Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALPHABET actly why this change was made. One suggestion is that it arose out of the conflicts between the Jews and the Samaritans, and that a new script was deliberately chosen in order to differentiate the Jewish Torah from the Samaritan Torah. Another and more plausible con-jecture holds that as Aramaic was by this time the offi-cial language of correspondence and diplomacy in the western part of the Persian empire, it was necessary for the scribes to know it, and by using it for Hebrew books as well they saved themselves the trouble of learning another script. The ancient Hebrew writing, or  broken script, continued in use among the ordinary people for some centuries, as is shown from the fact that it is employed on the Maccabean coins ( 135 B. C. E. on) and by Aquila ( 2nd cent. C. E.) in order to indicate the Divine Name. It probably died out only after the Talmud was committed to writing ( about the 5th cent.) and the increased study of the book, written in the square character, made the latter predominant. The Syrian character differs from the ancient Hebrew character in that it gives final forms to five letters of the alphabet: Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pe and Tsade. Certain of the letters, Gimel, Zayin, Teth, Nun, Ayin, Tsade and Shin are often provided with ornamental strokes ( Tagin) for their upper lines when they are written in the Torah; these are the  tittles mentioned in the New Testament ( Matt. 5: 18). A third form of alphabet was the cursive script, used in ordinary Hebrew correspondence; this developed at some unknown period in ancient times and has con-tinued in use down to modern times. It grew mainly out of the Syrian character, but shows some traces of the ancient Hebrew character in certain letters. It can be written rapidly and is hardly less legible than the printed character. Out of this written script there developed two printed varieties, which have been in use since the Mid-dle Ages: the Rashi script, so called because this type was used for Rashis commentaries to the Bible and Talmud; and the Jüdisch- Deutsch or Weiber- Deutsch script, which received its name from the fact that it was used in Yiddish books that were intended for the use of women. An interesting variety of alphabet has been found in Ras Shamra, in Syria. This region was on the border-line between countries using the Hebrew alphabet and the cuneiform syllabary. A scribe seems to have con-ceived the idea of adopting the principle of the Hebrew alphabet, but using for each individual letter cuneiform signs, thus still permitting writing by means of a stylus and clay tablets. This alphabet was probably neither wide- spread nor long- lived. V. The Letters as Numerals. Hebrew numerals are arranged in a decimal system, based on the order of the letters of the alphabet. Aleph is 1, Beth 2 and so on up to Yod for 10; the count then proceeds by tens from Kaf for 20 to Kof for 100; then by hundreds up to Tav for 400. For the hundreds above 400, the five final letters were originally used; but the prefer-ence has been to indicate 500 to 900 by combinations of the letters Kof to Tav, e. g. Tav ( 400) and Resh ( 200) placed together indicate 600. Thousands are indicated by starting over again from Aleph and plac- [ 204] ing the necessary letter at the front of the number, usually with the addition of two dots at the top to in-dicate the thousands denomination; thus the number 8491 would be written as a Heth with or without the two dots, for 8000; a Tav • for 400; a Tsade for 90; and an Aleph for 1. By such combinations of letters all the ordinary numbers needed for calculation and the pagination of books can be conveniently formed. There are two exceptions in the standard form of combina-tions for this purpose. Yod He for 15 and Yod Vav for 16 were considered too close to the Divine Name ( Yod He Vav He); accordingly the equivalents Teth Vav and Teth Zayin were substituted. The same letter combinations serve for cardinal and ordinal numbers. This use of the alphabet as numerals was probably not original with the ancient Hebrews, but was bor-rowed from the Greeks, who used their own alphabet in similar manner. The alphabet as numerals appears for the first time on Maccabean coins. The fact that as a result of the numerical values of the individual letters every Hebrew word has a numer-ical value of its own led in turn to a great deal of fan-ciful speculation or artistic utilization. Words that had the same numerical value were made equivalent; whole cosmologies were created, based on the numerical value of the individual letters and their combinations; sta-tistics as to the text of the Bible were made easier to remember by turning them into words; and books were dated by chronograms— words the numerical value of which was equivalent to the date of the year. VI. Relations to Other Alphabets. The alphabet which the Phoenicians carried to Greece was identical with the Hebrew alphabet, even to the names of the letters. The Greeks took over most of the names, but modified the letters to their own uses. The direction of the writing gradually changed, from right to left to left to right, and in the process some of the letters be-came turned around. Some of the consonants became vowels: Aleph an a sound; He and Heth e sounds; Yod an i sound; and Ayin an o sound. Vav, at first a sep-arate letter, was dropped as the sound disappeared from the Greek language; so was Kof; while Samech was replaced by Xi. Tsade, the old Greek Sampi, soon disappeared. Five new letters, to represent sounds pe-culiar to Greek, were added at the end, thus bringing the total to twenty- four. The Romans made similar changes. Aleph, He, Yod and Ayin, as in Greek, became the vowels a, e, i and o; but Heth, instead of a vowel, became the consonant h. Gimel was differentiated into c and g; the former was given Gimels place in the alphabet, while the latter was inserted in the place of the Greek Zeta ( Hebrew Zayin), which was not used in ancient Latin. Teth, Samech and Tsade were discarded as unneces-sary; Kof, however, was retained as q. U and its con-sonantal form ν were added at the end to meet the needs of the language, and at a later period x, y and ζ were appended in order to be able to transliterate Greek words into Latin. The Roman alphabet, there-fore, contained twenty- four letters, and considered this number sufficient, although certain of the emperors tried from time to time to add others. In the Middle Ages, j was evolved out of i, and w out of u, bringing the number up to its present standard twenty- six. Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studies in History (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXIII)
This anthology contains such articles as The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem by S. Safrai, Persecutions and Maryrdom in Hadrian's Days by M. D. Herr, The Imperial Court-Jew Wolf Werthheimer as Dimlomatic Mediator by B. Mevorah, To whom did Mendelssohn Reply in his Jerusalem , by Jacob Katz, Caesar: An Economic Biography and its Political Significance by I. Shatzman and others.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ecclesiastes
A straightforward, engaging commentary on the Book of Kohelet.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 8
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Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
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Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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