the international Jewish immigrant aid society. In addition, there are published at Buenos Aires two weekly newspapers in Yiddish and one in Hebrew, and four weekly period-icals in Spanish. In several of the cities in the inner re-gions, local Yiddish newspapers are published. Yiddish literature in Argentina is virtually of post- War origin, but rich and growing in quantity. Among the talented Jewish writers of the country are Gerschu-noff, J. Botashansky, N. Zuker, Zshitnitsky, S. Glazman, M. Koifman and S. Resnick. In their social and religious life the Argentinian Jews are grouped according to their country of origin, but no union of these diverse groups exists. Neither is there any official representative body of Argentinian Jewry. The oldest Jewish institution, La Congregación Is-raelita, founded in 1868, comprised at first German, English, and French Jews, but little by little these have, for the most part, given way to Russian and Roumanian Jews. Its spiritual head for twenty years was Rabbi Halphon, a graduate of the Séminaire Israelite of Paris; in 1936 he was succeeded by G. Schlesinger. He came to the country in 1904 through the efforts of the ICA, which at the same time charged him with a rabbinical mission in the colonies and with the direction of the Religious Court. Before him there was no rabbi in Argentina with modern training. The other religious associations, like the Tal-mud Thorah Horischono, are ministered to by rabbis trained in the Yeshivas of Eastern Europe. For the past two years the Sephardic Jews have recognized as their religious leader Rabbi Djaen, of the Constantinople Seminary. Their principal temples at Buenos Aires are that of the Congregación Israelita Latina, founded in 1891, and that of the Comunidad Israelita Sefaradi, founded in 1914; several more Sephardic synagogues are located in the provinces. The social institutions of the Jews of Argentina are numerous. One of the most important is the Sociedad Hebraica Argentina founded in 1923 and numbering almost 2,000 members; it has an important Hebrew library, and publishes works on Judaism. Many of the social institutions of the Jews of Argentina have a Zionist character such as the Federación Sionista Ar-gentina, founded in 1910 by Jacobo Joselevich, Nathan Gesang, and Solomon Liebeschütz. The Federación has more than seventy affiliated societies or branches in all parts of Argentina. The most important Jewish society of Argentina is the Chevrah Keduscha Aschkenazi founded in 1894 and numbering more than 16,000 members. Among the extremely numerous philanthrop-ical societies there may be mentioned the Ezrah Society which, founded in 1900 and possessed of 10,500 mem-bers, has constructed a large modern hospital; the Liga Israelita Contra la Tuberculosis, with 6,600 members which supports a home for girls; the Ahnosat Orhim, with 1,200 members. About 1900 the Jews of Argentina began a vigorous campaign against the Jewish white slave traders in the country who were considered outcasts and branded as Tmanyini ( unclean ones). It was customary to see signs posted on doors, theatres, clubs and synagogues, reading Tmanyini Verboten ( unclean ones not The Ezras Noshim organization was founded to aid the victims of white slavery. After a struggle of more than twenty years, the campaign came to a suc-cessful conclusion with the fall of the Migdol brothers, Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Studies in Jewish Education VI: Teaching Jewish Values
The emphasis of this volume is on teaching of Jewish values and the development of the curriculum.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.