Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALROY THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 206] wisdom of the alphabet. God tied the twenty- two letters to his tongue and revealed to him all the  mys-teries of the universe. The use of the alphabet and sacred words for mys-tic purposes is associated with the name of Moses. During his sojourn on Mount Sinai he received in-struction in the shimush hatorah, the uses of Biblical passages as effective means of attaining desired results ( Moses Botarel, Maayan Hahochmah). A legend informs us that when Moses was on high, he saw the Lord binding crowns on the letters. When Moses asked for an interpretation, he was told that many generations thereafter a man would appear by the name of Akiba ben Joseph who would attach mounds of rules to every tip of the letters of the Torah. The two works attributed to Akiba, the Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba and Sefer Hatagin, go back to this legend. Bezalel, the builder of the Tabernacle in the wilder-ness, knew how to combine the letters by which heaven and earth were created ( Ber. 55a). Jubilees enu-merates the twenty- two works of creation during the six days, corresponding to the twenty- two generations from Adam to Jacob, the twenty- two books of the Bible ( as Jubilees counted them), and the twenty-two letters of the alphabet ( Jubilees 2: 23). The most important letters of the alphabet are of course those which spell out the Tetragrammaton, or Name of God, Υ Η V Η. This word is not to be pro-nounced as written, but must be read as  adonai,  the Lord; and each letter has an especial potency. In Yorna 69b and Sanh. 64a there is a legend that the Men of the Great Synagogue prayed to God that he remove the evil spirit from the world. Immediately a scroll fell from heaven bearing the word  emeth,  truth, indicating that  the seal of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is truth. Compare the passage in Dan. 10: 21,  Howbeit I will declare unto thee that which is inscribed in the writing of truth. The three letters that compose the word truth, אמת , are found at the beginning, middle and end of the alphabet. The belief in the power of the word was common to all the religions of antiquity. Thus the Platonists had notions of the influence of anagrams made out of the names of persons. The Egyptians entertained the belief that the spoken word must be followed by some effect good or bad. In the Talmud and Midrash there are many passages to indicate that the rabbis were familiar with the various methods of permutation of the letters of the alphabet, for pedagogic as well as for mystic purposes. In Sab. 104a all the letters of the alphabet are explained graphically for the benefit of the children. But the use of the alphabet for mag-ical purposes, while already in vogue in Talmudic times, reached its highest development in the Middle Ages, particularly among the Spanish Jewish mystics. There were four main methods by which the letters of the alphabet received a mystic interpretation. The first was that of codes, in which the letters might be interchanged under a definite scheme, so as to give entirely new meanings to ordinary words. For example, in the Atbash code, Aleph, the first letter of the al-phabet, was equated to Tav, the last; Beth, the next, to Shin, the next to last, and so on. The Atbah code makes a similar scheme out of the letters whose sums are ten, a hundred, a thousand, etc., while the Albam code equates letters at a given distance apart in the alphabet. Tables showing the formation of such codes can be found in many of the mystical works. The second method of interpretation was the ana-gram, in which the letters of a word were reshuffled to form a new word. The third was Gematria, based on the numerical value of the letters. The fourth was Notarikon, which took each letter of a given word as the initial of another word, and thus interpreted it in mystical fashion. The Cabalists used a special alphabet as a code, in amulets and in their mystical writings, as follows: ר ÉL ך j א ם ח s יא ה כ ד ה ר כד η נו η ן-* ףזז y A 1 ^ ייו עפ צ ז ר ח The alphabet in mysticism See also: CABALA; CRYPTOGRAPHY; GEMATRIA; MYS-TICISM; NOTARIKON; NUMBERS IN MYSTICISM. REUBEN KAUFMAN. Lit.: Schwab, Vocabulaire de langelologie Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba; Botarel, Moses, manuscript in the library of the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York; Sefer Yetzirah. ALROY, DAVID ( called also Menahem ben Solo-mon ibn Alruhi), the most spectacular pseudo- Messiah of the period of the crusades ( 11th to 12th centuries). One of the few military messianic leaders in Jewish history, Alroy appeared in Kurdistan about 1147 during the Second Crusade. The disturbed polit-ical relations within the caliphate at that time, as well as the position of the Jews of Persia, were favorable conditions for a messianic movement. Alroy issued a proclamation to the Jews of Persia summoning them to rebel against their Mohammedan rulers and to join him in the conquest of Jerusalem. He won a large following among the masses, although many, especially among the wealthier classes and those in positions of responsibility, were suspicious of him from the outset. A contemporary, Benjamin of Tudela, thus sums up Alroys story:  He took it into his head to revolt against the king of Persia, and to gather around him the Jews who lived in the mountains of Chaftan, in order to war against the Gentiles and to capture Jerusalem. He showed miraculous signs to the Jews, and declared that God sent him to capture Jerusalem and to lead them forth from among the nations, and the people proclaimed him the Messiah. The first move in Alroys campaign was to attempt to capture the citadel of his native town Amadia in Kurdistan. This was to be the signal for a general up-rising. In this he was thwarted. The caliph of Baghdad, Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Mishnayoth


The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

Ezra Studies


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Notes on the New Translation of the Torah
Written with admirable clarity of style and thought, this volume of Notes is capable of being read and appreciated by anyone interested in the process by which modern and classical biblical scholarship are fused together to deepen our understanding of the single most significant book in the Jewish tradition.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.