Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 187] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALLEGORY ALLENBY, LORD find some higher truths or ethical philosophical teach-ings, if not expressly stated, at least suggested or indi-cated in the Divine Law. The significance and impor-tance of any act commanded or any ritual performance prescribed by the Law lies in its power to symbolize some ideas and suggest some higher teachings, or in its value as a reminder of a philosophical truth or an ethical principle. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists consisted in interpreting the symbolic signifi-cance and importance of the acts prescribed by the Law, they were characterized as  Interpreters of the importance and significance of the Law, doreshe hamuroth ( symbolizing interpreters). The method of the doreshe hamuroth originated among the Alexandrian Jews, but found its way to Palestine, where some of the teachers used it. There was, however, danger in this method of interpreting the Scriptures in that it might lead to a neglect of the practical observances. Even in Alexandria, where it originated, some people objected to this method, seeing in it a danger to Judaism. This danger was real, for some Jews accepting this allegoristic interpretation of the laws contented themselves with merely understand-ing the ideas suggested or symbolized by the laws and neglected to observe the latter in practice. Among the Palestinians there were even stronger objections to such an allegorical interpretation of the religious laws, and the representatives of this school of allegorists, the doreshe hamuroth, were in disfavor. This explains why comparatively few of their interpretations have been preserved. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH. Lit.: Lauterbach, J. Z.,  The Ancient Jewish Allegorists in Talmud and Midrash, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 1, pp. 291- 333, 503- 31. ALLEGORY. Allegory is sometimes defined as a  prolonged metaphor, a statement or narrative having a literal as well as an implied meaning, which is told primarily for the sake of its hidden rather than of its obvious purport. The Bible was frequently interpreted alegorically. Jews in various periods declared that the Bible as a whole had both a literal and an implied meaning, the former for the sake of the masses, the latter for those capable of discerning more profound truths. This method of interpretation flourished particularly in Alexandria during the 1st cent. C. E., with Philo as its outstanding representative, and in Provence during the Middle Ages, when it was indirectly revived by Maimonides. Maimonides attitude is clearly stated in his introduction to Μoreh Nebuchim:  He ( God) described those profound truths which His divine wis-dom found it necessary to communicate to us in al-legorical, figurative and metaphorical language. . . . With such a premise as a starting- point, men were able to find in the Bible almost anything they sought. However, this method of interpretation aroused bitter resentment when, as happened in both periods, it was carried to extremes and the literal meaning of Scripture was denied all significance. Since the implied meaning was believed to be the true message of the text, it was argued that it was not necessary to believe literally the historical narratives of the Bible or to observe its legal portions after one fully understood the message which these were intended to convey. Neither Philo nor Maimonides had intended such conclusions. However, the successors of both Philo and Maimón-ides did not remain within those limitations. The results were disastrous in both instances. In Alexandria they contributed toward the dissolution of Jewish re-ligious life, and in Provence to a bitter and prolonged opposition to the study of all philosophy. See also: FABLES; PHILO; PHILOSOPHY, ALEXANDRIAN. LOUIS GREENBERG. ALLEMANNO, JOHANAN, see Pico DELLA MIR-ANDOLA. ALLEN, ANNA, social welfare worker, b. village of Sing Sing, Ν. Y., 1800; d. New York city, 1888. She assisted Rebecca Gratz in forming the first Hebrew Sunday- school of Philadelphia, the one hundredth an-niversary of which was celebrated in 1938. She was one of the founders and for twelve years first president of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum in that city. Mrs. Allen was director and for forty years treasurer of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. She came to New York city in 1875. One of her descendants, Catherine Allen, became head of the Shakers of the United States. Lit.: Markens, I., The Hebrews in America Moráis, Η. S., The Jews 0J Philadelphia ALLEN, JOHN, English educator and author, b. Truro, England, 1771; d. London, 1839. Little is known about his life, which seems to have been un-eventful, except that he founded a school at Hackney, then on the outskirts of London, which he maintained during the last thirty years of his life. Apart from a translation, from the Latin, of Calvins Institutes, which appeared in 1813 ( 2nd ed., 1838), his principal work was Modern Judaism: or A Brief Account Opinions, Traditions, Rites and Ceremonies Jews in Modern Times ( London, 1816; 2nd, revised ed., 1830). This work gives ample evidence that the author was well- read in his subject, and that he had taken great pains in the collection of his material, and  of some of the circumstances which he has described he has been an eye and ear witness. His knowledge of the rabbinic literature was second- hand, being derived chiefly from the works of the Buxtorfs and Bartolocci. He made a clean- cut division between  Ancient Judaism of the Old Testament and  Modern Judaism of the Cabalis-tic and Talmudic writings. He denied the authenticity of the Oral Law which he declared to be  unworthy of the smallest credit. The contents of the Talmud are characterized as  frivolous and superstitious, impious and blasphemous, absurd and fabulous. Despite its evident bias, it is learned, and long remained the most informative book on Judaism for the English reader. ALLENBY, LORD ( Field- Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby), British field- marshal, b. 1861; d. London, 1936. From 1917 to 1919 he was commander- in- chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of Great Britain in the World War, and conducted the campaign in Palestine against the Turks. Assuming the chief com-mand of the troops in 1917, he began an elaborately planned offensive which, meeting with various changes of fortune, was strikingly successful in the capture of Terusalem on the first day of Hanukah ( December Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Kiddush Ha-Shem: An Epic of 1648
One of the earliest historical novels in modern Yiddish literature, Kiddush ha-Shem is a story of Jewish martyrdom during the Chmelnitsky uprising in mid-17th century Ukraine and Poland.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Coat of Many Cultures: The Story of Joseph in Spanish Literature. 1200-1492
The book presents seven works based on the biblical story. All of these works are unmistakably Spanish, though many of them are also undeniably Jewish or Muslim.

Studies in the History of the Jews in Old Poland (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVIII)
The twenty-one studies on the Jews of Old Poland here collected explore many hitherto uncharted aspects of Jewish life and experience in the Polish-Luthuanian Commonwealth.

Notes on the New Translation of the Torah
Written with admirable clarity of style and thought, this volume of Notes is capable of being read and appreciated by anyone interested in the process by which modern and classical biblical scholarship are fused together to deepen our understanding of the single most significant book in the Jewish tradition.

Two Portuguese Exiles in Castile: Dom David Negro and Dom Isaac Abravanel. Hispania Judaica, v. 10
The book contains more than 30 documents related to Portuguese Jewry in general and David Negro and Isaac Abravanel in particular.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

The Guide for the Perplexed
This is the full, unabridged text of one of the greatest philosophic works of all time. Written by a 12th-century thinker who was equally active as an original philosopher and as a Biblical and Talmudic scholar, it is both a classic of great historical importance and a work of living signicance today.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

Labor, Crafts and Commerce in Ancient Israel
Extensive collection of anecdotal evidence relating to labor, crafts, and trade as thought of and practiced by Sages of the Second Temple and early exilic period.

Luah Hashanah 5775
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

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Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 12
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with “Jewish Worthies,” this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

The Birobidzhan Affair: A Yiddish Writer in Siberia
The Birobidzhan Affair is the autobiography, “a chronicle of heart-rending events” recounting Emiot's eight years at hard labor in various work camps in Siberia. Poignant, remarkably understated in tone, it provides evidence of his travails as a Jewish victim of the bitter bureaucracy that was Stalinist Russia.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

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Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.