Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 187] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALLEGORY ALLENBY, LORD find some higher truths or ethical philosophical teach-ings, if not expressly stated, at least suggested or indi-cated in the Divine Law. The significance and impor-tance of any act commanded or any ritual performance prescribed by the Law lies in its power to symbolize some ideas and suggest some higher teachings, or in its value as a reminder of a philosophical truth or an ethical principle. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists consisted in interpreting the symbolic signifi-cance and importance of the acts prescribed by the Law, they were characterized as  Interpreters of the importance and significance of the Law, doreshe hamuroth ( symbolizing interpreters). The method of the doreshe hamuroth originated among the Alexandrian Jews, but found its way to Palestine, where some of the teachers used it. There was, however, danger in this method of interpreting the Scriptures in that it might lead to a neglect of the practical observances. Even in Alexandria, where it originated, some people objected to this method, seeing in it a danger to Judaism. This danger was real, for some Jews accepting this allegoristic interpretation of the laws contented themselves with merely understand-ing the ideas suggested or symbolized by the laws and neglected to observe the latter in practice. Among the Palestinians there were even stronger objections to such an allegorical interpretation of the religious laws, and the representatives of this school of allegorists, the doreshe hamuroth, were in disfavor. This explains why comparatively few of their interpretations have been preserved. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH. Lit.: Lauterbach, J. Z.,  The Ancient Jewish Allegorists in Talmud and Midrash, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 1, pp. 291- 333, 503- 31. ALLEGORY. Allegory is sometimes defined as a  prolonged metaphor, a statement or narrative having a literal as well as an implied meaning, which is told primarily for the sake of its hidden rather than of its obvious purport. The Bible was frequently interpreted alegorically. Jews in various periods declared that the Bible as a whole had both a literal and an implied meaning, the former for the sake of the masses, the latter for those capable of discerning more profound truths. This method of interpretation flourished particularly in Alexandria during the 1st cent. C. E., with Philo as its outstanding representative, and in Provence during the Middle Ages, when it was indirectly revived by Maimonides. Maimonides attitude is clearly stated in his introduction to Μoreh Nebuchim:  He ( God) described those profound truths which His divine wis-dom found it necessary to communicate to us in al-legorical, figurative and metaphorical language. . . . With such a premise as a starting- point, men were able to find in the Bible almost anything they sought. However, this method of interpretation aroused bitter resentment when, as happened in both periods, it was carried to extremes and the literal meaning of Scripture was denied all significance. Since the implied meaning was believed to be the true message of the text, it was argued that it was not necessary to believe literally the historical narratives of the Bible or to observe its legal portions after one fully understood the message which these were intended to convey. Neither Philo nor Maimonides had intended such conclusions. However, the successors of both Philo and Maimón-ides did not remain within those limitations. The results were disastrous in both instances. In Alexandria they contributed toward the dissolution of Jewish re-ligious life, and in Provence to a bitter and prolonged opposition to the study of all philosophy. See also: FABLES; PHILO; PHILOSOPHY, ALEXANDRIAN. LOUIS GREENBERG. ALLEMANNO, JOHANAN, see Pico DELLA MIR-ANDOLA. ALLEN, ANNA, social welfare worker, b. village of Sing Sing, Ν. Y., 1800; d. New York city, 1888. She assisted Rebecca Gratz in forming the first Hebrew Sunday- school of Philadelphia, the one hundredth an-niversary of which was celebrated in 1938. She was one of the founders and for twelve years first president of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum in that city. Mrs. Allen was director and for forty years treasurer of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. She came to New York city in 1875. One of her descendants, Catherine Allen, became head of the Shakers of the United States. Lit.: Markens, I., The Hebrews in America Moráis, Η. S., The Jews 0J Philadelphia ALLEN, JOHN, English educator and author, b. Truro, England, 1771; d. London, 1839. Little is known about his life, which seems to have been un-eventful, except that he founded a school at Hackney, then on the outskirts of London, which he maintained during the last thirty years of his life. Apart from a translation, from the Latin, of Calvins Institutes, which appeared in 1813 ( 2nd ed., 1838), his principal work was Modern Judaism: or A Brief Account Opinions, Traditions, Rites and Ceremonies Jews in Modern Times ( London, 1816; 2nd, revised ed., 1830). This work gives ample evidence that the author was well- read in his subject, and that he had taken great pains in the collection of his material, and  of some of the circumstances which he has described he has been an eye and ear witness. His knowledge of the rabbinic literature was second- hand, being derived chiefly from the works of the Buxtorfs and Bartolocci. He made a clean- cut division between  Ancient Judaism of the Old Testament and  Modern Judaism of the Cabalis-tic and Talmudic writings. He denied the authenticity of the Oral Law which he declared to be  unworthy of the smallest credit. The contents of the Talmud are characterized as  frivolous and superstitious, impious and blasphemous, absurd and fabulous. Despite its evident bias, it is learned, and long remained the most informative book on Judaism for the English reader. ALLENBY, LORD ( Field- Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby), British field- marshal, b. 1861; d. London, 1936. From 1917 to 1919 he was commander- in- chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of Great Britain in the World War, and conducted the campaign in Palestine against the Turks. Assuming the chief com-mand of the troops in 1917, he began an elaborately planned offensive which, meeting with various changes of fortune, was strikingly successful in the capture of Terusalem on the first day of Hanukah ( December Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 2: From the Death of Alexander I until the Death of Alexander III. (1825–1894)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The second volume treats of the history of Russian Jewry from the death of Alexander I (1825) until the death of Alexander III (1894).

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion and Law. Vol. III
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. In the third volume The Keepers of the Threshold, the Bird-Sanctuary, The Silent Widow, and other stories are discussed.

Renewing the Covenant: A Theology for the Postmodern Jew
Renewing the Covenant presents the first systematic statement of theology since Abraham J. Heschel set forth his distinctive, comprehensive philosophy of Judaism. This unique book will long be discussed by thoughtful readers.

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Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

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The Sephardi Legacy II


Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

History of the Jews, Vol. 1: From the Earliest Period to the Death of Simon the Maccabee (135 B.C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The first volume covers the period from the entry of Israelite tribes into the land of Canaan to the settlement of the Judeans in Egypt.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 12
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


JPS Torah Commentary: Deuteronomy
The fifth and final JPS commentary on the last book of the Torah.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Chapters on Jewish Literature
The twenty-five short chapters on Jewish Literature open with the fall of Jerusalem in the year 70 of the current era, and end with the death of Moses Mendelssohn in 1786. This book has been compiled with the definite aim of providing an elementary manual of Jewish literature both for home and school use.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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The Book of Pogroms (in Russian)
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The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

The Book of Delight and Other Papers
The book contains eight chapters of an absorbing text, including The Book of Delight, A Visit to Hebron, Medieval Mayfaring, and Marriages Are Made in Heaven.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Mystic Tales from the Zohar
A translation of eight of the most interesting narratives found in the Zohar. In addition, the book contains a comprehensive introduction, a glossary, notes, and a bibliography.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Luah Hashanah 5777
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.