Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 187] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALLEGORY ALLENBY, LORD find some higher truths or ethical philosophical teach-ings, if not expressly stated, at least suggested or indi-cated in the Divine Law. The significance and impor-tance of any act commanded or any ritual performance prescribed by the Law lies in its power to symbolize some ideas and suggest some higher teachings, or in its value as a reminder of a philosophical truth or an ethical principle. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists consisted in interpreting the symbolic signifi-cance and importance of the acts prescribed by the Law, they were characterized as  Interpreters of the importance and significance of the Law, doreshe hamuroth ( symbolizing interpreters). The method of the doreshe hamuroth originated among the Alexandrian Jews, but found its way to Palestine, where some of the teachers used it. There was, however, danger in this method of interpreting the Scriptures in that it might lead to a neglect of the practical observances. Even in Alexandria, where it originated, some people objected to this method, seeing in it a danger to Judaism. This danger was real, for some Jews accepting this allegoristic interpretation of the laws contented themselves with merely understand-ing the ideas suggested or symbolized by the laws and neglected to observe the latter in practice. Among the Palestinians there were even stronger objections to such an allegorical interpretation of the religious laws, and the representatives of this school of allegorists, the doreshe hamuroth, were in disfavor. This explains why comparatively few of their interpretations have been preserved. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH. Lit.: Lauterbach, J. Z.,  The Ancient Jewish Allegorists in Talmud and Midrash, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 1, pp. 291- 333, 503- 31. ALLEGORY. Allegory is sometimes defined as a  prolonged metaphor, a statement or narrative having a literal as well as an implied meaning, which is told primarily for the sake of its hidden rather than of its obvious purport. The Bible was frequently interpreted alegorically. Jews in various periods declared that the Bible as a whole had both a literal and an implied meaning, the former for the sake of the masses, the latter for those capable of discerning more profound truths. This method of interpretation flourished particularly in Alexandria during the 1st cent. C. E., with Philo as its outstanding representative, and in Provence during the Middle Ages, when it was indirectly revived by Maimonides. Maimonides attitude is clearly stated in his introduction to Μoreh Nebuchim:  He ( God) described those profound truths which His divine wis-dom found it necessary to communicate to us in al-legorical, figurative and metaphorical language. . . . With such a premise as a starting- point, men were able to find in the Bible almost anything they sought. However, this method of interpretation aroused bitter resentment when, as happened in both periods, it was carried to extremes and the literal meaning of Scripture was denied all significance. Since the implied meaning was believed to be the true message of the text, it was argued that it was not necessary to believe literally the historical narratives of the Bible or to observe its legal portions after one fully understood the message which these were intended to convey. Neither Philo nor Maimonides had intended such conclusions. However, the successors of both Philo and Maimón-ides did not remain within those limitations. The results were disastrous in both instances. In Alexandria they contributed toward the dissolution of Jewish re-ligious life, and in Provence to a bitter and prolonged opposition to the study of all philosophy. See also: FABLES; PHILO; PHILOSOPHY, ALEXANDRIAN. LOUIS GREENBERG. ALLEMANNO, JOHANAN, see Pico DELLA MIR-ANDOLA. ALLEN, ANNA, social welfare worker, b. village of Sing Sing, Ν. Y., 1800; d. New York city, 1888. She assisted Rebecca Gratz in forming the first Hebrew Sunday- school of Philadelphia, the one hundredth an-niversary of which was celebrated in 1938. She was one of the founders and for twelve years first president of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum in that city. Mrs. Allen was director and for forty years treasurer of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. She came to New York city in 1875. One of her descendants, Catherine Allen, became head of the Shakers of the United States. Lit.: Markens, I., The Hebrews in America Moráis, Η. S., The Jews 0J Philadelphia ALLEN, JOHN, English educator and author, b. Truro, England, 1771; d. London, 1839. Little is known about his life, which seems to have been un-eventful, except that he founded a school at Hackney, then on the outskirts of London, which he maintained during the last thirty years of his life. Apart from a translation, from the Latin, of Calvins Institutes, which appeared in 1813 ( 2nd ed., 1838), his principal work was Modern Judaism: or A Brief Account Opinions, Traditions, Rites and Ceremonies Jews in Modern Times ( London, 1816; 2nd, revised ed., 1830). This work gives ample evidence that the author was well- read in his subject, and that he had taken great pains in the collection of his material, and  of some of the circumstances which he has described he has been an eye and ear witness. His knowledge of the rabbinic literature was second- hand, being derived chiefly from the works of the Buxtorfs and Bartolocci. He made a clean- cut division between  Ancient Judaism of the Old Testament and  Modern Judaism of the Cabalis-tic and Talmudic writings. He denied the authenticity of the Oral Law which he declared to be  unworthy of the smallest credit. The contents of the Talmud are characterized as  frivolous and superstitious, impious and blasphemous, absurd and fabulous. Despite its evident bias, it is learned, and long remained the most informative book on Judaism for the English reader. ALLENBY, LORD ( Field- Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby), British field- marshal, b. 1861; d. London, 1936. From 1917 to 1919 he was commander- in- chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of Great Britain in the World War, and conducted the campaign in Palestine against the Turks. Assuming the chief com-mand of the troops in 1917, he began an elaborately planned offensive which, meeting with various changes of fortune, was strikingly successful in the capture of Terusalem on the first day of Hanukah ( December Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

Kiddush Ha-Shem: An Epic of 1648
One of the earliest historical novels in modern Yiddish literature, Kiddush ha-Shem is a story of Jewish martyrdom during the Chmelnitsky uprising in mid-17th century Ukraine and Poland.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

Blessed is the Match: The Story of Jewish Resistance
This book is a classic account of Jewish tragedy, faith, hope, and triumph. Published originally in 1947, it is one of the first works to deal with the horrors and the heroism of the Holocaust years.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

ADULT EDUCATION IN CRISIS SITUATIONS


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Ideology and Settlement
The first deep and detailed research conducted on the subject of carrying out of the policies and enterprises of the JNF in the years prior to World War I.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 8
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

BOOKS OF KINGS


The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

The Goddess Anath
A major contribution to Ugaritic scholarship, The Goddess Anath--Cassuto's work on Canaanite Epics of the Patriarchal Age--is a classic authored by one of the greatest Bible scholars.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebäude der hebräischen Sprache (in drei Bänden)
This is the largest compilation of grammatical material for Hebrew Bible.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

New Heart, New Spirit: Biblical Humanism for Modern Israel
New Heart, New Spirit confronts the ethical and moral values of the Bible in the context of the critical situation that Israel and Zionism are facing. It is an outcry and a challenge to the xenophobic movements focused on “holy wars,” power, land, and blood.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Tractate Pesachim: Commentary and Study Guide
Master a Mesikta Series is probably the most advanced commentary and study guide to Talmud available in English. By providing background material, outlining the contents of the Talmud and its commentaries, explaining the sequence of the Talmud,offering overviews of the topics discussed and clarifying the aggadic literature and its interaction with the legal discussions, this series enables the student to focus on the unity of the tractate, and serves as an aid in helping him in its master

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.