Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALPHABET THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA h sound is often preferred, as can be seen from the Ameri-can transliterations Halutz, Hanukah, and Hasidim. Since the Arabic alphabet has divided Heth into three letters, two of which have the above sounds, while the third has a pronunciation akin to z, it is possible that the Hebrew Heth may sometimes have had this pronunciation, and there is some support for this in ancient Hebrew words. However, if this pronunciation existed at all, it disappeared at an early period. 9. Teth. Pronounced as the English t. 10. Yod. Yod, when followed by a vowel, has about the same pronunciation as the English consonantal y. How-ever, there is evidence of transliteration, supported by analogy from other Semitic languages, which would tend to show that in ancient times Yod at the beginning of a word was pronounced like the vowel i, as in the word Israel ( now pronounced in Hebrew yisrael). Yod is used in Hebrew to indicate the vowels ee and ey ( as in they), and combined with vowel sounds to form the diphthongs ai ( pronounced as eye) and oi ( as in point). 11. Kaf. The ordinary pronunciation of Kaf is that of the English k; after an open syllable it has the same Ger-man ch sound as Heth. 12 to 14. Lamed, Mem, and Nun. Pronounced, respec-tively, as the English l, m, and n. 15. Samech. The traditional pronunciation of Samech is that of the sharp English s in  see. Some scholars are of the opinion that it was sibilated from the front of the mouth, giving a still sharper sound. 16. Ayin. Another of the letters which originally had two sounds. The first was a g, somewhat more guttural than that in English words such as  get; the second was the same sound pronounced much further down in the throat, and with no equivalent in any Western alphabet. In course of time, the second sound fell into disuse, and the first was considerably softened. At the time when the Septuagint translation was made ( about 300 B. C. E.) Ayin was no longer pronounced in some words ( such as Oba-diah) and was near a g in others ( such as Gomorrah). In modern times Ayin is a silent letter with Ashkenazic Jews, as in Shema, while Sephardic Jews give it the pro-nunciation ng, as in Shemang. 17. Pe. Pronounced as the English p. After an open syllable it is aspirated, becoming f. 18. Tsade. The traditional pronunciation of Tsade is that of the English ts; but there are indications from an-cient spellings that it was at least occasionally given a pronunciation very close to sharp s. 19. Kof. Pronounced as the English hard c in  cool and  coal. 20. Resh. Pronounced as the English r, with a slight roll of the tongue. In some words, however, Resh seems to have been pronounced deep in the throat, something like a growl. 21. Shin. Shin still preserves its double pronunciation of the English sh and sharp s, having the first in about half the words in which it is used, and the second in the rest. The well- known story of the test- word Shibboleth ( Judges 12: 5- 6) shows that the tribe of Ephraim used only the s sound of Shin; the same peculiarity is found among the Lithuanian Jews of modern times. 22. Tav. Pronounced as the English t. After an open syllable it is aspirated into th, which was pronounced first as in  hothouse and later as in  thin. In modern times Sephardic Jews give the aspirated Tav the sound of a weaker t, as for instance in emet ( for  emeth,  truth), while the Ashkenazic Jews sound it as sharp s, emess. III. Consonants and Vowels. The Hebrew alpha-bet was thus wholly consonantal. But four letters were able to indicate vowel sounds, and as Hebrew contains fourteen vowel sounds, the number of signs available was far from adequate. The ancient Hebrew alphabet was not so much an alphabet, in the sense that we un-derstand it, as a system of speedwriting. It was about equivalent to what English spelling would be if all the words were written out phonetically and with the five letters a, e, i, o and u omitted. [ 200 ] As long as Hebrew continued to be a spoken lan-guage, this shortcoming was not seriously felt. The Si-loam inscription ( 8th cent. B. C. E.), which was written by ordinary workmen, since it makes no mention of a king or superior officer, shows that even the common people at that time found no difficulty in using the signs. In course of time, however, as Hebrew began to be replaced by Aramaic, the need for vowels began to be felt. The consonantal vowels Vav and Yod were employed more and more in writing out words. Begin-ning some time in the Common Era different systems of vowels arose, and these were inserted into the con-sonantal text to facilitate the reading of the Hebrew of the Bible and the prayer- book. The present system of vowel points, with its seven signs that are used either singly or in combination with one another and with Vav and Yod, was not completed until the middle of the 10th cent.; it came into common use as the result of the authority of Maimonides ( 12th cent.). It should be noted, nevertheless, that the use of vowels never became universal in Hebrew. They were supplied in the Bible and the prayer- book, which every individual was supposed to know; whereas in the scrolls of the Torah, in the Talmud, and in all the later Hebrew literature, intended for more advanced scholars, the old consonantal alphabet was retained. IV. Forms of the Letters. Hebrew is written from right to left, the opposite direction from Western alphabets. Therefore, there has been a constant tend-ency to shift the vertical strokes of the letters to the right- hand side, while the open spaces are usually found on the left- hand side. The ancient Hebrew script is variously called kethab  ibri,  Hebrew script; kethab raatz,  broken from its appearance; and kethab daatz,  mint script, since it was used on coins. This writing is closely akin to Phoenician script and was used not only by the Is-raelites but also by their immediate neighbors such as the Moabites. It has been found on seals and in in-scriptions on such monuments as the Moabite Stone; unfortunately no specimens of its manuscript form, ex-cept on sherds, have been uncovered. It is a rather rough and ready form of writing, angular, full of cross-strokes and only moderately legible. During the period of the Second Temple this ancient Hebrew writing began to be replaced by the Syrian, or square character now employed in nearly all printed Hebrew. Since in this period the regions to the north-east of Palestine were no longer called by their original name Aram, but by the name of the ancient Assyrian empire, Asshur ( hence the modern geographical term, Syria), this writing was called kethab  ashurith. A later term for it was kethab meruba,  square charac-ter, because of its shape. It is less angular and more economical of lines than the ancient Hebrew, and for this reason it is more easily written and considerably more legible. A Talmudic tradition ( Sanh. 21b) reports that in the time of Ezra ( about 450 B. C. E.) the Torah began to be written in the Syrian character, while the plain people still used the ancient Hebrew character. This is probably not far from wrong, as it explains many vari-ants between the Masoretic text and that underlying the Septuagint ( 300 B. C. E. on). It is not known ex- AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL   Chapter Home  | Index

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.


Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.


Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Joel
Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the following Biblical books: Micah, Zephaniah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Obadiah and Joel by John M. P. Smith, William H. Ward, and Julius A. Bewer.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well.


Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaçam as tribulaçoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.