Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALKALAI ALLEGORISTS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 186] a long time he was rabbi in Semlin, Croatia. He seems to have been influenced by the agitations for national independence among the Balkan peoples to urge a new Jewish settlement in Palestine. In 1857 he published his book Goral Ladonai ( A Lot for the Lord), in which he advocated the colonization of Palestine. His idea was to found a company for steamship and rail-way traffic and thereby obtain for Palestine the status of a tributary country of Turkey, with such rights as were enjoyed by the Danubian principalities of that times Accordingly he may be considered one of the first advocates of  political Zionism. In 1844 he op-posed the resolutions of the Brunswick Conference which would have removed from the prayer- books all references to Zion and Jerusalem. To further his ideas, he organized a society for the colonization of Pales-tine; later he emigrated to Jerusalem, where he strove to bring about a union of the Ashkenazic and Sephar-dic communities. Lit.: Zitron, S. L., Toledoth Hibbath Zion, vol. 1 ( 1914) I, 3- 5; idem, Lexikon Zioni ( 1924) cols. 44- 47; Sokolow, Nahum, History of Zionism, vol. 2 ( 1919) 297, note 1. ALKALAI, MOSES BEN DAVID, Judeo- Spanish translator, Hebrew text- book writer and pedagogue, b. Sarajevo ( now Yugoslavia), 1834; d. Belgrade, 1901. He was the father of Isaac Alcalay. His literary produc-tion was varied, including works on education, mathe-matics, a history of Columbus, and a historical novel. For the Spanish communities in the Orient he edited a number of liturgical works. Together with his father, David, he translated Ibn Vergas Shebet Yehudah ( Staff of Judah) from Hebrew into Ladino ( Belgrade, 1859). As early as 1864 he appealed to the Ladino-speaking Jews to establish a society to colonize Pales-tine. This Jewish nationalistic propaganda and fur-therance of the Hebrew language he continued in Vienna, where he went in 1882 to serve as chief teacher of schools of the Spanish Jewish community. ALKAN, CHARLES HENRI VALENTIN ( originally MORHANGE), pianist and composer, b. Paris, 1813; d. Paris, 1888. He was admitted to the Paris Conservatory of Music when only six years old. He studied under Pierre Zimmerman, and later under Victor Dourlen, receiving first prize for harmony in 1826. From 1828 to 1835 he was honorary professor at the Conservatory. In 1831 he was awarded the first prize for composition by the Institute of France. Later he established himself at Paris as teacher of the piano-forte, devoting much of his time to composition. He composed seventy- two works, consisting of concertos, sonatas, etudes, caprices, and transcriptions. Among his best known compositions are: Etude caprice ( for pianoforte, opus 12- 13, 15- 16); Saltarelle ( opus 23); Alleluja ( opus 25); Bourrée dAuvergne ( opus 29); Twenty- Five Preludes ( for pianoforte and organ, opus 31); two series of Three Marches ( opus 37 and 40). His Trois grandes etudes and two series of twelve etudes ( opus 35 and 39) are considered representative of the most modern development of the technique of the pianoforte. Lit.: Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 1, p. 67; Fétis, F., Biographies universelles, vol. 1 ( 1877) 70- 71; Allgemeine Musik- Zeitung, vol. 28 ( 1901) 109- 10, 124- 26, 141- 43. AL- KUMISI, DANIEL BEN MOSES, see DANIEL BEN MOSES AL- KUMISI. ALLEGORISTS. Allegorists is the designation for those exegetes who interpret the Scriptures in an alle-gorical sense and not according to the plain and literal meaning of the words. There were among the ancient Jewish teachers two classes of such exegetes or allego-rists, and they are designated in the Talmud and Mid-rashim by distinct epithetical names. These two classes of allegorists are alike in that they do not take the words of the Law literally, but they differ from one another both in the allegoristic method used and in the motive for applying it to the interpretation of the Scriptures. 1. Doreshe Reshumoth. One class uses the allegor-istic method of interpreting certain words of the Scrip-tures, taking them in a figurative sense or considering them as signs or symbols for things other than those indicated in the plain and literal meaning. The orig-inal motive of these allegorists was to explain away such description of the Deity found in the Bible as might, if taken literally, lend support to a false concep-tion of God. They started with such Biblical passages as speak of God in an anthropomorphic manner. They found these anthropomorphic expressions inconsistent with their conception of God as an incorporeal Being. They were convinced that these expressions should not be taken literally but had to be interpreted merely in a metaphorical sense. Then they extended the application of their method of taking the scriptural words in a figurative sense to other passages of the Bible. Expressions which, when taken literally, presented some difficulty or did not yield good sense were understood to be meant in a figurative sense. Gradually they extended the use of their allegoristic method still further and applied it even to such passages or words the literal meaning of which presented no difficulty whatever. The allegorists felt that while the literal interpretation of such pas-sages is correct and true, it does not do full justice to the Divine word, nor does it exhaust all its possible meanings. Hence, in addition to the literal, they gave them also an allegorical interpretation. Since the peculiar method of these allegorists con-sisted in considering the words of the Scriptures as signs or symbols, they are characterized as doreshe re-shumoth ( metaphorical interpreters). The allegoris-tic method of this class of allegorists originated in Pal-estine and was developed by the Palestinian Jewish teachers independent of any outside influence. The same allegorical method was used also by Philo, but it is to be assumed that Philo developed this method either independently or under the influence of the Pal-estinian allegorists. 2. Doreshe Hamuroth. The second class of allego-rists had a different allegoristic method and a different purpose in using it to interpret the Scriptures. They applied themselves not to the interpretation of the words or expressions of a scriptural passage, but to the interpretation of its subject matter. They sought to interpret the acts commanded by the Law and the rites prescribed by it in an allegorical manner, as suggesting some ideas or symbolizing some truth. The motive be-hind this method of interpretation was the desire to Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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Tractate Berakhos II: Commentary and Study Guide
The guide to how Rabbis formulated their decrees and delt with changing conditions after the destruction of the Second Temple and the fall of Betar.

By Design: science search for God
The book introduces and summarizes two contemporary movements science and religion dialogue and intelligent design . After reading By Design we understand how what was once a battleground between God and science can now become a meeting ground.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

MEDICINE AND MEDICAL ETHICS IN MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN SPAIN


Studies in Jewish Education IV: Curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew
The present volume, the fourth in the series Studies in Jewish Education, is dedicated to the subject of curriculum and the teaching of Hebrew.

The Responsa Literature
An interesting presentation of an extraordinary type of correspondence between communities and foremost Jewish authorities during the past fifteen hundred years by which social, economic and religious problems were discussed and solved.

Tractate Rosh Hashana
For those who wish to go beyond superficial, Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect companion for the study of Talmud. The series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content by focusing on controversies that give it such a power. Using outlines, elucidations, pointed comments, explanations of the sequence, topic overviews, and highlighting the interaction between aggadic portions and legal discussions, the author enables a student to rapidly master material

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Commentary on the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica Vol.1
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The Jews of the Kingdom of Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 9
A comprehensive study of the Jews in this kingdom from the massacres of 1391 to the Expulsion.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 2
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The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch: Eight Lectures
Although originally published more then 50 years ago, this little Cassuto's book is still probably the best, most focused attack on Wellhausen's Documentary Hypothesis and a powerful defense of the integrity of the biblical text.

The Jew in the Literature of England
The Jew in the Literature of England sums up a history of the Jew as he was reflected in the literature of a civilization. Modder's sense of incident and detail, his command of a whole literature, his capacity to develop the social history that underpins literature make his study both absorbing and illuminating.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Daniel
The very detailed handling of the original languages of Daniel (Hebrew and Aramaic) and frequent references to scholarly works in Latin, French, and German make this the commentary for scholars.

Don Isaac Abravanel: Statesman and Philosopher
The story of an extraordinary personality in the history of the Jewish people. Abravanel symbolizes a life of a true son of G-d s chosen people.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Tractate Sanhedrin: Commentary and Study Guide
SANHEDRIN (“ Court”): Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Nezikin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courts and their powers, of qualifications for the office of judge, and of legal procedure and criminal law.

Defenses of the Imagination: Jewish Writers and Historical Crisis
A carefully selected set of critical and biographical essays that offer analyses of a spectrum of poems, stories, historical and critical works by selected Jewish writers, who witnessed the presence of humanistic values in the most ghastly historical circumstances of the twentieth century.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

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The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Studies in Israel Legislative Problems (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
An impressive collection of thoughts on major legal problems facing Israel, a country where the law is at a transitional stage and in the process of continous growth.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 11
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Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Like a Reed: the Message of the Mezuza
A thoughtful reminder of what is really important in life.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

The Life of the People in Biblical Times
When books survive as long as our biblical collection has survived, a certain discrepancy between intention and comprehension is inevitable. But if we wish to read attentively, we must make the effort to reconstruct the concrete shell of the past as well as its essential spiritual factors. This is exactly what this book gives us.

Khurbm: 1914–1922. Prelude to the Holocaust. The Beginning.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union and opening of Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish archives, the genocide of the Jewish people committed by the Russian Imperial Army during World War I is increasingly becoming a topic of books and scholarly research. The appreciation that this purposeful destruction was the prelude to the Holocaust is slowly but surely entering today's scholarship as well.

To Dwell in Unity: The Jewish Federation Movement in America Since 1960
The 1960s and 1970s were years of turbulent events and historic changes for the Jewish federations of North America. The book▓s title was chosen because unity is the hallmark of the federations. It is this unity that has pervaded the many federation developments in the historic and dramatic years of the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

The Emergence of Conservative Judaism: The Historical School in 19th Century America
The book begins with description of the early decades of the past century, when American Judaism was still the expression of a religiously united community, and then probes the tensions and new forms of Jewish institutional and personal practice as they resulted from the needs of Jewish experience and from contact with American tradition, ideas and events.

Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics
Thoughful, often profound writting about the limits of science and the limits of life, about what makes us human and gives us human dignity.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

Violence and Defense in the Jewish Experience
Violence has always existed, and the Jews have been its victims for thousands of years in all parts of the world and in all periods of history. The book presents the fruits of the colloquium on Violence and Defense in Jewish History held in Tel-Aviv in 1974.

Studies in Aggadah and Folk-Literature (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXII)
With the acception of one article, Tales of the Sage by Uffenheimer, which concerns with Biblical exegesis, all other contributions approach their material from literary perspective or as a part of investigation into their history.