Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 187] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALLEGORY ALLENBY, LORD find some higher truths or ethical philosophical teach-ings, if not expressly stated, at least suggested or indi-cated in the Divine Law. The significance and impor-tance of any act commanded or any ritual performance prescribed by the Law lies in its power to symbolize some ideas and suggest some higher teachings, or in its value as a reminder of a philosophical truth or an ethical principle. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists consisted in interpreting the symbolic signifi-cance and importance of the acts prescribed by the Law, they were characterized as  Interpreters of the importance and significance of the Law, doreshe hamuroth ( symbolizing interpreters). The method of the doreshe hamuroth originated among the Alexandrian Jews, but found its way to Palestine, where some of the teachers used it. There was, however, danger in this method of interpreting the Scriptures in that it might lead to a neglect of the practical observances. Even in Alexandria, where it originated, some people objected to this method, seeing in it a danger to Judaism. This danger was real, for some Jews accepting this allegoristic interpretation of the laws contented themselves with merely understand-ing the ideas suggested or symbolized by the laws and neglected to observe the latter in practice. Among the Palestinians there were even stronger objections to such an allegorical interpretation of the religious laws, and the representatives of this school of allegorists, the doreshe hamuroth, were in disfavor. This explains why comparatively few of their interpretations have been preserved. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH. Lit.: Lauterbach, J. Z.,  The Ancient Jewish Allegorists in Talmud and Midrash, in Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series, vol. 1, pp. 291- 333, 503- 31. ALLEGORY. Allegory is sometimes defined as a  prolonged metaphor, a statement or narrative having a literal as well as an implied meaning, which is told primarily for the sake of its hidden rather than of its obvious purport. The Bible was frequently interpreted alegorically. Jews in various periods declared that the Bible as a whole had both a literal and an implied meaning, the former for the sake of the masses, the latter for those capable of discerning more profound truths. This method of interpretation flourished particularly in Alexandria during the 1st cent. C. E., with Philo as its outstanding representative, and in Provence during the Middle Ages, when it was indirectly revived by Maimonides. Maimonides attitude is clearly stated in his introduction to Μoreh Nebuchim:  He ( God) described those profound truths which His divine wis-dom found it necessary to communicate to us in al-legorical, figurative and metaphorical language. . . . With such a premise as a starting- point, men were able to find in the Bible almost anything they sought. However, this method of interpretation aroused bitter resentment when, as happened in both periods, it was carried to extremes and the literal meaning of Scripture was denied all significance. Since the implied meaning was believed to be the true message of the text, it was argued that it was not necessary to believe literally the historical narratives of the Bible or to observe its legal portions after one fully understood the message which these were intended to convey. Neither Philo nor Maimonides had intended such conclusions. However, the successors of both Philo and Maimón-ides did not remain within those limitations. The results were disastrous in both instances. In Alexandria they contributed toward the dissolution of Jewish re-ligious life, and in Provence to a bitter and prolonged opposition to the study of all philosophy. See also: FABLES; PHILO; PHILOSOPHY, ALEXANDRIAN. LOUIS GREENBERG. ALLEMANNO, JOHANAN, see Pico DELLA MIR-ANDOLA. ALLEN, ANNA, social welfare worker, b. village of Sing Sing, Ν. Y., 1800; d. New York city, 1888. She assisted Rebecca Gratz in forming the first Hebrew Sunday- school of Philadelphia, the one hundredth an-niversary of which was celebrated in 1938. She was one of the founders and for twelve years first president of the Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum in that city. Mrs. Allen was director and for forty years treasurer of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society of Philadelphia. She came to New York city in 1875. One of her descendants, Catherine Allen, became head of the Shakers of the United States. Lit.: Markens, I., The Hebrews in America Moráis, Η. S., The Jews 0J Philadelphia ALLEN, JOHN, English educator and author, b. Truro, England, 1771; d. London, 1839. Little is known about his life, which seems to have been un-eventful, except that he founded a school at Hackney, then on the outskirts of London, which he maintained during the last thirty years of his life. Apart from a translation, from the Latin, of Calvins Institutes, which appeared in 1813 ( 2nd ed., 1838), his principal work was Modern Judaism: or A Brief Account Opinions, Traditions, Rites and Ceremonies Jews in Modern Times ( London, 1816; 2nd, revised ed., 1830). This work gives ample evidence that the author was well- read in his subject, and that he had taken great pains in the collection of his material, and  of some of the circumstances which he has described he has been an eye and ear witness. His knowledge of the rabbinic literature was second- hand, being derived chiefly from the works of the Buxtorfs and Bartolocci. He made a clean- cut division between  Ancient Judaism of the Old Testament and  Modern Judaism of the Cabalis-tic and Talmudic writings. He denied the authenticity of the Oral Law which he declared to be  unworthy of the smallest credit. The contents of the Talmud are characterized as  frivolous and superstitious, impious and blasphemous, absurd and fabulous. Despite its evident bias, it is learned, and long remained the most informative book on Judaism for the English reader. ALLENBY, LORD ( Field- Marshal Sir Edmund Allenby), British field- marshal, b. 1861; d. London, 1936. From 1917 to 1919 he was commander- in- chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force of Great Britain in the World War, and conducted the campaign in Palestine against the Turks. Assuming the chief com-mand of the troops in 1917, he began an elaborately planned offensive which, meeting with various changes of fortune, was strikingly successful in the capture of Terusalem on the first day of Hanukah ( December Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism
With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

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Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Amos and Hosea
The author has taken up in connection with the first two of the immortal Twelve, many questions that concern just as closely the prophetic books. It is especially felt in the Introduction; in fact Harper's introduction to Amos and Hosea is really an introduction to Prophecy as such.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

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Christianity and Judaism: Two Covenants
A great historian of Jewish religion analyzes the conflictual relationship between Christianity and Judaism.

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JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

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Selected Religious Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol
Solomon Ibn Gabirol was not only a great poet, but also a great philosopher. His vision was broad and his penetration keen. This volume of translations from this rare singer of the Ghetto limits itself to such of his poems as have been incorporated in or designed for the liturgy of the Synagogue.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 12
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 8
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Deuteronomy
The force and individuality of this Book; its consistency and distinctiveness from the other documents of the Pentateuch as well as its differences from much of the custom and practice both in early and later Israel, make it stand out.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

JEWS, JUDAISM AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD
English edition of the work for which G. Alon received prestigious Israel Prize. Anyone interested in the origin of the modern Jewish law and the history of the Second Temple must read this book.

Maimonides
The first of a series of books dealing with Jewish Worthies, this volume presents the biography of, perhaps, the most famous Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages with special regard to the general history of the period at which he lived.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

Tanakh: Interactive Hebrew Bible
Cross-platform, interactive, new electronic edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

Early History of the Alphabet
A most enjoyable and informative book. . . an excellent introduction to epigraphy and paleography of ancient Semitic languages . . . contains a wealth of information compiled into a simple to understand format.

The Gate Behind the Wall: A Pilgrimage to Jerusalem
When Samuel Heilman took a sabbatical from teaching sociology to spend time in Jerusalem, he did not know that it would become a personal pilgrimage. What had begun by engaging the social scientist in me would end by awakening the Jew, Heilman writes.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

A History of the Jews in Christian Spain. Vol. 2
One of the century s great classics of Jewish historiography. The second volume of Professor Baer s monumental work tells the tragic story of the dissolution of the great Spanish Jewish community.

Mishnayoth


Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

Does God Belong in the Bedroom?
In Does God Belong in the Bedroom? Rabbi Michael Gold turns to the Torah, the wisdom of the rabbis of the Talmud, the Midrash, and other classic Jewish sources. More than a study of texts, the book presents readers with a frank and honest approach to sexual ethics.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of the Late Antiquity
The book contains the texts of all the legible amulets in Aramaic known today as well as 13 unpublished till now bowls. Their study allows us to peak into the religious feelings and practices of common people in the Talmudic period. The book contains a wealth of new material for the history of magic in the Middle East.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.