Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALLENTOWN ALLIANCE THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 188] 9th), 1917. On his entry into Jerusalem he was greeted by Jews as their liberator from the Turkish yoke. Allenby was at first not sympathetic toward the Zionist claims on Palestine and toward the policy of the British government as set forth in the Balfour Dec-laration. Indeed, it was with some difficulty that Weiz-mann succeeded in persuading him to join in the laying of the foundation- stone of the Hebrew University on Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem. Later, however, he became more favorably inclined toward Zionist ideas, and on the occasion of the opening of the Hebrew University in 1925 he gave enthusiastic expression to this change in his views. The Jews repeatedly manifested their gratitude to Allenby for his liberation of Palestine. In Tel- Aviv there is a street named after him. ALLENTOWN, city and county- seat of Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, with a population of 100,000 ( 1939), of which about 2,500 are Jews. A few Sephardic Jews came to Allentown as early as about 1830, but did not remain as a permanent group. In the 1840 s about a dozen families, including those of Henry Schurman and Theodore Weil, came from Baden, Ger-many, and organized the first Jewish congregation; in 1850 they rented a hall for the purpose of conducting religious services. Polish, Roumanian, Russian and Lithuanian Jews began to settle in Allentown in the late 1860 s. Allentown has five synagogues: Agudas Achim ( Or-thodox, 1894), Rabbi Solomon Krevsky; Keneseth Israel ( Reform, 1903), Rabbi Harry N. Caplan; Con-gregations Sons of Israel ( Orthodox, 1907), Rabbi Solo-mon Krevsky; Shaari Sholem ( Orthodox, 1917); and Temple Beth- El ( Conservative, 1930), Rabbi Harry W. Katchen. The Jewish Welfare Agency, a group of volunteer women workers for the purpose of ad-ministering relief to local needy families, was or-ganized in 1913. The Jewish Community Center of Allentown was organized in 1918, and by 1939 had a membership of 1,200. In 1928 it erected a new building, which has served as a meeting- place for all the Jewish organiza-tions as well as for a number of non- Jewish groups. The Center maintains a program of educational, social, cultural and athletic activities, conducts a School for Jewish Education, and handles all problems dealing with transients and refugees. GEORGE FELDMAN ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG DES JUDENTUMS, German Jewish weekly periodical founded by Ludwig Philippson in 1837, and published originally in Leipzig and later in Berlin. Founded as an impartial organ de-voted to all Jewish interests, it at first advocated a moderate historical reform of Judaism as a revealed religion. Philippson edited the periodical until his death in 1889; from 1890 to 1909 it was edited by Gustav Karpeles, and from 1910 to 1919 Ludwig Geiger di-rected its editorial policy. Under Karpeles and Geiger it became the most outspoken liberal Jewish weekly in Germany. It ceased publication in 1921. The Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums was one of the first Jewish periodicals of Central and Western Eu-rope. For many years it exercised great influence in other European countries, especially those of Eastern Europe. It played a prominent role in the struggle of the Jews of Germany for civic emancipation, and was instrumental in the founding of the Institut zur Ford-erung der israelitischen Literatur in 1853, of the Bibel-anstalt für Israeliten, and of the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judentums in Berlin, a training school for liberal rabbis. It was of great influence in promot-ing a knowledge and appreciation of Judaism and its history and in fostering the inner religious and com-munal life of the German Jews. Lit.: Kayserling, Μ., Ludwig Philippson ( Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums, Philippson, Martin, Neueste Geschichte des vol. 1, pp. 185- 91. ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE, inter-national Jewish organization with headquarters in Paris, France. The Alliance Israelite Universelle was launched in May, 1860, by seventeen Jewish citizens of Paris who, influenced by such events as the Damascus affair and the Mortara case, came to feel acutely that there was need for a central body authorized to speak and act for the Jews of the world in matters affecting their common interests. These interests included not only concern with legally guaranteed immunity from persecution but also the promotion of education and benevolence for the benefit of backward sections of the Jewish people. A call to the Jews of all countries was issued, announcing the creation of the new so-ciety and inviting all to join who believed  that it would be an honor to their religion, a lesson for the nations, a step forward for humanity, a triumph of truth and reason, to see the union of all the living forces of Judaism, which, though small in numbers, is great in its love and desire for good. This call was signed by Rabbi Aristide Astruc; Isidore Cahen, pro-fessor at the Paris Rabbinical Seminary; Jules Car-vallo, civil engineer; Narcisse Leven, lawyer; Professor Eugen Manuel; and Charles Netter, a merchant. Their appeal was well received, but the immediate response, outside of France, Italy, and Algiers, consisted of little more than polite words of praise. In some quarters there was outspoken opposition. Before the end of 1860 the society had 850 members, of whom all but 20 per cent were from France. In 1862 it had 1,100 members; in 1864, over 2,800; in 1870, twelve thousand; in 1875, twenty thousand; in 1885, thirty thousand; in 1939, over forty thousand. The German section, which was disbanded in 1912, had about eighteen thousand members. The aims of the Alliance are: ( 1) to defend the civil and religious liberties of persecuted Jewish groups; ( 2) to alleviate the distress of certain Jewish groups in times of disaster; ( 3) to furnish educational oppor-tunities to certain backward Jewish groups; ( 4) to grant financial aid to certain Jewish publications; ( 5) to bring about world- wide cooperation of the Jewish people for the accomplishment of these aims. The administration is in the hands of a Central Committee of sixty members, who serve as execu-tives for terms of nine years. About one half of the Central Committee reside in Paris. The Austrian and the German sections were autonomous. In Austria the society was at the outset suspected of having designs against the government. The Czarist regime also classed it as a political movement and banned it. Through the channels of international diplomacy the Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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