Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALMOLI ALMOSNINO Almemor in the synagogue ( built 1754 of Harburg on the Wornitz ( Bavaria), with ark in the background hades originated from the name of the dynastys fob lowers, al- Muwahhidun. The main doctrine of the Almohades was a rigid uni-tarianism which denied the independent existence of the attributes of God. The Almohades undertook in 1140 a fanatical fight against the less bigoted order of the Almoravids. Eventually they subjugated the whole of Morocco and the southern part of Spain. Mohammed ibn Tumert and his successors, adhering to the more rigorous teachings of Islam, relentlessly reestablished ultra- orthodox practices in the conquered areas. They destroyed synagogues and churches or converted them into mosques, forcing Jews and Christians to embrace Islam or to emigrate. Maimonides and his family were among the exiles, about 1150. The Christian part of Spain then became a haven for Jews, and Toledo the center of Spanish Jewry. The majority, however, adopted Islam outwardly, but practised Jewish rites privately. To encourage them, Maimonides father wrote his Epistle of Consolation, and Maimonides himself his Letter Concerning Conver-sion. In 1148, as a result of persecutions, the large Jewish community in Cordoba was obliterated. The Jewish academies in Seville and Lucena were closed at about the same time. When, in 1160, the precious jewels disappeared from the Kaba in the Mohammedan sanctuary at Mecca, the Jews, accused of the crime, suffered for it. One of the princes of the Almohades, Abu Yusuf Yakub Al- Man-sur, doubting the sincerity of the apostatized Jews, forced them to wear a special garb so that he might watch and control them. This was a restitution of old Islamic laws which influenced Innocent III, through his contact with the Moslems of Sicily. The Almohades were defeated and driven from Spain by Alfonso VIII of Castile in 1212. In Africa the Jews suffered under their rule until 1269, when it came to an end, and the country came under the rule of small local rulers. Lit.: Graetz, H., History of the Jews, vol. 3 ( 1927) 358- 62, 386- 87, 447- 48; Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 1 ( 1925) 314- 18; Dubnow, S., Weltgeschichte des jüdischen Volkes, vol. 4 ( 1926) 347- 52, 388- 89, 461- 62. ALMOLI, SOLOMON BEN JACOB, Hebrew au-thor, grammarian and physician who lived in Turkey, [ 194] perhaps at Salonika and Constantinople, in the 16th cent. ( 1515- 42). His best- known work was Pithron Halomoth ( The Interpretation of Dreams; Salonika, 1516; Constantinople, 1518; later republished at Cra-cow, also at Amsterdam by Manasseh ben Israel; a Judeo- German translation appeared in 1694). All passages in the Talmud dealing with dreams or their interpretation are explained in this book. Further, it shows how to avert evil dreams. Other important writings of Almolis were: Shaar Hashem Hehadash ( Constantinople, 1533), a philosophical treatise on the nature and immortality of the soul; Halichoth Sheva ( Constantinople, 1519), a grammatical treatise on the Hebrew Sheva; Meassef Lechol Hamahanoth ( Con-stantinople, 1531- 32), a kind of prospectus for an en-cyclopedia of Judaism. During his later years he sub-sidized the publication of many grammatical treatises written by various authors. ALMORAVIDS, see ALMOHADES. ALMOSNINO, MOSES BEN BARUCH, rabbi in Salonika, b. Salonika, about 1510;. d. Constantinople, about 1580. He was at the head of a delegation sent to Sultan Selim II to demand protection against persecu-tions by the local authorities and their Greek fellow-citizens in Macedonia; this protection was finally won after many years of endeavor. Almosnino wrote works on many subjects, including a book of sermons, Mea-metz Koah ( Venice, 1588), several commentaries on Biblical books, a super- commentary on Ibn Ezra, two astronomical books, and one on natural science. He wrote a book on morals and religion in Spanish, Regi-miento de la Vida ( Amsterdam, 1729), which, on recommendation of Joseph Nasi, was printed in He-brew characters. His Estremos y Grandezas ( Madrid, 1638) gives his impressions of Constantinople and a brief history of the Ottoman em-pire, especially in the 16th cent. The work was trans-lated into Hebrew, but never printed. Almosninos grandson, Joseph ben Isaac ( 1642- 89), was rabbi in Belgrade. His numerous manuscripts were all destroyed by a fire, except his responsa on civil law, which, seized by a pillaging soldier in the sack of Bel-grade in 1688, were recovered by his sons and pub-with the ark situated at left THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

Jewish Post-Biblical History through Great Personalities: From Jochanan ben Zakkai Through Moses Mendelssohn
In this book the effort has been to select from the pages of post-Biblical Jewish history the outstanding personalities, to present the life and work of each in such a way as to illustrate the spirit of Judaism in his time, and, in doing this, to analyze and systematize the complex and abstract subject matter so that it may offer the fewest difficulties to the pupil's mind.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on holy wars, power, land, and blood.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.3
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Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

BOOKS OF KINGS


Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

The Conversos of Majorca. Hispania Judaica, v. 5
Life and death in a crypto-Jewish community of Conversos of XVII century Majorca.

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Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

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Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrumentand on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Luah HaShanah 5776
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Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.