Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALLIANZ ALMAN of the society, which amounted to several hundred thousand francs each year, was made up by him from 1880 on. His munificent support was on the recom-mendation of his wife, who left a bequest of $ 800,000 to the École Normale. In 1910 the society received an endowment of sixteen million francs from her estate. The growth of the activities of the society can be seen from the successive figures of expenditures: in 1868, 60,411 francs; in 1870, 90,937 francs; in 1900, 1,229,496 francs; in 1926, 3,680,000 francs. Since that time the annual budget has been between three and a half and four million francs. The presidents of the Central Committee have been L. J. Koenigswarter ( 1860- 63); Adolphe Crémieux ( 1863- 66, 1868- 80), S. Münk ( 1866- 67), S. Η. Gold-schmidt ( 1881- 98), Narcisse Leven ( 1898- 1915), Syl-vain Levi ( 1920- 35), and Arnold Netter ( 1935- 36). During 1915- 20 the office of president was vacant, and since 1936 there has been no president, his func-tions being performed by the vice- president, Georges Leven. HARRY H. MAYER. Lit.: American Jewish Year Book ( 1900- 1) 45- 65; Bnai Brith Magazine, Jan. 1930, pp. 134- 35; Leven, Nar-cisse, Cinquante ans dhistoire, vol. 1 ( 1911); vol. 2 ( 1920); Leven, Maurice, Les origines et le programme de IAlliance Israelite ( 1923); Bigart, LAlliance Israelite, son action edu-catrice ( 1900); Loeb, La situation des Israelites en Turquie, en Serbie et en Roumanie ( 1877); reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1864- 1913; Paix et Droit, 1921 to date. ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN, an organization formed in 1873 at Vienna in order to as-sist Jews who had suffered because of their faith or their race, as well as to further the education of Jewish youth by means of the establishment of modern schools. The second part of this program was confined almost entirely to Galicia. Among its founders were Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer, Dr. Ignaz Kuranda, and Dr. Leopold Kompert. The Allianz provided relief for the victims of the Russo- Turkish war of 1878, assisted the emigration of Russian Jews during the pogroms of 1881- 82 and the expulsions of 1891, and aided the mass emigration of Roumanian Jews from 1900 to 1902. In 1874 it sent Perez Smolenskin to Roumania to make a study of the life and conditions of the Jews in Roumania with a view to alleviating their conditions. The Allianz was able to organize immediate relief action for the Jews of Kishinev in 1903, and the reports of its delegates gave the Western world a true insight into the part played by the Russian court in the pogrom. In 1907 it started the first relief work for the victims of excesses committed by Roumanian peasants. During the World War the Allianz inaugurated relief work for more than 100,000 refugees from Galicia, making use of its own collections and of money sent from the United States. The organization has also intervened with various governments for the protection of the Jews, distributed pamphlets to combat the blood accusation and other slanders, and has subventioned Jewish literature and education. From 1919 on the expenditures of the Allianz were, for the greatest part, covered by the sums provided through the bequest of Jakob Adler, one of its mem-bers. The budget, which even as late as 1919 still amounted to 101,822 Austrian schillings, fell in 1933 [ 192] to 77,419, and in subsequent years was even less. The presidents of the Allianz were: Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer ( 1873- 87); David Ritter von Gutmann ( 1888- 1912); Dr. Alfred Stern ( 1912- 18); Dr. Ar-thur Kuranda ( 1918- 28; he was the son of the above-mentioned co- founder, Ignaz Kuranda); Armand Ka-minka ( 1928- 33). Dr. Jakob Ornstein became presi-dent of the Allianz in 1933. After the German seizure of Austria in 1938, the Allianz was liquidated. Lit.: Annual Reports ( 1873- 1931); that for a survey of the activities of the organization during the first forty years of its existence; Gelber, Ν. Μ., Aus zwei Jahrhunderten ( 1924) 131- 44. ALLITERATION, repetition of the initial sound in a series of words, a common device which seems to appear at an early stage in many literatures. A corre-sponding literary device occurring at the end of words is called assonance. Frequent examples of alliteration are found in classical Hebrew, as for instance: dath vadin ( law and judgment, Esther 1: 13); hen vahe-sed ( grace and favor, Esther 2: 17); nin vaneched ( cf.  kith and kin, Gen. 21: 23); shamir vashayith ( thorns and thistles, Isa. 5: 6). Instances of Hebrew assonance are: hakerethi vehapelethi ( Cherethites Pelethites, II Sam. 8: 18); shetzef ketzef ( a little wrath, Isa. 54: 8); tohu vabohu ( waste and void, Gen. 1: 2); taaniyyah vaaniyyah ( mourning moaning, Lam. 2: 5). Similar examples of Hebrew alliteration and assonance could easily be multiplied. It is especially in the Isaianic diction, Genesis, the Song of Moses ( Ex. 15), and the book of Esther that these poetical means are preferred. On the other hand, Prov. 11: 9- 12 ( where four verses begin with the same letter), is not an example of alliteration. The Arabian Makama literature ( a form of rhymed prose) and the Hebrew poetry of the Middle Ages also are rich in alliteration. Lit.: Ley, J., Die metrische Form der ( 1866). ALMAN, SAMUEL, choirmaster and composer, b. Sobolevka, Russia, 1878. His mother was an excellent interpreter of Yiddish songs, and Alman, inspired by her, composed and sang in the choir of the Sobolevka synagogue at the age of thirteen. In 1896 he began his musical education at the Odessa Conservatory of Mu-sic, where after an interruption of the four- year term in the Russian Army, he completed his course. He then went to Kishinev. At the time of the pogrom in 1903 he fled to London, where he continued his musical ed-ucation at the Guildhall School of Music and the Royal College. His opera Melech Ehad was produced in 1912. Al-though it met with great success, the composer felt himself drawn powerfully to the music of the syna-gogue, and he became highly regarded as a creator of sacred compositions. Among his better- known works are: Shire Beth Ha- \\ eneseth ( Synagogue Compositions, for cantor and chorus, Tel- Aviv, 1925); musical settings to the poems of Bialik, Schneor, Tchernichowski and Katze-nelson; Pirke Aboth ( Ethics of the Fathers); and Haf-tara ( for violin or cello with piano accompaniment, Paris, 1934). He was editor of the supplement to the Voice of Prayer and Praise ( London, 1933), THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 8
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

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The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's “spiritual Zionism” is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Tanna Debe Eliyyahu: The Lore of the School of Elijah
Tanna debe Eliyyahu is a midrashic work thought to have been composed between the third and the tenth centuries. Unlike all the other Midrashim, it is a unified work shaped with a character of its own. This work has never before been translated from the original Hebrew.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Hebrew Ethical Wills
This volume includes specimens which, either as complete texts or as extracts, are representative of the type of literature known as Ethical Wills. The testaments give an intimate insight into the personal religion of Jews and Jewish experience through many centuries.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

What is Jewish Literature?
What Is Jewish Literature? is a richly thoughtful analysis and comprehensive overview of what defines Jewish literature. It is an international collection, an enduring contribution to the literary resource for the those who strive to appreciate, evaluate, and understand the varied riches of Jewish writing.

Reading Guide and Index, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Great introduction to all areas covered by Encyclopedia. All entries are hyperlinked to relevant Encyclopedia articles.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

JPS Hebrew-English (Jewish Bible) Tanakh
A true searchable (offline -- English only; in optional online mode -- both English and Hebrew) replica (including Biblical Hebrew vowel and cantillation marks) of the original 2nd printed edition. It is a MUST for any serious student of The Holy Scriptures and perfect a participant in Bible-study groups.