Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALKALAI ALLEGORISTS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 186] a long time he was rabbi in Semlin, Croatia. He seems to have been influenced by the agitations for national independence among the Balkan peoples to urge a new Jewish settlement in Palestine. In 1857 he published his book Goral Ladonai ( A Lot for the Lord), in which he advocated the colonization of Palestine. His idea was to found a company for steamship and rail-way traffic and thereby obtain for Palestine the status of a tributary country of Turkey, with such rights as were enjoyed by the Danubian principalities of that times Accordingly he may be considered one of the first advocates of  political Zionism. In 1844 he op-posed the resolutions of the Brunswick Conference which would have removed from the prayer- books all references to Zion and Jerusalem. To further his ideas, he organized a society for the colonization of Pales-tine; later he emigrated to Jerusalem, where he strove to bring about a union of the Ashkenazic and Sephar-dic communities. Lit.: Zitron, S. L., Toledoth Hibbath Zion, vol. 1 ( 1914) I, 3- 5; idem, Lexikon Zioni ( 1924) cols. 44- 47; Sokolow, Nahum, History of Zionism, vol. 2 ( 1919) 297, note 1. ALKALAI, MOSES BEN DAVID, Judeo- Spanish translator, Hebrew text- book writer and pedagogue, b. Sarajevo ( now Yugoslavia), 1834; d. Belgrade, 1901. He was the father of Isaac Alcalay. His literary produc-tion was varied, including works on education, mathe-matics, a history of Columbus, and a historical novel. For the Spanish communities in the Orient he edited a number of liturgical works. Together with his father, David, he translated Ibn Vergas Shebet Yehudah ( Staff of Judah) from Hebrew into Ladino ( Belgrade, 1859). As early as 1864 he appealed to the Ladino-speaking Jews to establish a society to colonize Pales-tine. This Jewish nationalistic propaganda and fur-therance of the Hebrew language he continued in Vienna, where he went in 1882 to serve as chief teacher of schools of the Spanish Jewish community. ALKAN, CHARLES HENRI VALENTIN ( originally MORHANGE), pianist and composer, b. Paris, 1813; d. Paris, 1888. He was admitted to the Paris Conservatory of Music when only six years old. He studied under Pierre Zimmerman, and later under Victor Dourlen, receiving first prize for harmony in 1826. From 1828 to 1835 he was honorary professor at the Conservatory. In 1831 he was awarded the first prize for composition by the Institute of France. Later he established himself at Paris as teacher of the piano-forte, devoting much of his time to composition. He composed seventy- two works, consisting of concertos, sonatas, etudes, caprices, and transcriptions. Among his best known compositions are: Etude caprice ( for pianoforte, opus 12- 13, 15- 16); Saltarelle ( opus 23); Alleluja ( opus 25); Bourrée dAuvergne ( opus 29); Twenty- Five Preludes ( for pianoforte and organ, opus 31); two series of Three Marches ( opus 37 and 40). His Trois grandes etudes and two series of twelve etudes ( opus 35 and 39) are considered representative of the most modern development of the technique of the pianoforte. Lit.: Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 1, p. 67; Fétis, F., Biographies universelles, vol. 1 ( 1877) 70- 71; Allgemeine Musik- Zeitung, vol. 28 ( 1901) 109- 10, 124- 26, 141- 43. AL- KUMISI, DANIEL BEN MOSES, see DANIEL BEN MOSES AL- KUMISI. ALLEGORISTS. Allegorists is the designation for those exegetes who interpret the Scriptures in an alle-gorical sense and not according to the plain and literal meaning of the words. There were among the ancient Jewish teachers two classes of such exegetes or allego-rists, and they are designated in the Talmud and Mid-rashim by distinct epithetical names. These two classes of allegorists are alike in that they do not take the words of the Law literally, but they differ from one another both in the allegoristic method used and in the motive for applying it to the interpretation of the Scriptures. 1. Doreshe Reshumoth. One class uses the allegor-istic method of interpreting certain words of the Scrip-tures, taking them in a figurative sense or considering them as signs or symbols for things other than those indicated in the plain and literal meaning. The orig-inal motive of these allegorists was to explain away such description of the Deity found in the Bible as might, if taken literally, lend support to a false concep-tion of God. They started with such Biblical passages as speak of God in an anthropomorphic manner. They found these anthropomorphic expressions inconsistent with their conception of God as an incorporeal Being. They were convinced that these expressions should not be taken literally but had to be interpreted merely in a metaphorical sense. Then they extended the application of their method of taking the scriptural words in a figurative sense to other passages of the Bible. Expressions which, when taken literally, presented some difficulty or did not yield good sense were understood to be meant in a figurative sense. Gradually they extended the use of their allegoristic method still further and applied it even to such passages or words the literal meaning of which presented no difficulty whatever. The allegorists felt that while the literal interpretation of such pas-sages is correct and true, it does not do full justice to the Divine word, nor does it exhaust all its possible meanings. Hence, in addition to the literal, they gave them also an allegorical interpretation. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists con-sisted in considering the words of the Scriptures as signs or symbols, they are characterized as doreshe re-shumoth ( metaphorical interpreters). The allegoris-tic method of this class of allegorists originated in Pal-estine and was developed by the Palestinian Jewish teachers independent of any outside influence. The same allegorical method was used also by Philo, but it is to be assumed that Philo developed this method either independently or under the influence of the Pal-estinian allegorists. 2. Doreshe Hamuroth. The second class of allego-rists had a different allegoristic method and a different purpose in using it to interpret the Scriptures. They applied themselves not to the interpretation of the words or expressions of a scriptural passage, but to the interpretation of its subject matter. They sought to interpret the acts commanded by the Law and the rites prescribed by it in an allegorical manner, as suggesting some ideas or symbolizing some truth. The motive be-hind this method of interpretation was the desire to Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

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Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


Studies in Jewish Education IX: Understanding the Bible in Our Time
The ninth volume of Studies in Jewish Education examines issues relating to Biblical research and instruction.

The Conversos of Majorca. Hispania Judaica, v. 5
Life and death in a crypto-Jewish community of Conversos of XVII century Majorca.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

History of the Jews, Vol. 4: From the Rise of the Kabbala (1270 C.E.) to the Permanent Settlement of the Marranos in Holland (1618 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The fourth volume covers the period from the rise of the Kabbala to the permanent settlement of the Marranos in Holland.

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA
The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Jewish Pioneers and Patriots
In Jewish Pioneers and Patriots, Lee M. Friedman has unearthed an amazing store of fresh information about the connections of the Jews with America from the times even before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth down to the first World War.

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Studies in Bible II (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXI)
The seventeen articles in this collection, present a true sense of the Jerusalem School of Biblical scholarship with its commitment to united the unique heritage of Jewish learning with the methodology and accomplishments of modern biblical research.

History of the Jews, Vol. 3: From the Revolt against the Zendik (511 C.E.) to the Capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans (1291 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The third volume covers the period from the revolt against the Zendik to the capture of St. Jean d'Acreby by the Mahometans.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Collected Writings in Jewish Studies
This collection of articles in Jewish Studies has been authored by, what many consider, the most important scholar of the rabbinic life and literature in the post WWII period.

Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI AND JONAH
For all the talk about Bible being a source of Western ethics, Mitchell's is one of the very few books extant that pays more then a lip service to this concept.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

The Ambivalent American Jew: Politics, Religion, and Family in American Jewish Life
This book depicts the evolution of American Judaism from its European roots illustrating this theme by focusing on special segments of the community and on Jewish political liberalism, the great effort of American Jews to reshape their political environment to minimize the survival-integration tension.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Jewish History: An Essay in the Philosophy of History
This essay exhibits in a remarkably striking way the author's art of making “all things seem fresh and new, important and attractive.” The author attempts, for the first time, a psychologic characterization of Jewish history. He endeavors to demonstrate the inner connection between events, and develop the ideas that underlie them.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 5
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Navarre in the Late Middle Ages. Hispania Judaica, v. 4
Documented depiction of the economic activities of the Jews and their work at the service of the Crown in this Christian kingdom.

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Few books oner such a variety of interest or embrace material of such deep significance as Ezra and Nehemiah do. The teaching of these books is of especial value in reference to the faithfulness of the divine promise, the discipline of disappointment, the hallowing of common life, and the preparation for the messianic age.

Islam Unveiled
In Islam Unveiled, Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches — and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West.

Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 3
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Commentary of R. Samuel Ben Meir Rashbam on Qoheleth


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Palestine in the 18th Century


The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 11
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 5
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Origins of the Kabbalah
Gershom Scholem opened up a once esoteric world of Jewish mysticism, the Kabbalah, to concerned students of religion: a tradition of repeated attempts to achieve and portray direct experiences of God. A history of the Kabbalah before the Zohar, this book analyzes the leading ideas of Jewish mysticism up to the period of its classical formulation.

Studies in Hebrew Narrative Art (Scripta Hierosolymitana XXVII)
Each of the twelve articles in this volumes illustrates some state of the development of Hebrew narrative prose: from biblical literature though talmudic-midrashic and medieval eras till modern times.

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Topics In Hebrew and Semitic Linguistics


Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 2
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.