Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALMS ALNAQUA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 196] he performed, were of great service to the historic con-gregation to whose interests he was deeply devoted. Lit.: Gaster, Moses, History of the Ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews ( 1901) 182; Jewish Chronicle ( London) Jan. 18, 1878, p. 10. ALMS, see CHARITY. AL- MUKAMMAS, DAVID IBN MERWAN, see DAVID IBN MERWAN AL- MUKAMMAS. AL- NAKAWA ( ALNAQUA), ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH,  the martyr, moralist and liturgist. All that is known of Al- Nakawas life is that he lived in Toledo, Spain, and was descended from a family prom-inent for its piety, hospitality and support of scholar-ship. He met his death, together with Judah ben Asher, in the Toledo massacres of 1391. Al- Nakawa was the author of a comprehensive re-ligio- ethical work entitled Menorath Hamaor ( The Lamp of Illumination), a brilliant summation of all phases of practical religious life, both ethical and rit-ual. The only complete manuscript of this monumen-tal composition which is found in the Bodleian Library in Oxford was published in its entirety by H. G. Ene-low in four volumes, with elaborate introductions and copious notes ( New York, 1929- 32). The work opens with a poem in praise of the Torah, and this is fol-lowed by a rimed introduction in which the circum-stances of its composition are explained. The book is divided into twenty chapters, each of which begins with a seven- line poem, giving his name, Israel, in acrostic. The topics discussed in the twenty chapters are the following: Charity, Prayer, Repentance, Humil-ity, Hours of Study, Commandments, Acts of Mercy, Sabbath and the Holy Days, Honoring of Parents, Marriage, Education, Upright Conduct in Business, Justice, Contentment, Evils of Anger, Flattery and Deception, Love of Comrades, Clean Speech, Keeping Secrets, and Good Manners. Al- Nakawa drew upon the entire range of Talmudic literature for material, and even incorporated passages from Midrashim which we do not today possess, e. g. Midrash Hashkem and certain Yemenite Midrashim. He was influenced mainly by the Orah Hayim of Ja-cob ben Asher and by the Sefer Mitzvoth Zemanioth of Israel ben Joseph ibn Israel. Although his work contains but little original matter, many of his chap-ters, as for example the one on charity, have rarely been equalled for depth of penetration into the Jew-ish soul. Though the book was not printed, it became most widely disseminated and read through a peculiar chain of circumstances. A certain Judah ibn Kaalatz copied large portions of the Menorath Hamaor for his own personal use. After his death his grandson discovered the manuscript, and not suspecting that it was not original, he published it in 1527, under his grandfath-ers name, calling it Sefer Hamusar. This book gained great popularity, and no one realized that it was ex-cerpted from the Menorath Hamaor. In 1620 Rabbi Isaac of Posen published in Yiddish an ethical treatise entitled Leb Tob, admittedly little more than a trans-lation of Sefer Hamusar. It soon became one of the most popular books in the Yiddish language, and it was reprinted nineteen times in less than a century after its initial appearance. In the Yiddish text- book ( 1699) of the Christian scholar Wagenseil, the last chapter of the Menorath Hamaor taken from the Leb Tob was given as an exercise. Another channel through which this book found its way into Hebrew literature was the Reshith Hochmah ( 1575) of Eliezer di Vidas, in which were incorporated five chapters of the Menorath Hamaor. These chapters alone were printed as a special work under the name Menorath Ζahab in 1593 and 1864. The chapter of the Menorath Hamaor was reprinted Emden in his Migdal Oz ( Warsaw, 1911, pp. 134- 42). Efros and Enelow advanced strong arguments to prove that the Menorath Hamaor of Isaac Aboab merely a recasting of Al- Nakawas Menorath Hamaor. Al- Nakawa was also a liturgist, as many members of his family seem to have been. Including the short poems in the Menorath Hamaor, we have some twenty- five of his poetical and liturgical compositions. Undoubtedly he composed many others, which have since been lost. There is a tradition which has some evidence to support it that Al- Nakawa translated the Zohar into Hebrew ( Menorath Hamaor, vol. 4, p. 92). Hirschel REVEL. See also: ABOAB, ISAAC Lit.: Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, especially ( 1929); vol. 2 ( 1930) 45; idem,  Midrash Hashkem Quo-tations, in Hebrew Union College Annual, 311- 43; Efros, I.,  The Menorat Ha- Meor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 9 ( 1918- 19) Davidson, I.,  Enelows Edition of Al- Nakawas Menorat Ha- Maor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New ( 1930- 31) 461- 68; Waxman, M., A History of Jewish vol. 2 ( 1933) 282- 87; Schechter, S.,  Über Israel Alnaquas Menorat Hamaor, in Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, 114- 26, 234- 40. ALNAQUA, EPHRAIM BEN ISRAEL, rabbi, theological author and physician, b. Toledo, Spain, in the second half of the 14th cent.; d. Tlemcen, Algeria, 1442. He escaped in 1391 from the Spanish massacre in Toledo, in which his parents were slain, and fled to Northern Africa. Here he gained a reputation as a mir-acle worker. Many legends cluster around his name. The most popular relates how he crossed the sea, reached Morocco and then proceeded by sea to the city of Onein. From there he came to Tlemcen, seated on a lion which had for a halter an enormous serpent. Here, after curing the only daughter of a king of the Beni Zion family, he refused rewards of gold and silver, and asked only permission to unite in Tlemcen all the Jews living near the city as well as the refugees from Spain. Tradition thus ascribes to Alnaqua the founding of the Jewish community of Tlemcen. He became known simply as  The Rab. The great synagogue which he built in Tlemcen is still in existence and bears his name. His grave still serves as a place of pilgrimage. In addition to several religious hymns he wrote a theological work, Shaar Kebod Adonai ( The Gate Gods Glory), intended for his elder son, Israel, to ex-plain certain anthropomorphic expressions in Maimón-ides and containing answers to Nahmanides criticism of Maimonides Μoreh Nebuchim. His younger son, Judah, who was rabbi in Oran and Tlemcen, was the father- in- law of Zemah Duran. Lit.: Beliach, H., Introduction to Shaar ( 1902); Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, vol. 15; Slouschz, N., Travels in North Africa ( 1927) Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

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Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

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Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

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ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Mishnayoth


The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the forgotten million that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

A Commentary on the Book of Exodus
The last of the commentaries rendered into English, this Cassuto's work ranks among the finest modern contributions to the treasury of Biblical learning.

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STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.