Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALLIANZ ALMAN of the society, which amounted to several hundred thousand francs each year, was made up by him from 1880 on. His munificent support was on the recom-mendation of his wife, who left a bequest of $ 800,000 to the École Normale. In 1910 the society received an endowment of sixteen million francs from her estate. The growth of the activities of the society can be seen from the successive figures of expenditures: in 1868, 60,411 francs; in 1870, 90,937 francs; in 1900, 1,229,496 francs; in 1926, 3,680,000 francs. Since that time the annual budget has been between three and a half and four million francs. The presidents of the Central Committee have been L. J. Koenigswarter ( 1860- 63); Adolphe Crémieux ( 1863- 66, 1868- 80), S. Münk ( 1866- 67), S. Η. Gold-schmidt ( 1881- 98), Narcisse Leven ( 1898- 1915), Syl-vain Levi ( 1920- 35), and Arnold Netter ( 1935- 36). During 1915- 20 the office of president was vacant, and since 1936 there has been no president, his func-tions being performed by the vice- president, Georges Leven. HARRY H. MAYER. Lit.: American Jewish Year Book ( 1900- 1) 45- 65; Bnai Brith Magazine, Jan. 1930, pp. 134- 35; Leven, Nar-cisse, Cinquante ans dhistoire, vol. 1 ( 1911); vol. 2 ( 1920); Leven, Maurice, Les origines et le programme de IAlliance Israelite ( 1923); Bigart, LAlliance Israelite, son action edu-catrice ( 1900); Loeb, La situation des Israelites en Turquie, en Serbie et en Roumanie ( 1877); reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1864- 1913; Paix et Droit, 1921 to date. ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN, an organization formed in 1873 at Vienna in order to as-sist Jews who had suffered because of their faith or their race, as well as to further the education of Jewish youth by means of the establishment of modern schools. The second part of this program was confined almost entirely to Galicia. Among its founders were Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer, Dr. Ignaz Kuranda, and Dr. Leopold Kompert. The Allianz provided relief for the victims of the Russo- Turkish war of 1878, assisted the emigration of Russian Jews during the pogroms of 1881- 82 and the expulsions of 1891, and aided the mass emigration of Roumanian Jews from 1900 to 1902. In 1874 it sent Perez Smolenskin to Roumania to make a study of the life and conditions of the Jews in Roumania with a view to alleviating their conditions. The Allianz was able to organize immediate relief action for the Jews of Kishinev in 1903, and the reports of its delegates gave the Western world a true insight into the part played by the Russian court in the pogrom. In 1907 it started the first relief work for the victims of excesses committed by Roumanian peasants. During the World War the Allianz inaugurated relief work for more than 100,000 refugees from Galicia, making use of its own collections and of money sent from the United States. The organization has also intervened with various governments for the protection of the Jews, distributed pamphlets to combat the blood accusation and other slanders, and has subventioned Jewish literature and education. From 1919 on the expenditures of the Allianz were, for the greatest part, covered by the sums provided through the bequest of Jakob Adler, one of its mem-bers. The budget, which even as late as 1919 still amounted to 101,822 Austrian schillings, fell in 1933 [ 192] to 77,419, and in subsequent years was even less. The presidents of the Allianz were: Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer ( 1873- 87); David Ritter von Gutmann ( 1888- 1912); Dr. Alfred Stern ( 1912- 18); Dr. Ar-thur Kuranda ( 1918- 28; he was the son of the above-mentioned co- founder, Ignaz Kuranda); Armand Ka-minka ( 1928- 33). Dr. Jakob Ornstein became presi-dent of the Allianz in 1933. After the German seizure of Austria in 1938, the Allianz was liquidated. Lit.: Annual Reports ( 1873- 1931); that for a survey of the activities of the organization during the first forty years of its existence; Gelber, Ν. Μ., Aus zwei Jahrhunderten ( 1924) 131- 44. ALLITERATION, repetition of the initial sound in a series of words, a common device which seems to appear at an early stage in many literatures. A corre-sponding literary device occurring at the end of words is called assonance. Frequent examples of alliteration are found in classical Hebrew, as for instance: dath vadin ( law and judgment, Esther 1: 13); hen vahe-sed ( grace and favor, Esther 2: 17); nin vaneched ( cf.  kith and kin, Gen. 21: 23); shamir vashayith ( thorns and thistles, Isa. 5: 6). Instances of Hebrew assonance are: hakerethi vehapelethi ( Cherethites Pelethites, II Sam. 8: 18); shetzef ketzef ( a little wrath, Isa. 54: 8); tohu vabohu ( waste and void, Gen. 1: 2); taaniyyah vaaniyyah ( mourning moaning, Lam. 2: 5). Similar examples of Hebrew alliteration and assonance could easily be multiplied. It is especially in the Isaianic diction, Genesis, the Song of Moses ( Ex. 15), and the book of Esther that these poetical means are preferred. On the other hand, Prov. 11: 9- 12 ( where four verses begin with the same letter), is not an example of alliteration. The Arabian Makama literature ( a form of rhymed prose) and the Hebrew poetry of the Middle Ages also are rich in alliteration. Lit.: Ley, J., Die metrische Form der ( 1866). ALMAN, SAMUEL, choirmaster and composer, b. Sobolevka, Russia, 1878. His mother was an excellent interpreter of Yiddish songs, and Alman, inspired by her, composed and sang in the choir of the Sobolevka synagogue at the age of thirteen. In 1896 he began his musical education at the Odessa Conservatory of Mu-sic, where after an interruption of the four- year term in the Russian Army, he completed his course. He then went to Kishinev. At the time of the pogrom in 1903 he fled to London, where he continued his musical ed-ucation at the Guildhall School of Music and the Royal College. His opera Melech Ehad was produced in 1912. Al-though it met with great success, the composer felt himself drawn powerfully to the music of the syna-gogue, and he became highly regarded as a creator of sacred compositions. Among his better- known works are: Shire Beth Ha- \\ eneseth ( Synagogue Compositions, for cantor and chorus, Tel- Aviv, 1925); musical settings to the poems of Bialik, Schneor, Tchernichowski and Katze-nelson; Pirke Aboth ( Ethics of the Fathers); and Haf-tara ( for violin or cello with piano accompaniment, Paris, 1934). He was editor of the supplement to the Voice of Prayer and Praise ( London, 1933), THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy
Stephanie Gutmann, who covered the second intifada, documents in her book, 'The Other War,' how Israel, in spite of or maybe because of its strength as a democracy nearly always loses the battle for soft and sympathetic minds. The Washington Times

Legends of the Jews
A most remarkable and comprehensive compilation of stories connected to the Hebrew Bible drawn largely on Jewish lore and tradition. It is an indispensable reference on that body of literature known as Midrash, the imaginative retelling and elaboration on Bible stories in which mythological tales about demons and magic co-exist with moralistic stories about the piety of the patriarchs.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on holy wars, power, land, and blood.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the forgotten million that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

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Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaam as tribulaoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

The Jews of Charleston: A History of an American Jewish Community
The small group of Jewish inhabitants of Charles Town in South Carolina met in 1750 to organize themselves permanently into a religious community. This book tells that community's story down to the present day. It describes the process of adjustment both of the Jews and their religion.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Ah, Assyria... (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXXIII)
Thirty outstanding papers on Assyrian history and its connection and impact on Biblical Israel.

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Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (18251894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

A Catalogue of Fragments of Halakhah and Midrash from the Cairo Genizah
The core of this impressive volume is its catalog of Rabbinica that is accompanied by twelve facsimile pages of representative documents.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on holy wars, power, land, and blood.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, in 5 volumes
This five-volume set represents the finest work of the late nineteenth century Biblical scholarship.

Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.

JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

Studies in Hebrew Narrative Art (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXVII)
Each of the twelve articles in this volumes illustrates some state of the development of Hebrew narrative prose: from biblical literature though talmudic-midrashic and medieval eras till modern times.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica