Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALMS ALNAQUA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 196] he performed, were of great service to the historic con-gregation to whose interests he was deeply devoted. Lit.: Gaster, Moses, History of the Ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews ( 1901) 182; Jewish Chronicle ( London) Jan. 18, 1878, p. 10. ALMS, see CHARITY. AL- MUKAMMAS, DAVID IBN MERWAN, see DAVID IBN MERWAN AL- MUKAMMAS. AL- NAKAWA ( ALNAQUA), ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH,  the martyr, moralist and liturgist. All that is known of Al- Nakawas life is that he lived in Toledo, Spain, and was descended from a family prom-inent for its piety, hospitality and support of scholar-ship. He met his death, together with Judah ben Asher, in the Toledo massacres of 1391. Al- Nakawa was the author of a comprehensive re-ligio- ethical work entitled Menorath Hamaor ( The Lamp of Illumination), a brilliant summation of all phases of practical religious life, both ethical and rit-ual. The only complete manuscript of this monumen-tal composition which is found in the Bodleian Library in Oxford was published in its entirety by H. G. Ene-low in four volumes, with elaborate introductions and copious notes ( New York, 1929- 32). The work opens with a poem in praise of the Torah, and this is fol-lowed by a rimed introduction in which the circum-stances of its composition are explained. The book is divided into twenty chapters, each of which begins with a seven- line poem, giving his name, Israel, in acrostic. The topics discussed in the twenty chapters are the following: Charity, Prayer, Repentance, Humil-ity, Hours of Study, Commandments, Acts of Mercy, Sabbath and the Holy Days, Honoring of Parents, Marriage, Education, Upright Conduct in Business, Justice, Contentment, Evils of Anger, Flattery and Deception, Love of Comrades, Clean Speech, Keeping Secrets, and Good Manners. Al- Nakawa drew upon the entire range of Talmudic literature for material, and even incorporated passages from Midrashim which we do not today possess, e. g. Midrash Hashkem and certain Yemenite Midrashim. He was influenced mainly by the Orah Hayim of Ja-cob ben Asher and by the Sefer Mitzvoth Zemanioth of Israel ben Joseph ibn Israel. Although his work contains but little original matter, many of his chap-ters, as for example the one on charity, have rarely been equalled for depth of penetration into the Jew-ish soul. Though the book was not printed, it became most widely disseminated and read through a peculiar chain of circumstances. A certain Judah ibn Kaalatz copied large portions of the Menorath Hamaor for his own personal use. After his death his grandson discovered the manuscript, and not suspecting that it was not original, he published it in 1527, under his grandfath-ers name, calling it Sefer Hamusar. This book gained great popularity, and no one realized that it was ex-cerpted from the Menorath Hamaor. In 1620 Rabbi Isaac of Posen published in Yiddish an ethical treatise entitled Leb Tob, admittedly little more than a trans-lation of Sefer Hamusar. It soon became one of the most popular books in the Yiddish language, and it was reprinted nineteen times in less than a century after its initial appearance. In the Yiddish text- book ( 1699) of the Christian scholar Wagenseil, the last chapter of the Menorath Hamaor taken from the Leb Tob was given as an exercise. Another channel through which this book found its way into Hebrew literature was the Reshith Hochmah ( 1575) of Eliezer di Vidas, in which were incorporated five chapters of the Menorath Hamaor. These chapters alone were printed as a special work under the name Menorath Ζahab in 1593 and 1864. The chapter of the Menorath Hamaor was reprinted Emden in his Migdal Oz ( Warsaw, 1911, pp. 134- 42). Efros and Enelow advanced strong arguments to prove that the Menorath Hamaor of Isaac Aboab merely a recasting of Al- Nakawas Menorath Hamaor. Al- Nakawa was also a liturgist, as many members of his family seem to have been. Including the short poems in the Menorath Hamaor, we have some twenty- five of his poetical and liturgical compositions. Undoubtedly he composed many others, which have since been lost. There is a tradition which has some evidence to support it that Al- Nakawa translated the Zohar into Hebrew ( Menorath Hamaor, vol. 4, p. 92). Hirschel REVEL. See also: ABOAB, ISAAC Lit.: Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, especially ( 1929); vol. 2 ( 1930) 45; idem,  Midrash Hashkem Quo-tations, in Hebrew Union College Annual, 311- 43; Efros, I.,  The Menorat Ha- Meor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 9 ( 1918- 19) Davidson, I.,  Enelows Edition of Al- Nakawas Menorat Ha- Maor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New ( 1930- 31) 461- 68; Waxman, M., A History of Jewish vol. 2 ( 1933) 282- 87; Schechter, S.,  Über Israel Alnaquas Menorat Hamaor, in Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, 114- 26, 234- 40. ALNAQUA, EPHRAIM BEN ISRAEL, rabbi, theological author and physician, b. Toledo, Spain, in the second half of the 14th cent.; d. Tlemcen, Algeria, 1442. He escaped in 1391 from the Spanish massacre in Toledo, in which his parents were slain, and fled to Northern Africa. Here he gained a reputation as a mir-acle worker. Many legends cluster around his name. The most popular relates how he crossed the sea, reached Morocco and then proceeded by sea to the city of Onein. From there he came to Tlemcen, seated on a lion which had for a halter an enormous serpent. Here, after curing the only daughter of a king of the Beni Zion family, he refused rewards of gold and silver, and asked only permission to unite in Tlemcen all the Jews living near the city as well as the refugees from Spain. Tradition thus ascribes to Alnaqua the founding of the Jewish community of Tlemcen. He became known simply as  The Rab. The great synagogue which he built in Tlemcen is still in existence and bears his name. His grave still serves as a place of pilgrimage. In addition to several religious hymns he wrote a theological work, Shaar Kebod Adonai ( The Gate Gods Glory), intended for his elder son, Israel, to ex-plain certain anthropomorphic expressions in Maimón-ides and containing answers to Nahmanides criticism of Maimonides Μoreh Nebuchim. His younger son, Judah, who was rabbi in Oran and Tlemcen, was the father- in- law of Zemah Duran. Lit.: Beliach, H., Introduction to Shaar ( 1902); Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, vol. 15; Slouschz, N., Travels in North Africa ( 1927) Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


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JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 1
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and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 8
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrument—and on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

Volume 7, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Judges
The commentary, which pays a close attention to early history of social and religious life of Israel.

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