Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 187] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALLEGORY ALLENBY, LORD find some higher truths or ethical philosophical teach-ings, if not expressly stated, at least suggested or indi-cated in the Divine Law. The significance and impor-tance of any act commanded or any ritual performance prescribed by the Law lies in its power to symbolize some ideas and suggest some higher teachings, or in its value as a reminder of a philosophical truth or an ethical principle. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists consisted in interpreting the symbolic signifi-cance and importance of the acts prescribed by the Law, they were characterized as  Interpreters of the importance and significance of the Law, doreshe hamuroth ( symbolizing interpreters). The method of the doreshe hamuroth originated among the Alexandrian Jews, but found its way to Palestine, where some of the teachers used it. There was, however, danger in this method of interpreting the Scriptures in that it might lead to a neglect of the practical observances. Even in Alexandria, where it originated, some people objected to this method, seeing in it a danger to Judaism. This danger was real, for some Jews accepting this allegoristic interpretation of the laws contented themselves with merely understand-ing the ideas suggested or symbolized by the laws and neglected to observe the latter in practice. Among the Palestinians there were even stronger objections to such an allegorical interpretation of the religious laws, and the representatives of this school of allegorists, the doreshe hamuroth, were in disfavor. This explains why comparatively few of their interpretations have been preserved. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH. Lit.: Lauterbach, J. Z.,  The Ancient Jewish Allegorists in Talmud and Midrash, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 1, pp. 291- 333, 503- 31. ALLEGORY. Allegory is sometimes defined as a  prolonged metaphor, a statement or narrative having a literal as well as an implied meaning, which is told primarily for the sake of its hidden rather than of its obvious purport. The Bible was frequently interpreted alegorically. Jews in various periods declared that the Bible as a whole had both a literal and an implied meaning, the former for the sake of the masses, the latter for those capable of discerning more profound truths. This method of interpretation flourished particularly in Alexandria during the 1st cent. C. E., with Philo as its outstanding representative, and in Provence during the Middle Ages, when it was indirectly revived by Maimonides. Maimonides attitude is clearly stated in his introduction to Μoreh Nebuchim:  He ( God) described those profound truths which His divine wis-dom found it necessary to communicate to us in al-legorical, figurative and metaphorical language. . . . With such a premise as a starting- point, men were able to find in the Bible almost anything they sought. However, this method of interpretation aroused bitter resentment when, as happened in both periods, it was carried to extremes and the literal meaning of Scripture was denied all significance. Since the implied meaning was believed to be the true message of the text, it was argued that it was not necessary to believe literally the historical narratives of the Bible or to observe its legal portions after one fully understood the message which these were intended to convey. Neither Philo nor Maimonides had intended such conclusions. However, the successors of both Philo and Maimón-ides did not remain within those limitations. The results were disastrous in both instances. In Alexandria they contributed toward the dissolution of Jewish re-ligious life, and in Provence to a bitter and prolonged opposition to the study of all philosophy. See also: FABLES; PHILO; PHILOSOPHY, ALEXANDRIAN. LOUIS GREENBERG. ALLEMANNO, JOHANAN, see Pico DELLA MIR-ANDOLA. ALLEN, ANNA, social welfare worker, b. village of Sing Sing, Ν. Y., 1800; d. New York city, 1888. She assisted Rebecca Gratz in forming the first Hebrew Sunday- school of Philadelphia, the one hundredth an-niversary of which was celebrated in 1938. She was one of the founders and for twelve years first president of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum in that city. Mrs. Allen was director and for forty years treasurer of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. She came to New York city in 1875. One of her descendants, Catherine Allen, became head of the Shakers of the United States. Lit.: Markens, I., The Hebrews in America Moráis, Η. S., The Jews 0J Philadelphia ALLEN, JOHN, English educator and author, b. Truro, England, 1771; d. London, 1839. Little is known about his life, which seems to have been un-eventful, except that he founded a school at Hackney, then on the outskirts of London, which he maintained during the last thirty years of his life. Apart from a translation, from the Latin, of Calvins Institutes, which appeared in 1813 ( 2nd ed., 1838), his principal work was Modern Judaism: or A Brief Account Opinions, Traditions, Rites and Ceremonies Jews in Modern Times ( London, 1816; 2nd, revised ed., 1830). This work gives ample evidence that the author was well- read in his subject, and that he had taken great pains in the collection of his material, and  of some of the circumstances which he has described he has been an eye and ear witness. His knowledge of the rabbinic literature was second- hand, being derived chiefly from the works of the Buxtorfs and Bartolocci. He made a clean- cut division between  Ancient Judaism of the Old Testament and  Modern Judaism of the Cabalis-tic and Talmudic writings. He denied the authenticity of the Oral Law which he declared to be  unworthy of the smallest credit. The contents of the Talmud are characterized as  frivolous and superstitious, impious and blasphemous, absurd and fabulous. Despite its evident bias, it is learned, and long remained the most informative book on Judaism for the English reader. ALLENBY, LORD ( Field- Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby), British field- marshal, b. 1861; d. London, 1936. From 1917 to 1919 he was commander- in- chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of Great Britain in the World War, and conducted the campaign in Palestine against the Turks. Assuming the chief com-mand of the troops in 1917, he began an elaborately planned offensive which, meeting with various changes of fortune, was strikingly successful in the capture of Terusalem on the first day of Hanukah ( December Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

The Anti-Chomsky Reader
Provocative essays that analyze Noam Chomsky's intellectual and political career: coverage includes Chomsky's contribution to linguistics, his hatred of Israel, gloating reaction to the September 11 attacks, as well as his collaboration with Holocaust revisionists, apologies Pol Pot, and others.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Jesus of Nazareth
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History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

Notes on the Hebrew Text and the Topography of the Book of Samuel
Electronic edition of one of the most influential books ever written about the Bible; S.R. Driver's meticulously detailed reconstruction and analysis of Samuel has remained vital for over a century.

Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): DEUTERONOMY
Electronic edition of one of the author's finest achievements.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

The Mystical Element in Judaism
An alternative to Gershom Scholem's view of Kabbalah by one of the greatest Jewish thinkers; a succinct yet much revealing introduction to Jewish mysticism.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.2
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Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

Ethics of Responsibility: Pluralistic Approaches to Conventional Ethics
Ethics of Responsibility bridges the gap between liberal Jewish philosophy and modern Orthodoxy. It is thoughtful reading for both the Jewish and non-Jewish scholar, teacher, and for all readers interested in the study of ethics and morality.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Mishnayoth


THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Luah Hashanah 5774
United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism's official calendar for the Jewish year. It is intended to guide congregations and individuals through the liturgy during the Jewish year 5774.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

To Do the Right and the Good
A thought-provoking examination of Jewish social ethics in relation to the mores of contemporary society. In this book, Rabbi Dorff focuses on the social aspects of the Jewish tradition, while tackling such timely topics as war and peace, poverty, intrafaith and interfaith relations, and forgiveness.

The Sages -- Their Concepts and Beliefs
...an indespensable book for all those who are curious to know how the rabbis of the Talmud handled philosophical and theological issues. It has few peers. --David Weiss Halivni

Luah Hashanah 5781
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

BOOKS OF KINGS


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

Nazarene Jewish Christianity
A comprehensive study of the immediate heirs of the earliest Jerusalem church.

Luah Hashanah 5779
Hebrew Calendar for the year 5779

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

Talmud Yerushalmi: A Concordance of Amoraic Terms, Expressions and Phrases, in 3 vols.
A concordance of Amoraic terminology in Talmud Yerushalmi designed to assist to come much closer to the original text of the Yerushalmi and to its accurate interpretation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 4
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Medieval Ketubot from Sefarad, Hispania Judaica v. 11
A careful examination of legal and historic aspects of 30 ketubots from various medieval Hispanic kingdoms; includes their comparison.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the “Geschichte der Juden,” the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

History of the Jews, Vol. 5: From the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland (1648 C.E.) to the Present Time (1870 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fifth volume covers the period from the Chmielnicki Persecution of the Jews in Poland to the Present Time.