Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 207] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA who had been made aware of the gathering rebellion of the Jews, admonished the exilarch to dissuade Alroy from his warlike intentions and threatened a wholesale destruction of the Jews. The exilarch, as well as the Gaon of Bagdad and the leaders of the more impor-tant communities of Persia, demanded that Alroy, under threat of excommunication, desist from his activities. Declaring that the time of redemption had not yet come and that the signs had not yet appeared, they said he was jeopardizing the lives of all Jews. Alroy ignored their demands. His career, however, soon ended in assassination at the hands of his father-in- law, who was bribed by the governor of Amadia. Many continued to believe in his messianic role even after his death. A sect of Menahemites ( followers who used his other name) persisted for a long time among the Jews of Azerbaijan. Benjamin Disraeli used Alroy as the central figure of his novel The Wondrous Tale of Alroy, without, however, adhering strictly to the historical facts. See also: YUDGHAN. ABBA HILLEL SILVER. Lit.: Graetz, Η., History of the Jews, vol. 3 ( 1927) 430- 33; Loeb, I., in Revue des etudes juives, vol. 16, p. 215; vol. 17, p. 304; Póznanski, S., Babylonische Geonim im nachgäomschen Zeitalter ( 1914) 12- 14; Silver, A. H., A History of Messianic Speculation in Israel ( 1927) 79- 80. ALSACE, a French province situated between the Rhine River and the Vosges Mountains. Jews are reported to have settled in Alsace as far back as the Roman period. However, actual evidence of their existence there is first offered by Benjamin of Tudela who, in the narrative of his travels, mentions Jews as residing in Alsace in the second half of the 12th cent. Some of the Jews who were expelled from France in 1147 are believed to have settled in Alsace. Reports are extant from the beginning of the 13th cent. con-cerning the settlement of Jews in Ehnheim, Hagenau, Rosheim, and Strasbourg. The social and economic position of the Jews in the earliest period of their settlement appears to have been favorable. They were designated as servi camerae imperialis ( servants of the imperial chamber) and stood under the direct protection of the Holy Roman Emperor. From regulations in the municipal law of Strasbourg drawn up in 1200 it appears that they were regarded as citizens. They were engaged for the most part in the money and merchandise trades. Ec-clesiastical and secular princes were their debtors. Their cultural status reflected their favorable social and economic conditions. There were synagogues in Strasbourg and Colmar and a cemetery is mentioned in Strasbourg in the 12th cent. The city of Stras-bourg was the cultural center of Alsatian Jewry and thither Jews from other cities went to study under the prominent rabbis who resided there. A change for the worse came only after the fall of the Hohenstaufen rulers. Following the curtailment of the imperial power at that time, the secular and ecclesiastical rulers became virtually independent. Re-strictive legislation directed against the Jews was en-acted. The Strasbourg statute of 1322 prohibited Jews from acquiring houses and landed property. Debts owed to Jews were cancelled after five years. As early as the 13th cent. there were persecutions of the Jews in Alsace. The most serious were those in Weissenburg in 1270; the Armleder persecution in 1337- 38; and the persecutions in 1348- 49, the period of the Black Death, when most of the Jewish com-munities in Alsace were destroyed. Resettlement of the Jews in Alsace began in the second half of the 14th cent. when new Jewish com-munities were founded, especially in the free imperial cities: in Hagenau ( 1353), Colmar ( 1361) and Stras-bourg ( 1369). Jews settled also in the landgravate of Upper Alsace ( 1360). The situation of the Jewish communities in this period of settlement was preca- Synagogue at Rufach, Alsace, built sketch by Herr Winkler, government rious. They were subjected to repeated attacks, plun-derings and expulsions, particularly in the disorders accompanying the depredations of the hordes of Schinder ( 1439), the Burgundian Wars ( 1476- 78) and the Peasant War ( 1525). The social and economic status of the Jews in these communities was far from favorable. They were sub-jected to numerous extortions and exactions in ad-dition to the poll- tax. They were required to wear the Jew- badge. They were forbidden to maintain any public synagogue or school, to bury their dead on Sunday or on Christian holidays and to bear arms. They could not acquire real estate. Numerous restric-tions on their right to trade were enacted. At the beginning of the 17th cent. most of the Jews were merely peddlers and dealers in cattle. Many of them were characterized as beggars. It is not surprising to find that under these conditions the number of Jews in Alsace in this period ( 1349- 1648) was small, the total Jewish population never exceeding 1,000. A notable increase in the Jewish population of Alsace took place in the 17th cent., caused mainly by the Thirty Years War ( 1618- 48). After the Peace of Westphalia ( 1648) and the final occupation of Alsace by France, many Jews from the neighboring districts of southern and central Germany settled in the vil-lages of Alsace. The result of this development was that the Jews of Alsace in this period became a rural class, which was not permitted, however, to engage in agricultural pursuits. They retained this status well into the 18th cent. The growth of the Jewish population in Alsace is indicated by the fact that while at the end of the 17th cent. the number was 3,655, during the next cen-tury it had increased to about 20,000. The latter figure does not include those who did not have them- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

BOOKS OF KINGS


History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Jesus of Nazareth
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Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

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Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 7
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Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Ezra Studies


Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.