Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 471] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ARGENTINA lands of origin: Morocco, the Balkan countries, Syria and Palestine; these Moroccan Jews form the oldest Sephardic group in Argentina. They number about 350 families. The Sephardim from the Balkan lands number about 8,000. The Syrian Sephardim came principally from Damascus and Aleppo, and number about 10,000. They are the richest and the most nu-merous of the Sephardic groups. The Syrian Sephardim are extremely Orthodox, and have several synagogues and Talmud Torahs in which Bible and Talmud are taught in Arabic. The smallest Sephardic group is that of the Palestinian Sephardim, numbering about one hundred families. The Sephardic Jews of these four groups have their own rigid divisions; each group has its own synagogues, Talmud Torahs, charitable organi-zations, and separate cemeteries; thus the Sephardim of Buenos Aires alone have seven separate cemeteries. Among the Ashkenazim of Argentina, a group of 30,- 000 is concentrated in the various colonies of the ICA. These colonies occupy a total area of nearly 1,500,000 acres, with 3,042 families of colonists, of whom more than one- third are land- owners, and with 2,183 fami-lies of agricultural workers, artisans and tradesmen. Most of the colonists are prosperous ( the average value per colonist of the live- stock and buildings is $ 4,000). In all, about fifty per cent of the Argentinian Jews are, according to the latest figures, engaged in commerce and trade; twenty- five per cent are artisans; ten per cent, workmen; fifteen per cent, farmers and colonists. In all the colonies there are co- operative loan offices, benevolent societies, libraries, and Zionist groups. The schools founded and for more than twenty years main-tained by the ICA are now in charge of the state, ex-cept as regards religious instruction. This instruction is given by some sixty teachers chosen by the board of directors of the Religious Court which has its seat at Buenos Aires and is subsidized by the ICA. Each agri-cultural centre has its own synagogue and a Shohet ( ritual slaughterer) who is at the same time Mohel and cantor. The success of the agricultural colonies has been one of the principal factors which led the government to favor the immigration of Jews into the country. Outside of the colonies the Jews are intermingled everywhere with the non- Jewish population. Neverthe-less, at the beginning of their residence in the country, they like to live side by side with other Jews. This is why certain streets of Buenos Aires ( such as Lavalle, Corrientes, and Junin), without being ghettos, give the impression of being inhabited by a majority of Jews. Here one hears Yiddish spoken fluently, and the shops have signs written in Hebrew characters. Here are 10- cated the Jewish theatres, the offices of the two great dailies, Die Yedische Zeitung and Die Presse, several Jewish banks, the most important cf which is El Banco Popular Israelita, founded in 1919, commercial co-operatives, the principal ones being Sociedad Comercial Israelita Ltda., founded in 1916 and now having 582 members, and the Cooperación Comercial Israelita Argentina Ltda., founded in 1917 and now with 585 members, finally co- operative associations of furniture manufacturers, tailors, and the like. Of especial impor-tance is the Jewish Immigrants Protective Society, with its headquarters at Buenos Aires; it is supported by the American HIAS through the HICEM, the international Jewish immigrant aid society. In addition, there are published at Buenos Aires two weekly newspapers in Yiddish and one in Hebrew, and four weekly period-icals in Spanish. In several of the cities in the inner re-gions, local Yiddish newspapers are published. Yiddish literature in Argentina is virtually of post- War origin, but rich and growing in quantity. Among the talented Jewish writers of the country are Gerschu-noff, J. Botashansky, N. Zuker, Zshitnitsky, S. Glazman, M. Koifman and S. Resnick. In their social and religious life the Argentinian Jews are grouped according to their country of origin, but no union of these diverse groups exists. Neither is there any official representative body of Argentinian Jewry. The oldest Jewish institution, La Congregación Is-raelita, founded in 1868, comprised at first German, English, and French Jews, but little by little these have, for the most part, given way to Russian and Roumanian Jews. Its spiritual head for twenty years was Rabbi Halphon, a graduate of the Séminaire Israelite of Paris; in 1936 he was succeeded by G. Schlesinger. He came to the country in 1904 through the efforts of the ICA, which at the same time charged him with a rabbinical mission in the colonies and with the direction of the Religious Court. Before him there was no rabbi in Argentina with modern training. The other religious associations, like the Tal-mud Thorah Horischono, are ministered to by rabbis trained in the Yeshivas of Eastern Europe. For the past two years the Sephardic Jews have recognized as their religious leader Rabbi Djaen, of the Constantinople Seminary. Their principal temples at Buenos Aires are that of the Congregación Israelita Latina, founded in 1891, and that of the Comunidad Israelita Sefaradi, founded in 1914; several more Sephardic synagogues are located in the provinces. The social institutions of the Jews of Argentina are numerous. One of the most important is the Sociedad Hebraica Argentina founded in 1923 and numbering almost 2,000 members; it has an important Hebrew library, and publishes works on Judaism. Many of the social institutions of the Jews of Argentina have a Zionist character such as the Federación Sionista Ar-gentina, founded in 1910 by Jacobo Joselevich, Nathan Gesang, and Solomon Liebeschütz. The Federación has more than seventy affiliated societies or branches in all parts of Argentina. The most important Jewish society of Argentina is the Chevrah Keduscha Aschkenazi founded in 1894 and numbering more than 16,000 members. Among the extremely numerous philanthrop-ical societies there may be mentioned the Ezrah Society which, founded in 1900 and possessed of 10,500 mem-bers, has constructed a large modern hospital; the Liga Israelita Contra la Tuberculosis, with 6,600 members which supports a home for girls; the Ahnosat Orhim, with 1,200 members. About 1900 the Jews of Argentina began a vigorous campaign against the Jewish white slave traders in the country who were considered outcasts and branded as Tmanyini ( unclean ones). It was customary to see signs posted on doors, theatres, clubs and synagogues, reading Tmanyini Verboten ( unclean ones not The Ezras Noshim organization was founded to aid the victims of white slavery. After a struggle of more than twenty years, the campaign came to a suc-cessful conclusion with the fall of the Migdol brothers, Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis
The JPS Torah Commentary series guides readers through the words and ideas of the Torah. Each volume is the work of a scholar who stands at the pinnacle of his field.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

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Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

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Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

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The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.