Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 197] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALNAQUA ALPHABET ALNAQUA, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH, see ALNA-KAWA, ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH. ALOE, LOUIS P., public official and civic leader, b. St. Louis, 1867; d. St. Louis, 1929. Devoting his career to civic affairs, he first won public distinction in guiding the St. Louis Board of Freeholders, of which he was an elected member, in the drafting of that citys charter in 1914. Three years later, as acting mayor of St. Louis, he appointed twenty- eight draft boards, and was selected by President Wilson as a member of the District Board of Appeals. Re- elected in 1919, Aloe served two terms as presi-dent of the St. Louis Board of Aldermen. In addition to other noteworthy accomplishments while in office, he had a major role in the drafting and passage of an $ 87,000,000 bond issue in 1923, which incorporated a building plan of civic improvement on a scale never attempted before by any city in the United States. Aloe was a member of the Republican City Commit-tee of St. Louis and served as the delegate- at- large from Missouri to the Republican Convention in Cleve-land, in 1924, which nominated Calvin Coolidge for the presidency. He directed an investigation of the citys milk supply, and sponsored and assisted in the es-tablishment of free baby clinics and psychiatric clinics under city control. To commemorate his distinctive services to St. Louis, a centrally located park was offi-cially named Aloe Plaza one year after his death. ALONSO, HERNANDO, early inhabitant of Mex-ico and conquistador, d. 1528. He was a native of the County of Niebla, Spain, and practised the trade of smith or iron- worker. In 1520, when he was in his sixties, he came to Mexico from Cuba. For several months he was engaged on the construction of the thirteen brigantines which Cortes, the famous con-queror, ordered to be built at Texcuco. For five years thereafter Alonso fought in many arduous campaigns against the Aztecs in behalf of Cortes. He was awarded tracts of land at Actopan, a place sixty miles north of Mexico City, where he raised cattle for meat supply. Alonso appears to have been a respected and trusted citizen of Mexico City when he was suddenly de-nounced as a Jewish heretic, thrown into prison, con-demned to the stake and burnt to death by order of the chief inquisitor, Friar Vicente de Santa Maria, at Santiago, Mexico City, in 1528. The alleged offence was that he had twice baptized a child, the second time according to the ritual of the Mosaic law. Lit.: Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, No. 31, pp. 9- 25. ALPERSON, MORDECAI ( MARCO), colonizer and writer, b. near Kamenetz- Podolsk, Russia, 1867. He received a Talmudical and secular education, and engaged in various business enterprises. In 1891 he emigrated to Argentina, where he participated in the founding of the colony Mauricio. There he became an ardent advocate of Jewish agricultural colonization. In 1911 he wrote a brochure on the history of the Jewish Colonization Association in Argentina; this he later ex-panded into a three- volume work, Kolonie Mauricio ( Buenos Aires, 1922; reprinted Berlin, 1923, in Yiddish under the title 30 Yor in Argentine- Memuaren fun a Yiddishen Kolonist, with an introduction by H. D. Nomberg). This book, and his other writings on agriculture and colonization, show considerable crea-tive talent and lucidity of style, and were well received by the critics. He wrote also a number of sketches and narratives dealing with the life of the Jewish colonists in Argentina, and contributed to the weekly Der Ver-teidiger, published in Mauricio, and to the Yiddish press of Argentina. ALPHA MU SIGMA FRATERNITY, see FRA-TERNITIES. ALPHA EPSILON PHI SORORITY, see SORO-RITIES. ALPHA EPSILON PI FRATERNITY, see FRATERNITIES. ALPHA OMEGA FRATERNITY, see FRATERNI-TIES. ALPHABET. Table of Contents: I. History. II. Pronunciation. III. Consonants and Vowels. IV. Forms of the Letters. V. The Letters as Numerals. VI. Relations to Other Alphabets. VII. Tables. I. History. The development of writing can be divided into five separate stages. The first is that in which each word is represented by a drawing of the object to which it refers, as in the pictograph writing of the American Indians; the number of symbols used is as many as that of the ideas. The second is when the symbols are conventionalized into forms that only remotely resemble the pictures ( ideographs), as in Chi-nese writing, the number of symbols running into thou-sands. The third is where each symbol indicates not a whole word but a syllable, as in Assyrian and Egyp-tian writings; the number of symbols is thus reduced to a few hundreds. The fourth is where the symbols represent consonants, leaving the vowels to be under-stood; and the fifth and final stage is where each vowel and consonant receives a symbol of its own. Only the last two stages, when the number of symbols is reduced to approximately thirty, can be regarded as truly al-phabetic. The purpose of this article is to trace the history of the Hebrew alphabet in its relationship to previous and later forms of writing. It is a familiar fact that all of the alphabet symbols of the Western world are derived from the Roman al-phabet, which in turn is derived from that of the Greeks. Greek tradition ascribes the origin of their own writing to Cadmus the Phoenician. Cadmus is merely the Hebrew word Kadmi,  the man from the East; and the Phoenicians, the great trading people of the ancient world, were the logical vehicle for the introduction of a new and advanced form of writing. Up until modern times, however, there was great dis-agreement as to whether the alphabet was original with the Phoenicians, or whether they had taken it from some other people, and if so from whom. Claims of priority in alphabetic writing were made for the Egyptians, the Syrians, the Cretans ( who had in fact an entirely unique alphabet, which has not yet been deciphered) and other peoples of the Mediterranean Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.

The Sephardi Legacy II


Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Mishnayoth


Volume 4, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Luah Hashanah 5780


Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

Art in Ancient Palestine
The books deals with various aspects of art in ancient Palestine: conquest of the East by Hellenism, Leda sarcophagus, general problems of reconstruction of the past through archaelogy.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Religion and Zionism First Encounters


Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.