Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALMS ALNAQUA THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 196] he performed, were of great service to the historic con-gregation to whose interests he was deeply devoted. Lit.: Gaster, Moses, History of the Ancient Synagogue of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews ( 1901) 182; Jewish Chronicle ( London) Jan. 18, 1878, p. 10. ALMS, see CHARITY. AL- MUKAMMAS, DAVID IBN MERWAN, see DAVID IBN MERWAN AL- MUKAMMAS. AL- NAKAWA ( ALNAQUA), ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH,  the martyr, moralist and liturgist. All that is known of Al- Nakawas life is that he lived in Toledo, Spain, and was descended from a family prom-inent for its piety, hospitality and support of scholar-ship. He met his death, together with Judah ben Asher, in the Toledo massacres of 1391. Al- Nakawa was the author of a comprehensive re-ligio- ethical work entitled Menorath Hamaor ( The Lamp of Illumination), a brilliant summation of all phases of practical religious life, both ethical and rit-ual. The only complete manuscript of this monumen-tal composition which is found in the Bodleian Library in Oxford was published in its entirety by H. G. Ene-low in four volumes, with elaborate introductions and copious notes ( New York, 1929- 32). The work opens with a poem in praise of the Torah, and this is fol-lowed by a rimed introduction in which the circum-stances of its composition are explained. The book is divided into twenty chapters, each of which begins with a seven- line poem, giving his name, Israel, in acrostic. The topics discussed in the twenty chapters are the following: Charity, Prayer, Repentance, Humil-ity, Hours of Study, Commandments, Acts of Mercy, Sabbath and the Holy Days, Honoring of Parents, Marriage, Education, Upright Conduct in Business, Justice, Contentment, Evils of Anger, Flattery and Deception, Love of Comrades, Clean Speech, Keeping Secrets, and Good Manners. Al- Nakawa drew upon the entire range of Talmudic literature for material, and even incorporated passages from Midrashim which we do not today possess, e. g. Midrash Hashkem and certain Yemenite Midrashim. He was influenced mainly by the Orah Hayim of Ja-cob ben Asher and by the Sefer Mitzvoth Zemanioth of Israel ben Joseph ibn Israel. Although his work contains but little original matter, many of his chap-ters, as for example the one on charity, have rarely been equalled for depth of penetration into the Jew-ish soul. Though the book was not printed, it became most widely disseminated and read through a peculiar chain of circumstances. A certain Judah ibn Kaalatz copied large portions of the Menorath Hamaor for his own personal use. After his death his grandson discovered the manuscript, and not suspecting that it was not original, he published it in 1527, under his grandfath-ers name, calling it Sefer Hamusar. This book gained great popularity, and no one realized that it was ex-cerpted from the Menorath Hamaor. In 1620 Rabbi Isaac of Posen published in Yiddish an ethical treatise entitled Leb Tob, admittedly little more than a trans-lation of Sefer Hamusar. It soon became one of the most popular books in the Yiddish language, and it was reprinted nineteen times in less than a century after its initial appearance. In the Yiddish text- book ( 1699) of the Christian scholar Wagenseil, the last chapter of the Menorath Hamaor taken from the Leb Tob was given as an exercise. Another channel through which this book found its way into Hebrew literature was the Reshith Hochmah ( 1575) of Eliezer di Vidas, in which were incorporated five chapters of the Menorath Hamaor. These chapters alone were printed as a special work under the name Menorath Ζahab in 1593 and 1864. The chapter of the Menorath Hamaor was reprinted Emden in his Migdal Oz ( Warsaw, 1911, pp. 134- 42). Efros and Enelow advanced strong arguments to prove that the Menorath Hamaor of Isaac Aboab merely a recasting of Al- Nakawas Menorath Hamaor. Al- Nakawa was also a liturgist, as many members of his family seem to have been. Including the short poems in the Menorath Hamaor, we have some twenty- five of his poetical and liturgical compositions. Undoubtedly he composed many others, which have since been lost. There is a tradition which has some evidence to support it that Al- Nakawa translated the Zohar into Hebrew ( Menorath Hamaor, vol. 4, p. 92). Hirschel REVEL. See also: ABOAB, ISAAC Lit.: Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, especially ( 1929); vol. 2 ( 1930) 45; idem,  Midrash Hashkem Quo-tations, in Hebrew Union College Annual, 311- 43; Efros, I.,  The Menorat Ha- Meor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 9 ( 1918- 19) Davidson, I.,  Enelows Edition of Al- Nakawas Menorat Ha- Maor, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New ( 1930- 31) 461- 68; Waxman, M., A History of Jewish vol. 2 ( 1933) 282- 87; Schechter, S.,  Über Israel Alnaquas Menorat Hamaor, in Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, 114- 26, 234- 40. ALNAQUA, EPHRAIM BEN ISRAEL, rabbi, theological author and physician, b. Toledo, Spain, in the second half of the 14th cent.; d. Tlemcen, Algeria, 1442. He escaped in 1391 from the Spanish massacre in Toledo, in which his parents were slain, and fled to Northern Africa. Here he gained a reputation as a mir-acle worker. Many legends cluster around his name. The most popular relates how he crossed the sea, reached Morocco and then proceeded by sea to the city of Onein. From there he came to Tlemcen, seated on a lion which had for a halter an enormous serpent. Here, after curing the only daughter of a king of the Beni Zion family, he refused rewards of gold and silver, and asked only permission to unite in Tlemcen all the Jews living near the city as well as the refugees from Spain. Tradition thus ascribes to Alnaqua the founding of the Jewish community of Tlemcen. He became known simply as  The Rab. The great synagogue which he built in Tlemcen is still in existence and bears his name. His grave still serves as a place of pilgrimage. In addition to several religious hymns he wrote a theological work, Shaar Kebod Adonai ( The Gate Gods Glory), intended for his elder son, Israel, to ex-plain certain anthropomorphic expressions in Maimón-ides and containing answers to Nahmanides criticism of Maimonides Μoreh Nebuchim. His younger son, Judah, who was rabbi in Oran and Tlemcen, was the father- in- law of Zemah Duran. Lit.: Beliach, H., Introduction to Shaar ( 1902); Enelow, H. G., Menorat Ha Maor, vol. 15; Slouschz, N., Travels in North Africa ( 1927) Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

JPS Bible Commentary: Esther
In this latest addition to the Jewish Publication Society's commentary series, the reader will further be reworded with many productive and original insights: in this particular case on the background of the feast of Purim.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of — or maybe because of — its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. — The Washington Times

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.4
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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. II
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The second volume covers Jacob and the kidskins, the passage through the Red Sea, the judgment of Solomon, and other stories.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice
This is the most detailed and comprehensive guide to Jewish practice for home and synagogue, written in the spirit of Modern Orthodox and Conservative movements.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 6
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Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (Complete and Unabridged Electronic Edition)
This is the complete and unabridged electronic edition of the twentieth century finest and most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student of the Hebrew Scriptures.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.