Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALPHABET actly why this change was made. One suggestion is that it arose out of the conflicts between the Jews and the Samaritans, and that a new script was deliberately chosen in order to differentiate the Jewish Torah from the Samaritan Torah. Another and more plausible con-jecture holds that as Aramaic was by this time the offi-cial language of correspondence and diplomacy in the western part of the Persian empire, it was necessary for the scribes to know it, and by using it for Hebrew books as well they saved themselves the trouble of learning another script. The ancient Hebrew writing, or  broken script, continued in use among the ordinary people for some centuries, as is shown from the fact that it is employed on the Maccabean coins ( 135 B. C. E. on) and by Aquila ( 2nd cent. C. E.) in order to indicate the Divine Name. It probably died out only after the Talmud was committed to writing ( about the 5th cent.) and the increased study of the book, written in the square character, made the latter predominant. The Syrian character differs from the ancient Hebrew character in that it gives final forms to five letters of the alphabet: Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pe and Tsade. Certain of the letters, Gimel, Zayin, Teth, Nun, Ayin, Tsade and Shin are often provided with ornamental strokes ( Tagin) for their upper lines when they are written in the Torah; these are the  tittles mentioned in the New Testament ( Matt. 5: 18). A third form of alphabet was the cursive script, used in ordinary Hebrew correspondence; this developed at some unknown period in ancient times and has con-tinued in use down to modern times. It grew mainly out of the Syrian character, but shows some traces of the ancient Hebrew character in certain letters. It can be written rapidly and is hardly less legible than the printed character. Out of this written script there developed two printed varieties, which have been in use since the Mid-dle Ages: the Rashi script, so called because this type was used for Rashis commentaries to the Bible and Talmud; and the Jüdisch- Deutsch or Weiber- Deutsch script, which received its name from the fact that it was used in Yiddish books that were intended for the use of women. An interesting variety of alphabet has been found in Ras Shamra, in Syria. This region was on the border-line between countries using the Hebrew alphabet and the cuneiform syllabary. A scribe seems to have con-ceived the idea of adopting the principle of the Hebrew alphabet, but using for each individual letter cuneiform signs, thus still permitting writing by means of a stylus and clay tablets. This alphabet was probably neither wide- spread nor long- lived. V. The Letters as Numerals. Hebrew numerals are arranged in a decimal system, based on the order of the letters of the alphabet. Aleph is 1, Beth 2 and so on up to Yod for 10; the count then proceeds by tens from Kaf for 20 to Kof for 100; then by hundreds up to Tav for 400. For the hundreds above 400, the five final letters were originally used; but the prefer-ence has been to indicate 500 to 900 by combinations of the letters Kof to Tav, e. g. Tav ( 400) and Resh ( 200) placed together indicate 600. Thousands are indicated by starting over again from Aleph and plac- [ 204] ing the necessary letter at the front of the number, usually with the addition of two dots at the top to in-dicate the thousands denomination; thus the number 8491 would be written as a Heth with or without the two dots, for 8000; a Tav • for 400; a Tsade for 90; and an Aleph for 1. By such combinations of letters all the ordinary numbers needed for calculation and the pagination of books can be conveniently formed. There are two exceptions in the standard form of combina-tions for this purpose. Yod He for 15 and Yod Vav for 16 were considered too close to the Divine Name ( Yod He Vav He); accordingly the equivalents Teth Vav and Teth Zayin were substituted. The same letter combinations serve for cardinal and ordinal numbers. This use of the alphabet as numerals was probably not original with the ancient Hebrews, but was bor-rowed from the Greeks, who used their own alphabet in similar manner. The alphabet as numerals appears for the first time on Maccabean coins. The fact that as a result of the numerical values of the individual letters every Hebrew word has a numer-ical value of its own led in turn to a great deal of fan-ciful speculation or artistic utilization. Words that had the same numerical value were made equivalent; whole cosmologies were created, based on the numerical value of the individual letters and their combinations; sta-tistics as to the text of the Bible were made easier to remember by turning them into words; and books were dated by chronograms— words the numerical value of which was equivalent to the date of the year. VI. Relations to Other Alphabets. The alphabet which the Phoenicians carried to Greece was identical with the Hebrew alphabet, even to the names of the letters. The Greeks took over most of the names, but modified the letters to their own uses. The direction of the writing gradually changed, from right to left to left to right, and in the process some of the letters be-came turned around. Some of the consonants became vowels: Aleph an a sound; He and Heth e sounds; Yod an i sound; and Ayin an o sound. Vav, at first a sep-arate letter, was dropped as the sound disappeared from the Greek language; so was Kof; while Samech was replaced by Xi. Tsade, the old Greek Sampi, soon disappeared. Five new letters, to represent sounds pe-culiar to Greek, were added at the end, thus bringing the total to twenty- four. The Romans made similar changes. Aleph, He, Yod and Ayin, as in Greek, became the vowels a, e, i and o; but Heth, instead of a vowel, became the consonant h. Gimel was differentiated into c and g; the former was given Gimels place in the alphabet, while the latter was inserted in the place of the Greek Zeta ( Hebrew Zayin), which was not used in ancient Latin. Teth, Samech and Tsade were discarded as unneces-sary; Kof, however, was retained as q. U and its con-sonantal form ν were added at the end to meet the needs of the language, and at a later period x, y and ζ were appended in order to be able to transliterate Greek words into Latin. The Roman alphabet, there-fore, contained twenty- four letters, and considered this number sufficient, although certain of the emperors tried from time to time to add others. In the Middle Ages, j was evolved out of i, and w out of u, bringing the number up to its present standard twenty- six. Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

Jesus of Nazareth
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Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Jewish Education XIII: Modes of Educational Translation
This volume is concerned with the possibility of “translating” insights derived from areas of knowledge sometimes thought to be outside the purview of education – to issues and problems on the agenda of educational thinkers, researchers and practitioners.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

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The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Esther's Plea
A facinated exploration of the tie-in between hallachic decision making process and politics through the analysis of the disputes of R. Yehoshua and R. Elazar haModi'in in Tractate Megillah.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Mishnayoth


Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 5
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.