Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALPHABET THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA h sound is often preferred, as can be seen from the Ameri-can transliterations Halutz, Hanukah, and Hasidim. Since the Arabic alphabet has divided Heth into three letters, two of which have the above sounds, while the third has a pronunciation akin to z, it is possible that the Hebrew Heth may sometimes have had this pronunciation, and there is some support for this in ancient Hebrew words. However, if this pronunciation existed at all, it disappeared at an early period. 9. Teth. Pronounced as the English t. 10. Yod. Yod, when followed by a vowel, has about the same pronunciation as the English consonantal y. How-ever, there is evidence of transliteration, supported by analogy from other Semitic languages, which would tend to show that in ancient times Yod at the beginning of a word was pronounced like the vowel i, as in the word Israel ( now pronounced in Hebrew yisrael). Yod is used in Hebrew to indicate the vowels ee and ey ( as in they), and combined with vowel sounds to form the diphthongs ai ( pronounced as eye) and oi ( as in point). 11. Kaf. The ordinary pronunciation of Kaf is that of the English k; after an open syllable it has the same Ger-man ch sound as Heth. 12 to 14. Lamed, Mem, and Nun. Pronounced, respec-tively, as the English l, m, and n. 15. Samech. The traditional pronunciation of Samech is that of the sharp English s in  see. Some scholars are of the opinion that it was sibilated from the front of the mouth, giving a still sharper sound. 16. Ayin. Another of the letters which originally had two sounds. The first was a g, somewhat more guttural than that in English words such as  get; the second was the same sound pronounced much further down in the throat, and with no equivalent in any Western alphabet. In course of time, the second sound fell into disuse, and the first was considerably softened. At the time when the Septuagint translation was made ( about 300 B. C. E.) Ayin was no longer pronounced in some words ( such as Oba-diah) and was near a g in others ( such as Gomorrah). In modern times Ayin is a silent letter with Ashkenazic Jews, as in Shema, while Sephardic Jews give it the pro-nunciation ng, as in Shemang. 17. Pe. Pronounced as the English p. After an open syllable it is aspirated, becoming f. 18. Tsade. The traditional pronunciation of Tsade is that of the English ts; but there are indications from an-cient spellings that it was at least occasionally given a pronunciation very close to sharp s. 19. Kof. Pronounced as the English hard c in  cool and  coal. 20. Resh. Pronounced as the English r, with a slight roll of the tongue. In some words, however, Resh seems to have been pronounced deep in the throat, something like a growl. 21. Shin. Shin still preserves its double pronunciation of the English sh and sharp s, having the first in about half the words in which it is used, and the second in the rest. The well- known story of the test- word Shibboleth ( Judges 12: 5- 6) shows that the tribe of Ephraim used only the s sound of Shin; the same peculiarity is found among the Lithuanian Jews of modern times. 22. Tav. Pronounced as the English t. After an open syllable it is aspirated into th, which was pronounced first as in  hothouse and later as in  thin. In modern times Sephardic Jews give the aspirated Tav the sound of a weaker t, as for instance in emet ( for  emeth,  truth), while the Ashkenazic Jews sound it as sharp s, emess. III. Consonants and Vowels. The Hebrew alpha-bet was thus wholly consonantal. But four letters were able to indicate vowel sounds, and as Hebrew contains fourteen vowel sounds, the number of signs available was far from adequate. The ancient Hebrew alphabet was not so much an alphabet, in the sense that we un-derstand it, as a system of speedwriting. It was about equivalent to what English spelling would be if all the words were written out phonetically and with the five letters a, e, i, o and u omitted. [ 200 ] As long as Hebrew continued to be a spoken lan-guage, this shortcoming was not seriously felt. The Si-loam inscription ( 8th cent. B. C. E.), which was written by ordinary workmen, since it makes no mention of a king or superior officer, shows that even the common people at that time found no difficulty in using the signs. In course of time, however, as Hebrew began to be replaced by Aramaic, the need for vowels began to be felt. The consonantal vowels Vav and Yod were employed more and more in writing out words. Begin-ning some time in the Common Era different systems of vowels arose, and these were inserted into the con-sonantal text to facilitate the reading of the Hebrew of the Bible and the prayer- book. The present system of vowel points, with its seven signs that are used either singly or in combination with one another and with Vav and Yod, was not completed until the middle of the 10th cent.; it came into common use as the result of the authority of Maimonides ( 12th cent.). It should be noted, nevertheless, that the use of vowels never became universal in Hebrew. They were supplied in the Bible and the prayer- book, which every individual was supposed to know; whereas in the scrolls of the Torah, in the Talmud, and in all the later Hebrew literature, intended for more advanced scholars, the old consonantal alphabet was retained. IV. Forms of the Letters. Hebrew is written from right to left, the opposite direction from Western alphabets. Therefore, there has been a constant tend-ency to shift the vertical strokes of the letters to the right- hand side, while the open spaces are usually found on the left- hand side. The ancient Hebrew script is variously called kethab  ibri,  Hebrew script; kethab raatz,  broken from its appearance; and kethab daatz,  mint script, since it was used on coins. This writing is closely akin to Phoenician script and was used not only by the Is-raelites but also by their immediate neighbors such as the Moabites. It has been found on seals and in in-scriptions on such monuments as the Moabite Stone; unfortunately no specimens of its manuscript form, ex-cept on sherds, have been uncovered. It is a rather rough and ready form of writing, angular, full of cross-strokes and only moderately legible. During the period of the Second Temple this ancient Hebrew writing began to be replaced by the Syrian, or square character now employed in nearly all printed Hebrew. Since in this period the regions to the north-east of Palestine were no longer called by their original name Aram, but by the name of the ancient Assyrian empire, Asshur ( hence the modern geographical term, Syria), this writing was called kethab  ashurith. A later term for it was kethab meruba,  square charac-ter, because of its shape. It is less angular and more economical of lines than the ancient Hebrew, and for this reason it is more easily written and considerably more legible. A Talmudic tradition ( Sanh. 21b) reports that in the time of Ezra ( about 450 B. C. E.) the Torah began to be written in the Syrian character, while the plain people still used the ancient Hebrew character. This is probably not far from wrong, as it explains many vari-ants between the Masoretic text and that underlying the Septuagint ( 300 B. C. E. on). It is not known ex- AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL   Chapter Home  | Index

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Thesaurus of the Medieaval Hebrew Poetry, in 4 volumes
Lists 35,000 poems and prayers culled from printed and manuscript sources (many from Cairo Genizah) and their variations, i.e. almost every Hebrew poem and its variations composed after canonization of the Hebrew Bible until 18th c.e.... with listings of sacred poetry reaching into the 20th century.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

The Sephardi Legacy II


Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Kiddush Ha-Shem: An Epic of 1648
One of the earliest historical novels in modern Yiddish literature, Kiddush ha-Shem is a story of Jewish martyrdom during the Chmelnitsky uprising in mid-17th century Ukraine and Poland.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Religion and Zionism First Encounters


The Sephardi Legacy II


Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.