Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALPHABET actly why this change was made. One suggestion is that it arose out of the conflicts between the Jews and the Samaritans, and that a new script was deliberately chosen in order to differentiate the Jewish Torah from the Samaritan Torah. Another and more plausible con-jecture holds that as Aramaic was by this time the offi-cial language of correspondence and diplomacy in the western part of the Persian empire, it was necessary for the scribes to know it, and by using it for Hebrew books as well they saved themselves the trouble of learning another script. The ancient Hebrew writing, or  broken script, continued in use among the ordinary people for some centuries, as is shown from the fact that it is employed on the Maccabean coins ( 135 B. C. E. on) and by Aquila ( 2nd cent. C. E.) in order to indicate the Divine Name. It probably died out only after the Talmud was committed to writing ( about the 5th cent.) and the increased study of the book, written in the square character, made the latter predominant. The Syrian character differs from the ancient Hebrew character in that it gives final forms to five letters of the alphabet: Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pe and Tsade. Certain of the letters, Gimel, Zayin, Teth, Nun, Ayin, Tsade and Shin are often provided with ornamental strokes ( Tagin) for their upper lines when they are written in the Torah; these are the  tittles mentioned in the New Testament ( Matt. 5: 18). A third form of alphabet was the cursive script, used in ordinary Hebrew correspondence; this developed at some unknown period in ancient times and has con-tinued in use down to modern times. It grew mainly out of the Syrian character, but shows some traces of the ancient Hebrew character in certain letters. It can be written rapidly and is hardly less legible than the printed character. Out of this written script there developed two printed varieties, which have been in use since the Mid-dle Ages: the Rashi script, so called because this type was used for Rashis commentaries to the Bible and Talmud; and the Jüdisch- Deutsch or Weiber- Deutsch script, which received its name from the fact that it was used in Yiddish books that were intended for the use of women. An interesting variety of alphabet has been found in Ras Shamra, in Syria. This region was on the border-line between countries using the Hebrew alphabet and the cuneiform syllabary. A scribe seems to have con-ceived the idea of adopting the principle of the Hebrew alphabet, but using for each individual letter cuneiform signs, thus still permitting writing by means of a stylus and clay tablets. This alphabet was probably neither wide- spread nor long- lived. V. The Letters as Numerals. Hebrew numerals are arranged in a decimal system, based on the order of the letters of the alphabet. Aleph is 1, Beth 2 and so on up to Yod for 10; the count then proceeds by tens from Kaf for 20 to Kof for 100; then by hundreds up to Tav for 400. For the hundreds above 400, the five final letters were originally used; but the prefer-ence has been to indicate 500 to 900 by combinations of the letters Kof to Tav, e. g. Tav ( 400) and Resh ( 200) placed together indicate 600. Thousands are indicated by starting over again from Aleph and plac- [ 204] ing the necessary letter at the front of the number, usually with the addition of two dots at the top to in-dicate the thousands denomination; thus the number 8491 would be written as a Heth with or without the two dots, for 8000; a Tav • for 400; a Tsade for 90; and an Aleph for 1. By such combinations of letters all the ordinary numbers needed for calculation and the pagination of books can be conveniently formed. There are two exceptions in the standard form of combina-tions for this purpose. Yod He for 15 and Yod Vav for 16 were considered too close to the Divine Name ( Yod He Vav He); accordingly the equivalents Teth Vav and Teth Zayin were substituted. The same letter combinations serve for cardinal and ordinal numbers. This use of the alphabet as numerals was probably not original with the ancient Hebrews, but was bor-rowed from the Greeks, who used their own alphabet in similar manner. The alphabet as numerals appears for the first time on Maccabean coins. The fact that as a result of the numerical values of the individual letters every Hebrew word has a numer-ical value of its own led in turn to a great deal of fan-ciful speculation or artistic utilization. Words that had the same numerical value were made equivalent; whole cosmologies were created, based on the numerical value of the individual letters and their combinations; sta-tistics as to the text of the Bible were made easier to remember by turning them into words; and books were dated by chronograms— words the numerical value of which was equivalent to the date of the year. VI. Relations to Other Alphabets. The alphabet which the Phoenicians carried to Greece was identical with the Hebrew alphabet, even to the names of the letters. The Greeks took over most of the names, but modified the letters to their own uses. The direction of the writing gradually changed, from right to left to left to right, and in the process some of the letters be-came turned around. Some of the consonants became vowels: Aleph an a sound; He and Heth e sounds; Yod an i sound; and Ayin an o sound. Vav, at first a sep-arate letter, was dropped as the sound disappeared from the Greek language; so was Kof; while Samech was replaced by Xi. Tsade, the old Greek Sampi, soon disappeared. Five new letters, to represent sounds pe-culiar to Greek, were added at the end, thus bringing the total to twenty- four. The Romans made similar changes. Aleph, He, Yod and Ayin, as in Greek, became the vowels a, e, i and o; but Heth, instead of a vowel, became the consonant h. Gimel was differentiated into c and g; the former was given Gimels place in the alphabet, while the latter was inserted in the place of the Greek Zeta ( Hebrew Zayin), which was not used in ancient Latin. Teth, Samech and Tsade were discarded as unneces-sary; Kof, however, was retained as q. U and its con-sonantal form ν were added at the end to meet the needs of the language, and at a later period x, y and ζ were appended in order to be able to transliterate Greek words into Latin. The Roman alphabet, there-fore, contained twenty- four letters, and considered this number sufficient, although certain of the emperors tried from time to time to add others. In the Middle Ages, j was evolved out of i, and w out of u, bringing the number up to its present standard twenty- six. Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Jews, Arabs, Turks
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The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
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Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
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Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
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La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
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A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

History of the Jews, Vol. 6: A Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, A Chronological Table of Jewish History, An Index to the Whole Work, and Four Maps
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The sixth volume contains a memoir of the author by Dr. Philipp Bloch, a chronological table of Jewish history, an index to the whole work, and four maps.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

Ezra Studies


Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
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Legends of the Bible
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Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
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Art in Ancient Palestine
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
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The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
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Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Hellenism
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Collected Writings in Jewish Studies
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Smoke Over Birkenau
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Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
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Judaism and Christianity
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Mystic Tales from the Zohar
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Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
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Islam Unveiled
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Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
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Jews, Arabs, Turks
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
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Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
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The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
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Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
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Nazvanie
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