Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALKALAI ALLEGORISTS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 186] a long time he was rabbi in Semlin, Croatia. He seems to have been influenced by the agitations for national independence among the Balkan peoples to urge a new Jewish settlement in Palestine. In 1857 he published his book Goral Ladonai ( A Lot for the Lord), in which he advocated the colonization of Palestine. His idea was to found a company for steamship and rail-way traffic and thereby obtain for Palestine the status of a tributary country of Turkey, with such rights as were enjoyed by the Danubian principalities of that times Accordingly he may be considered one of the first advocates of  political Zionism. In 1844 he op-posed the resolutions of the Brunswick Conference which would have removed from the prayer- books all references to Zion and Jerusalem. To further his ideas, he organized a society for the colonization of Pales-tine; later he emigrated to Jerusalem, where he strove to bring about a union of the Ashkenazic and Sephar-dic communities. Lit.: Zitron, S. L., Toledoth Hibbath Zion, vol. 1 ( 1914) I, 3- 5; idem, Lexikon Zioni ( 1924) cols. 44- 47; Sokolow, Nahum, History of Zionism, vol. 2 ( 1919) 297, note 1. ALKALAI, MOSES BEN DAVID, Judeo- Spanish translator, Hebrew text- book writer and pedagogue, b. Sarajevo ( now Yugoslavia), 1834; d. Belgrade, 1901. He was the father of Isaac Alcalay. His literary produc-tion was varied, including works on education, mathe-matics, a history of Columbus, and a historical novel. For the Spanish communities in the Orient he edited a number of liturgical works. Together with his father, David, he translated Ibn Vergas Shebet Yehudah ( Staff of Judah) from Hebrew into Ladino ( Belgrade, 1859). As early as 1864 he appealed to the Ladino-speaking Jews to establish a society to colonize Pales-tine. This Jewish nationalistic propaganda and fur-therance of the Hebrew language he continued in Vienna, where he went in 1882 to serve as chief teacher of schools of the Spanish Jewish community. ALKAN, CHARLES HENRI VALENTIN ( originally MORHANGE), pianist and composer, b. Paris, 1813; d. Paris, 1888. He was admitted to the Paris Conservatory of Music when only six years old. He studied under Pierre Zimmerman, and later under Victor Dourlen, receiving first prize for harmony in 1826. From 1828 to 1835 he was honorary professor at the Conservatory. In 1831 he was awarded the first prize for composition by the Institute of France. Later he established himself at Paris as teacher of the piano-forte, devoting much of his time to composition. He composed seventy- two works, consisting of concertos, sonatas, etudes, caprices, and transcriptions. Among his best known compositions are: Etude caprice ( for pianoforte, opus 12- 13, 15- 16); Saltarelle ( opus 23); Alleluja ( opus 25); Bourrée dAuvergne ( opus 29); Twenty- Five Preludes ( for pianoforte and organ, opus 31); two series of Three Marches ( opus 37 and 40). His Trois grandes etudes and two series of twelve etudes ( opus 35 and 39) are considered representative of the most modern development of the technique of the pianoforte. Lit.: Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 1, p. 67; Fétis, F., Biographies universelles, vol. 1 ( 1877) 70- 71; Allgemeine Musik- Zeitung, vol. 28 ( 1901) 109- 10, 124- 26, 141- 43. AL- KUMISI, DANIEL BEN MOSES, see DANIEL BEN MOSES AL- KUMISI. ALLEGORISTS. Allegorists is the designation for those exegetes who interpret the Scriptures in an alle-gorical sense and not according to the plain and literal meaning of the words. There were among the ancient Jewish teachers two classes of such exegetes or allego-rists, and they are designated in the Talmud and Mid-rashim by distinct epithetical names. These two classes of allegorists are alike in that they do not take the words of the Law literally, but they differ from one another both in the allegoristic method used and in the motive for applying it to the interpretation of the Scriptures. 1. Doreshe Reshumoth. One class uses the allegor-istic method of interpreting certain words of the Scrip-tures, taking them in a figurative sense or considering them as signs or symbols for things other than those indicated in the plain and literal meaning. The orig-inal motive of these allegorists was to explain away such description of the Deity found in the Bible as might, if taken literally, lend support to a false concep-tion of God. They started with such Biblical passages as speak of God in an anthropomorphic manner. They found these anthropomorphic expressions inconsistent with their conception of God as an incorporeal Being. They were convinced that these expressions should not be taken literally but had to be interpreted merely in a metaphorical sense. Then they extended the application of their method of taking the scriptural words in a figurative sense to other passages of the Bible. Expressions which, when taken literally, presented some difficulty or did not yield good sense were understood to be meant in a figurative sense. Gradually they extended the use of their allegoristic method still further and applied it even to such passages or words the literal meaning of which presented no difficulty whatever. The allegorists felt that while the literal interpretation of such pas-sages is correct and true, it does not do full justice to the Divine word, nor does it exhaust all its possible meanings. Hence, in addition to the literal, they gave them also an allegorical interpretation. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists con-sisted in considering the words of the Scriptures as signs or symbols, they are characterized as doreshe re-shumoth ( metaphorical interpreters). The allegoris-tic method of this class of allegorists originated in Pal-estine and was developed by the Palestinian Jewish teachers independent of any outside influence. The same allegorical method was used also by Philo, but it is to be assumed that Philo developed this method either independently or under the influence of the Pal-estinian allegorists. 2. Doreshe Hamuroth. The second class of allego-rists had a different allegoristic method and a different purpose in using it to interpret the Scriptures. They applied themselves not to the interpretation of the words or expressions of a scriptural passage, but to the interpretation of its subject matter. They sought to interpret the acts commanded by the Law and the rites prescribed by it in an allegorical manner, as suggesting some ideas or symbolizing some truth. The motive be-hind this method of interpretation was the desire to Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Norman A. Stillman continues the saga he so eloquently began in his first volume, The Jews of Arab Lands, up through the dramatic events of the twentieth century. This book focuses on the forces, events, and personalities that over the past 150 years have shaped the Jewish communities of the Arab world.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

Chess in Jewish History and Hebrew Literature
This book deals with the origins of chess from before 500 A.D. and its appearance in Jewish sources and literature until the middle of the 19th century.

Dawn Over Baghdad
Gripping, up-to-the-minute report on America's most urgent national struggle today, as seen through the eyes of the U.S. servicemen and Iraqis who are trying to make a new country out of the most dangerous place in the world; distinct contrast to the gloomy picture of America's presence in this war zone so often painted by the mainstream media.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)
Two-volume set of U. Cassuto's Biblical and Ancient Oriental Texts essays.

Volume 9, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Volume 6, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (2 volume-set)
The Pharisees constituted a religious Order of singular influence in the history of civilization. Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism all derive from this ancient Palestinian Society. This book uncovers the origins and fundamental aspects of Pharisees' faith from sociological point of view.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): PROVERBS
... the crown belongs to Crawford H. Toy's voluminous interpretation of the book of Proverbs --Rudolf Smend, from Wisdom in Ancient Israel , Cambridge, 1997.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Encounter with Emancipation: The German Jews in the United States, 1830-1914
This superbly documented study, enriched by anecdotes and illustrations, portrays the first genuine encounter of Jewish society with emancipation.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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History of the Jews in Aragon. Hispania Judaica, v. 1
More than 3,500 regesta in French, and original documents mostly from the Archivo General de la Corona de Aragon, in Barcelona.

A Treatise on the use of the Tenses in Hebrew
If you work with the Hebrew verbal system, this is a book you *must* have read.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah 3
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JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus
Masterly commentary on the second book of the Bible by eminent Jewish scholar.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Isaiah I-XXVII
In religion, as elsewhere, great personalities count first, and it is the privilege of a student of the Book of Isaiah to come face to face with one, if not two, such personalities...

Volume 10, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

THE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF JUDAEA
A broad survey of economic and political conditions in Judaea after Destruction of the Second Temple.

Trujillo: A Jewish Community in Extremadura on the Eve of the Expulsion from Spain. Hispania Judaica, v. 2
Based on documents published for the first time, this book reveals the life and surroundings of a community lulled into a false sense of security and endeavouring to build its life in peace while the war against Granada continues.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Jewish Cooking Around the World: Gourmet and Holiday Recipes
The book presents a variety of recipes from foreign countries and recipes for the Sabbath and festivals, all complying with the Jewish dietary laws. Every recipe has been tested by the author.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges: The Book of Exodus
The Book of Exodus sets before us, as the Hebrews of later ages told it, and in the vivid, picturesque style which the best Jewish historians could always command, the story of the deliverance from Egypt.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of “the forgotten million” that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Meeting of Cultures and Clash of Cultures


A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 5
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Hebrew-English Torah: The Five Books of Moses
This is a Study Edition of the traditional Masoretic text placed next to the classic word-for-word Jewish translation by JPS; it features the most authoritative Hebrew text - based on the Leningrad Codex - complete with cantillation marks, vocalization and verse numbers.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Luah Hashanah 5780


R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


Bernard Revel: Builder of American Jewish Orthodoxy
A biography of and assesment of ideas of one of the major personalities of American Jewish Orthodoxy.