Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALGIERS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA celebrate the sixth of Ab as a holiday to commemorate the French conquest, although the long drawn out guerrilla warfare and French commercial expansion were disastrous for the technically unprogressive Jew-ish artisans. The masses at first looked with suspicion on modern ideas and education as advocated by the French Jews. The general tendency of the French from 1830 to 1870 was to abolish group autonomy, and, in its place, to accord the rights and duties of French citizenship to the Jews. Algerian Jewry began gradually to adopt French culture, and after a long struggle, through the influence of the Jewish Minister of Justice, Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, 38,000 Jews were naturalized en masse on October 24, 1870. This change in their status completely destroyed the former auton-omous condition of the Jews and was no doubt wel-comed by many Jews who had suffered under the des-potism of autocratic Jewish leaders. In the 20th cent. indifference to Judaism has spread tremendously in Algeria. Many of the younger gener-ation, French in sympathy, have become almost com-pletely estranged from the old Jewish customs. At-tempts are being made by the Chema Israel and other religious and cultural associations to hold the youth to Judaism. Anti- Semitism was rife in Algeria during the period between 1897 and 1899. As early as 1884 Maupas-sant, in Au Soleil, had written that the Jews hindered French influence in Algeria. Catholic clergymen, es-pecially the Jesuits, working with the anti- Semite Drumont, were active in stirring up hatred against the Jews. This was the period of the Dreyfus affair, when anti- Semitism flourished in France. Animosity toward the Algerian Jews was fomented by naturalized foreigners and unscrupulous political adventurers. Those who feared the economic competition of the Jews objected to the naturalization decree of 1870. The unnaturalized Moslems, envious of the Jews, were easily incited against a people whom they despised for re-ligious and racial reasons. They viewed with sus-picion the readiness with which some of the Jews adopted French nationalism; some of them had had sad experiences with Jewish money- lenders. Economic envy no doubt played a large part in this entire agitation. Anti- Semitic organizations sprang up, anti- Jewish newspapers appeared, and street brawls and plunderings of synagogues, shops and houses were not unusual incidents. Though incitation against the Jews died out after Dreyfus first vindication in 1899, anti- Semitic sentiment still persisted, as was evidenced in Le probléme juif ( The Jewish Problem) of Georges Batault ( 1921), who attacks Judaism as exclusive and revolutionary. This hatred flared up again in 1934 in Constantine and other towns of northern Algeria; more than a hundred persons were reported slain and hundreds wounded in the rioting, requiring speedy measures of restraint on the part of the government. Between anti- Semitism on the one hand and Arab re-ligious antagonism on the other, the position of the poverty- stricken masses of Algerian Jews is not envi-able. Though there are middle- class Jews in Algeria, the majority are petty merchants, peddlers, day labor-ers and artisans. The artisans are mainly watchmakers and jewelers, butchers, tinners, smiths, carpenters, painters, tailors and cigarette- makers. A few Jewish farmers cultivate the soil; others lease their lands to the Arabs. The first vineyards in Oran were planted by native Jews. The Alliance Israelite Universelle has established an agricultural school at Djedei in Tunis to further agriculture among the Jews of Northern Africa. There are several Jewish newspapers in Algeria, published either in French or in Arabic. In 1858 it was estimated that there were 21,048 Jews in Algeria. In 1900 there were about 50,000; in 1921, when a general census was taken, the num-ber of Jews amounted to 73,967, or 1.3 per cent of the total population. Estimates for 1938 range from 90,000 ( Ruppin) to 110,127 ( American Jewish Year-book). JACOB R. MARCUS. Lit.: Graetz, H., History of the Jews, vol. 361, 390- 91; Jost, Μ., Neuere Geschichte der 2 ( 1847) 207- 18; Knight, Μ. Μ.,  The Conquest of Al-geria, in Essays in Intellectual History. Harvey Robinson ( 1929) 91- 105; Ruppin, Arthur, in the Modern World ( 1934) 27, 230, 307; Slouschz, Travels in North Africa ( 1927) 319- 35; Sidney, The Jews of Africa ( 1920) 105- 41; Hebrew, May 7, 1926, p. 866; Aug. 10, 1934, p. 231. ALGIERS ( French, Alger; from the Arabic Al- Jazair,  the islands), Mediterranean seaport, capital of the French colony or protectorate of Algeria in Northern Africa; it has about 25,000 Jews out of a total population of 257,000 ( 1938). There was a small Jewish settlement in Algiers even before the year 1391, when many Jews who were fleeing from the persecutions in Spain and the Bale-aric Isles settled in the city. Their number was in-creased by an influx of Jewish refugees from the Spanish expulsion in 1492 and the several years fol-lowing. About this time, two prominent rabbis, Isaac ben Sheshet and Simeon ben Zemah Duran, played a prominent part in the cultural and religious develop-ment of the Algiers Jewish community. The Jews of Algiers throve under the rule of the Turks. The Jewish quarter was built in 1518, when more Jews came to the city at the invitation of the dey, Khair al- Din. From that time on Algiers became the center of Algerian Jewry, yet by the end of the 16th cent. the number of Jews there barely exceeded 600. Most of them were engaged in industry and trade. An elder called by the Moorish title of  caciz presided over them. At times under the rule of the Turks they were forced to endure persecution and pil-laging at the hands of the fanatics among the Moham-medan population; yet they appear to have preferred Mohammedan to Christian rule. Indeed, shortly after 1541, when Charles V of Spain was defeated by the Moors in a naval battle in the Bay of Algiers, two rabbis of Algiers, Abraham Zarfati and Moses Abdal Asbi, composed poems and prayers of thanksgiving which were recited in the synagogues for many years thereafter on each anniversary of this victory. At the beginning of the 18th cent. there was a large influx of Jews from Leghorn, Italy, into Algiers. These newcomers were called  Gorneyim ( undoubtedly a corruption of the Hebrew term  Leghorneyim,  those from Leghorn, through the French  Les Gorneyim). The majority of the  Gorneyim were engaged in commerce and as middlemen in trade with the various Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.

Tales of Sendebar
Translated from original Hebrew version of the SEVEN SAGES, this collection of fascinating stories--based on unpublished manuscripts--makes available the complete English translation of Mishle Sendebar, the Hebrew version of an enormously popular medieval romance which originated in the East and was subsequently transmitted westward.

Mishnayoth


Studies in Jewish Education VII: The Beginnings of Jewish Educational Institutions
ORIGINS: THE BEGINNINGS OF JEWISH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Volume 3, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

STUDIES IN JEWISH EDUCATION III: Teacher, Teaching, and Community
Deals with concrete issues of the teaching process in schools.

The Jews of Yugoslavia: A Quest for Community
This work is a pioneer study of a little-known part of the modern Jewish world that is at once unique and a microcosm of European Jewry as a whole. The story of the Jews of Yugoslavia can be seen as a quest for community, to forge a unity of communal purpose and endeavor.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 7
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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Aspects of the Jewish Economic History
A survey of the far-ranging Jewish contribution to economic progress of the Western world.

Notes on the New Translation of the Torah
Written with admirable clarity of style and thought, this volume of Notes is capable of being read and appreciated by anyone interested in the process by which modern and classical biblical scholarship are fused together to deepen our understanding of the single most significant book in the Jewish tradition.

Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems
Continuing the high standards of the JPS Jewish Poetry Series, this volume presents poems that have become twentieth-century classics. Included are eighty poems printed in English and Hebrew on facing pages.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Pesikta de-Rab Kahana
A winner of the National Jewish Book Award in 1976, this book is the translation of the Pesikta, a famous collection of midrashim. The Pesikta emerged in a time of deep crisis for the Jewish people, disappeared sometime in the sixteenth century, and was reborn only in the nineteenth century.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. I.
This is the first volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol.II.
The second volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 4
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Jerusalem Curiosities
This volume not only seeks to provide pleasurable reading but also enables the reader to grasp Jerusalem's unique role in the history of mankind. Those who read this book will encounter Jerusalem with eyes that see and hearts that understand.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Rabad of Posquieres: A Twelfth-Century Talmudist
This biographical treatise captures the personality of Rabbad of Posquieres or Rabbi Abraham ben David – one of the most creative talmudic scholars of the twelfth century, chronicles his role in the intellectual history of the Jews in southern France during the twelfth century, and outlines his influence on subsequent generations.

Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity
Following the publication of Amulets and Magic Bowls , several new magic texts were made available to the authors. Presented in the same scholarly manner,this is a valuable insight into the religious life and practices of common people in the Talmudic period.

Studies in Jewish Education I: Theory and Research
The focus of this volume is the state of the Jewish educational research and its impact on practice.

History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testament
Madden's work constitutes . . . a record of many rare or unique examples of Jewish art, preserving spontaneity and directness in our contact with the Jewish past. Michael Avi-Yonah Professor of Archaeology at Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Studies in Jewish Education V: Teaching Classical Jewish Texts
This volume is dedicated to issues arising in the process of teaching classical Jewish texts.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 12 vls. plus Index
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 1
This is the first volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See second and third volumes here). It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 9
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Conversos on Trial. Hispania Judaica, v. 3
This story is eloquently related on the basis of Inquisition files which depict the Conversos' deep yearning to their Jewish past and the ultimate sacrifice they were prepared to offer for their continued adherence to their ancestral faith.

Types of Jewish-Palestinian Piety
Original and interesting study of the meaning of piety amoung observant Jews of the late Second Temple period.

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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as “anchor and compass” for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Talmud: Mesekhet B'rakhot, in 4 volumes
A Study in the development of the Halakha and Haggadah in the Land of Israel and Babylonia.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 7
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 9
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Studies in Hebrew and Ugaritic Psalms
The volume offers a fresh analysis of a central problem of comparative Ugaritic Biblical scholarship: the relationship between biblical psalms and Canaanite literature.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music


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The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Jews, Arabs, Turks
Select essays on Middle Eastern history dealing with Israel, Egypt and Turkey with a focus on politics and cultural relations of Jews, Arabs, and Turks.

The Battle for Jerusalem: June 5-7,1967
Enhanced by fascinating photographs and an epilogue tracing the subsequent lives and military careers of the key participants, Rabinovich's gripping narrative brings the reader to the scene of this brilliant military victory and emotional reunion of a people with their sacred city.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 1
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

Engendering Judaism: An Inclusive Theology and Ethics
A pioneering work on what it means to engender Jewish tradition, that is, how women s full inclusion can and must transform our understanding and practice of Jewish law, prayer, sexuality, and marriage. It challenges both mainstream Judaism and feminist dogma, and speaks across the movements as well as to Christian theologians and feminists.