Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALLIANCE THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA Seal of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, which was founded in 1860 by 17 Frenchmen who were influenced by the Damas-cus affair and the Mortara case en masse has been the concern of the Alliance. An im-pressive demonstration of its capacity for organized re-lief work on a large scale occurred in 1869, when the Jews of Poland and Lithuania were decimated by a famine and epidemic of typhus; it administered emer-gency aid to them along systematic lines; appropriated funds toward the building and operating of orphan-ages; helped to send some of the survivors of the scourge into the interior of Russia for rehabilitation; and transported others to the United States. Eight hundred of the famine sufferers were conveyed overseas under its auspices, thus beginning the Jewish mass mi-gration to the United States. Working conjointly with the Alliance in this relief work were local emergency committees strategically placed at Königsberg, Memel, Coln on Spree, and Berlin. After the Russian pogroms of 1881, when 20,000 Jews fled to Galicia, the Alliance again proved its abil-ity to cope with relief problems of large proportions. It provided for the most pressing needs of the sufferers and helped distribute them to such countries as were able and willing to absorb them. The bulk of the ref-ugees sailed for the United States under the supervi-sion of the Alliance; only small quotas were directed by it to other countries. Associated with the Alliance at this time and sharing equally the heavy burden were the Vienna Israelitische Allianz, the German Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Bnai Brith, the German section of the Alliance itself, the United He-brew Charities of New York, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, and the Board of Delegates of American Israelites. After the Russian pogroms of 1903 and 1905, and the Galician pogroms of 1918 to 1919, the Alliance again functioned prominently in the role of a distributor of relief. In the reconstruction period after the World War it undertook two huge appeals for funds; one, in 1919, for the Jewish orphan homes of Poland and East Galicia; the other, in 1922, for the Jewish famine sufferers in Russia, to send food, clothing, and medical supplies through the Hoover Relief Administration. Continuously during this period it contributed to the expenses of Russian, Hungarian, and Galician students deprived of educational opportunity in their native lands, who were studying in universities and technical schools in Austria, France, Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland. It has repeatedly dispensed relief for the benefit of the Roumanian, Persian, and Moroccan Jews. After the outbreaks in Roumania in 1907, in Casablanca in the same year, and in Fez in 1912 it sent prompt re-lief. It appropriated funds to alleviate the distress of [ 190] the persecuted Christians in the Lebanon, in 1860; the Jewish sufferers in the Constantinople fire disasters of 1874, 1883, and 1911; the Salonika conflagration of 1917; and the Russian Pale conflagrations of 1911. It aided the stranded Jewish war refugees in Turkey in 1876 to 1877, and in the Balkans in 1912. It went to the rescue of the Jewish sufferers in Chios after the earthquake of 1881, and in the famine of 1882 in Asia Minor. It undertook to bring relief to the Jews of Da-mascus in the crisis following in the wake of the Syrian uprisings of 1925 to 1926. A special feature of its work in Morocco has been the training of young moth-ers in hygiene; the installation of a maternity hospital in Marrakesh, the distribution of milk for babies and the creation of a bathing establishment are other; activi-ties which it has maintained there. The Alliance Israelite Universelle has been unrivaled in the important matter of raising the educational level of backward Jews in the various countries. The Bal-kans, North Africa, and the Near East are dotted with educational institutions which it has established and which it operates with great efficiency. These schools have made the Alliance a powerful factor for the dis-semination of modern culture in Oriental countries, particularly among the Jews. It has wrongly been al-leged that the French influence has predominated too strongly and that the specifically French character of the educational work has alienated the students from their native environment; in actuality, however, the purpose of the instruction in the French language was the inculcation of Occidental culture and civilization, and the training of the Jews in the various lands to be loyal and active citizens of their respective countries. The first school was founded in 1862 in Tetuan, Morocco; in 1864 a school was opened in Tangier, and in 1865 in Damascus and Baghdad; in 1867 the school in Adrianople was founded. The total number of schools at the beginning of 1930 was 122, and at the end of 1937 it was ninety- five. The total number of pupils in all the schools was as high as 48,000 ( in 1914); the pupil- enrollment in 1929 was over 40,000, and at the end of 1937 it was 47,822. The instruction has been standardized in accordance with modern pedagogical principles. The curriculum covers the usual elementary subjects. In some of the schools more advanced courses are taught. The Sas-soon College in Baghdad equips its students for the en-trance requirements of universities and to fill executive positions. Many of the schools are liberally subven-tioned by the local Jewish communities. The language of instruction is usually French, but special attention is given to other languages according to local condi-tions. There is no tuition fee for those unable to pay, and the most needy receive free meals. Text- books likewise are furnished free of cost. Non- Jewish pupils are admitted on payment of a fee at a nominal rate. The program of studies is not a stereotyped one to which all the schools of the same general type must adhere, but is modified in matters of detail to suit local customs, laws, and beliefs. Religion and Jewish sub-jects are required courses in all the schools. Certain of the best pupils who express a desire to be-come teachers are sent to France, after a competitive examination, to continue their studies at the teachers seminary known as the École Normale Israelite Orien- Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Hebrew: The Eternal Language
The extraordinary story of the Hebrew language is the subject of this book.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
asdf

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

USCJ eLuah 5776
asdf

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Smoke Over Birkenau
The astonishing stories in Smoke Over Birkenau tell of the women who lived and suffered alongside Liana Millu during her months in the concentration camp.

Zionism at the UN: A Diary of the First Days
This book records in diary form the events the author was involved in as an emissary of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency for Palestine to the United Nations Conference, meeting in San Francisco in the late spring and early summer of 1945. The demand for a Jewish state on the official level was first made clear at this conference.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v.4
wert

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
sdfg

Luah Hashannah 5778
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Studies in Jewish Education II: Jewish Educational Research in Diaspora
History, trends and problems with the Jewish education in America.

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


Mishnayoth


Religion and Zionism First Encounters


Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

Israel and the Nations
Israel and the Nations is a handbook of Jewish apologetics. The author's primary goal was to put together all the arguments of Jew-baiting and to explain their nature and origin. This work is a source of information and reference for all those who are in quest of enlightenment.