Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALLIANZ ALMAN of the society, which amounted to several hundred thousand francs each year, was made up by him from 1880 on. His munificent support was on the recom-mendation of his wife, who left a bequest of $ 800,000 to the École Normale. In 1910 the society received an endowment of sixteen million francs from her estate. The growth of the activities of the society can be seen from the successive figures of expenditures: in 1868, 60,411 francs; in 1870, 90,937 francs; in 1900, 1,229,496 francs; in 1926, 3,680,000 francs. Since that time the annual budget has been between three and a half and four million francs. The presidents of the Central Committee have been L. J. Koenigswarter ( 1860- 63); Adolphe Crémieux ( 1863- 66, 1868- 80), S. Münk ( 1866- 67), S. Η. Gold-schmidt ( 1881- 98), Narcisse Leven ( 1898- 1915), Syl-vain Levi ( 1920- 35), and Arnold Netter ( 1935- 36). During 1915- 20 the office of president was vacant, and since 1936 there has been no president, his func-tions being performed by the vice- president, Georges Leven. HARRY H. MAYER. Lit.: American Jewish Year Book ( 1900- 1) 45- 65; Bnai Brith Magazine, Jan. 1930, pp. 134- 35; Leven, Nar-cisse, Cinquante ans dhistoire, vol. 1 ( 1911); vol. 2 ( 1920); Leven, Maurice, Les origines et le programme de IAlliance Israelite ( 1923); Bigart, LAlliance Israelite, son action edu-catrice ( 1900); Loeb, La situation des Israelites en Turquie, en Serbie et en Roumanie ( 1877); reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1864- 1913; Paix et Droit, 1921 to date. ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN, an organization formed in 1873 at Vienna in order to as-sist Jews who had suffered because of their faith or their race, as well as to further the education of Jewish youth by means of the establishment of modern schools. The second part of this program was confined almost entirely to Galicia. Among its founders were Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer, Dr. Ignaz Kuranda, and Dr. Leopold Kompert. The Allianz provided relief for the victims of the Russo- Turkish war of 1878, assisted the emigration of Russian Jews during the pogroms of 1881- 82 and the expulsions of 1891, and aided the mass emigration of Roumanian Jews from 1900 to 1902. In 1874 it sent Perez Smolenskin to Roumania to make a study of the life and conditions of the Jews in Roumania with a view to alleviating their conditions. The Allianz was able to organize immediate relief action for the Jews of Kishinev in 1903, and the reports of its delegates gave the Western world a true insight into the part played by the Russian court in the pogrom. In 1907 it started the first relief work for the victims of excesses committed by Roumanian peasants. During the World War the Allianz inaugurated relief work for more than 100,000 refugees from Galicia, making use of its own collections and of money sent from the United States. The organization has also intervened with various governments for the protection of the Jews, distributed pamphlets to combat the blood accusation and other slanders, and has subventioned Jewish literature and education. From 1919 on the expenditures of the Allianz were, for the greatest part, covered by the sums provided through the bequest of Jakob Adler, one of its mem-bers. The budget, which even as late as 1919 still amounted to 101,822 Austrian schillings, fell in 1933 [ 192] to 77,419, and in subsequent years was even less. The presidents of the Allianz were: Joseph Ritter von Wertheimer ( 1873- 87); David Ritter von Gutmann ( 1888- 1912); Dr. Alfred Stern ( 1912- 18); Dr. Ar-thur Kuranda ( 1918- 28; he was the son of the above-mentioned co- founder, Ignaz Kuranda); Armand Ka-minka ( 1928- 33). Dr. Jakob Ornstein became presi-dent of the Allianz in 1933. After the German seizure of Austria in 1938, the Allianz was liquidated. Lit.: Annual Reports ( 1873- 1931); that for a survey of the activities of the organization during the first forty years of its existence; Gelber, Ν. Μ., Aus zwei Jahrhunderten ( 1924) 131- 44. ALLITERATION, repetition of the initial sound in a series of words, a common device which seems to appear at an early stage in many literatures. A corre-sponding literary device occurring at the end of words is called assonance. Frequent examples of alliteration are found in classical Hebrew, as for instance: dath vadin ( law and judgment, Esther 1: 13); hen vahe-sed ( grace and favor, Esther 2: 17); nin vaneched ( cf.  kith and kin, Gen. 21: 23); shamir vashayith ( thorns and thistles, Isa. 5: 6). Instances of Hebrew assonance are: hakerethi vehapelethi ( Cherethites Pelethites, II Sam. 8: 18); shetzef ketzef ( a little wrath, Isa. 54: 8); tohu vabohu ( waste and void, Gen. 1: 2); taaniyyah vaaniyyah ( mourning moaning, Lam. 2: 5). Similar examples of Hebrew alliteration and assonance could easily be multiplied. It is especially in the Isaianic diction, Genesis, the Song of Moses ( Ex. 15), and the book of Esther that these poetical means are preferred. On the other hand, Prov. 11: 9- 12 ( where four verses begin with the same letter), is not an example of alliteration. The Arabian Makama literature ( a form of rhymed prose) and the Hebrew poetry of the Middle Ages also are rich in alliteration. Lit.: Ley, J., Die metrische Form der ( 1866). ALMAN, SAMUEL, choirmaster and composer, b. Sobolevka, Russia, 1878. His mother was an excellent interpreter of Yiddish songs, and Alman, inspired by her, composed and sang in the choir of the Sobolevka synagogue at the age of thirteen. In 1896 he began his musical education at the Odessa Conservatory of Mu-sic, where after an interruption of the four- year term in the Russian Army, he completed his course. He then went to Kishinev. At the time of the pogrom in 1903 he fled to London, where he continued his musical ed-ucation at the Guildhall School of Music and the Royal College. His opera Melech Ehad was produced in 1912. Al-though it met with great success, the composer felt himself drawn powerfully to the music of the syna-gogue, and he became highly regarded as a creator of sacred compositions. Among his better- known works are: Shire Beth Ha- \\ eneseth ( Synagogue Compositions, for cantor and chorus, Tel- Aviv, 1925); musical settings to the poems of Bialik, Schneor, Tchernichowski and Katze-nelson; Pirke Aboth ( Ethics of the Fathers); and Haf-tara ( for violin or cello with piano accompaniment, Paris, 1934). He was editor of the supplement to the Voice of Prayer and Praise ( London, 1933), THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


The Shema: Spirituality and Law in Judaism
The Shema has been described as the central watchword of Jewish faith. The book represents an extensive commentary on the words of the Shema, drawing upon the wide range of traditional sources and the author's own reflections.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


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Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

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Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

THE EIGHT CHAPTERS OF MAIMONIDES ON ETHICS


The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): SAMUEL I & II
Although there have been other contributions on this subject, this volume still is worth having as it contains most of arguments still serving as a basis for modern Christian mainline (and thus also Jewish Reform) liberalism.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaam as tribulaoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 5
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The Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This acclaimed new translation of the Torah--the Holy Scriptures of the Jewish people,--was prepared according to the Masoretic Text by the Jewish Publication Society (Philadelphia), world s oldest Jewish book publisher. Electronic version of it, which is a searchable replica of the printed version was prepared by Varda Books in 2002, with all the latest corrections and revisions having been incorporated.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil literally and figuratively is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.