Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

ALGIERS THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA celebrate the sixth of Ab as a holiday to commemorate the French conquest, although the long drawn out guerrilla warfare and French commercial expansion were disastrous for the technically unprogressive Jew-ish artisans. The masses at first looked with suspicion on modern ideas and education as advocated by the French Jews. The general tendency of the French from 1830 to 1870 was to abolish group autonomy, and, in its place, to accord the rights and duties of French citizenship to the Jews. Algerian Jewry began gradually to adopt French culture, and after a long struggle, through the influence of the Jewish Minister of Justice, Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, 38,000 Jews were naturalized en masse on October 24, 1870. This change in their status completely destroyed the former auton-omous condition of the Jews and was no doubt wel-comed by many Jews who had suffered under the des-potism of autocratic Jewish leaders. In the 20th cent. indifference to Judaism has spread tremendously in Algeria. Many of the younger gener-ation, French in sympathy, have become almost com-pletely estranged from the old Jewish customs. At-tempts are being made by the Chema Israel and other religious and cultural associations to hold the youth to Judaism. Anti- Semitism was rife in Algeria during the period between 1897 and 1899. As early as 1884 Maupas-sant, in Au Soleil, had written that the Jews hindered French influence in Algeria. Catholic clergymen, es-pecially the Jesuits, working with the anti- Semite Drumont, were active in stirring up hatred against the Jews. This was the period of the Dreyfus affair, when anti- Semitism flourished in France. Animosity toward the Algerian Jews was fomented by naturalized foreigners and unscrupulous political adventurers. Those who feared the economic competition of the Jews objected to the naturalization decree of 1870. The unnaturalized Moslems, envious of the Jews, were easily incited against a people whom they despised for re-ligious and racial reasons. They viewed with sus-picion the readiness with which some of the Jews adopted French nationalism; some of them had had sad experiences with Jewish money- lenders. Economic envy no doubt played a large part in this entire agitation. Anti- Semitic organizations sprang up, anti- Jewish newspapers appeared, and street brawls and plunderings of synagogues, shops and houses were not unusual incidents. Though incitation against the Jews died out after Dreyfus first vindication in 1899, anti- Semitic sentiment still persisted, as was evidenced in Le probléme juif ( The Jewish Problem) of Georges Batault ( 1921), who attacks Judaism as exclusive and revolutionary. This hatred flared up again in 1934 in Constantine and other towns of northern Algeria; more than a hundred persons were reported slain and hundreds wounded in the rioting, requiring speedy measures of restraint on the part of the government. Between anti- Semitism on the one hand and Arab re-ligious antagonism on the other, the position of the poverty- stricken masses of Algerian Jews is not envi-able. Though there are middle- class Jews in Algeria, the majority are petty merchants, peddlers, day labor-ers and artisans. The artisans are mainly watchmakers and jewelers, butchers, tinners, smiths, carpenters, painters, tailors and cigarette- makers. A few Jewish farmers cultivate the soil; others lease their lands to the Arabs. The first vineyards in Oran were planted by native Jews. The Alliance Israelite Universelle has established an agricultural school at Djedei in Tunis to further agriculture among the Jews of Northern Africa. There are several Jewish newspapers in Algeria, published either in French or in Arabic. In 1858 it was estimated that there were 21,048 Jews in Algeria. In 1900 there were about 50,000; in 1921, when a general census was taken, the num-ber of Jews amounted to 73,967, or 1.3 per cent of the total population. Estimates for 1938 range from 90,000 ( Ruppin) to 110,127 ( American Jewish Year-book). JACOB R. MARCUS. Lit.: Graetz, H., History of the Jews, vol. 361, 390- 91; Jost, Μ., Neuere Geschichte der 2 ( 1847) 207- 18; Knight, Μ. Μ.,  The Conquest of Al-geria, in Essays in Intellectual History. Harvey Robinson ( 1929) 91- 105; Ruppin, Arthur, in the Modern World ( 1934) 27, 230, 307; Slouschz, Travels in North Africa ( 1927) 319- 35; Sidney, The Jews of Africa ( 1920) 105- 41; Hebrew, May 7, 1926, p. 866; Aug. 10, 1934, p. 231. ALGIERS ( French, Alger; from the Arabic Al- Jazair,  the islands), Mediterranean seaport, capital of the French colony or protectorate of Algeria in Northern Africa; it has about 25,000 Jews out of a total population of 257,000 ( 1938). There was a small Jewish settlement in Algiers even before the year 1391, when many Jews who were fleeing from the persecutions in Spain and the Bale-aric Isles settled in the city. Their number was in-creased by an influx of Jewish refugees from the Spanish expulsion in 1492 and the several years fol-lowing. About this time, two prominent rabbis, Isaac ben Sheshet and Simeon ben Zemah Duran, played a prominent part in the cultural and religious develop-ment of the Algiers Jewish community. The Jews of Algiers throve under the rule of the Turks. The Jewish quarter was built in 1518, when more Jews came to the city at the invitation of the dey, Khair al- Din. From that time on Algiers became the center of Algerian Jewry, yet by the end of the 16th cent. the number of Jews there barely exceeded 600. Most of them were engaged in industry and trade. An elder called by the Moorish title of  caciz presided over them. At times under the rule of the Turks they were forced to endure persecution and pil-laging at the hands of the fanatics among the Moham-medan population; yet they appear to have preferred Mohammedan to Christian rule. Indeed, shortly after 1541, when Charles V of Spain was defeated by the Moors in a naval battle in the Bay of Algiers, two rabbis of Algiers, Abraham Zarfati and Moses Abdal Asbi, composed poems and prayers of thanksgiving which were recited in the synagogues for many years thereafter on each anniversary of this victory. At the beginning of the 18th cent. there was a large influx of Jews from Leghorn, Italy, into Algiers. These newcomers were called  Gorneyim ( undoubtedly a corruption of the Hebrew term  Leghorneyim,  those from Leghorn, through the French  Les Gorneyim). The majority of the  Gorneyim were engaged in commerce and as middlemen in trade with the various Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): NUMBERS
A major work of interpretation, which served--according to Baruch Levin's own words--as anchor and compass for his Anchor Bible commentary on Numbers.

Volume 5, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

My Brother s Keeper: A History of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 1929-1939.
This book deals with the efforts of American Jews - through their overseas aid organization, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee - to come the aid of European Jewry in the crucial prewar decade, 1929-1939.

Consolation for the Tribulations of Israel
Many centuries ago a thoughtful and scholarly Jew asked the question: Why do the righteous suffer? Anxious to help us reach out for an answer, a brilliant young scholar, Martin A. Cohen, has prepared a translation of Consolaam as tribulaoens de Israel, a history of the Jews written by a Portuguese Marrano who had witnessed the tragic events that befell his people in Portugal in the first half of the sixteenth century.

Folk-lore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law. Vol. I
Many traces of the old modes of life and thought survive in the form of folklore. A few such relics of ruder times, as they are preserved like fossils in the Old Testament, are illustrated and explained by the author in this book. The first volume covers the folklore ranging from the creation of man to the heirship of Jacob.

The Third Pillar
Through slow and difficult years of impassioned creative effort, the author has summed up, distilled, symbolized the incomparable tragedy of Jewish people into an essentially poetic form that is clear with a great intellectual clarity, as well as majestic with the grandeur of the theme he treats.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Jews in the Hungarian Economy 1760-1945
In the sixteen essays in this volume, scholars from three continents explore dispassionately various facets of the Jewish presence in the Hungarian economy over a span of two centuries. (Two of the articles deal with Vienna which had quite a sizeable contingent of Hungarian Jews.) The topics range from pure economic history dealing with entrepreneurship and occupational structure, to related fields such as demography, urbanization and nutrition. Several studies discuss the interaction of both

(Torah: the New Russian Translation)
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JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus
Levine ably brings modern scholarship as well as rabbinic commentary to bear when discussing the text in this third book in JPS Torah Commentary series.

Jews, Pagans and Christians In Conflict
A fresh look at the propaganda wars between Jews and Pagans as well as Christians and Pagans during the first centuries of the common era.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical Reform Movements or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Volume 8, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law
First published in 1966, Louis Ginzberg: Keeper of the Law is an unusual biography. It was written by a son about his father, by an interpreter of economics about an interpreter of rabbinics. It is done with obvious charm, with deep affection for the subject, and yet with surprising objectivity.

Hasidism and the Jewish Enlightenment: Their Confrontation in Galicia and Poland in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century
Mahler's masterful sociological study is drawn from a variety of sources, including some Polish archival material that was later destroyed by the Nazis. This classic work, originally published in both Yiddish and Hebrew, is a prime example of movements that shaped the spiritual and cultural life of modern Jewry.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature
This extraordinary volume is framed by two major original essays by the editors. Through sixteen unusual selections from ancient and medieval Hebrew texts, sensitively rendered into English prose, it reveals facets of the Jewish experience and tradition that would otherwise remain unknown.

La America: The Sephardic Experience in the United States
The story of the Jewish immigration to the United States of the Levantine Sephardim who entered the United States between 1899 and 1925.

Aspects of the Dead Sea Scrolls (Scripta Hierosolymitana IV)
Ten contributions from various perspectives on this unique find: from the departments of Bible, Archaeology, Hebrew Philology, Linguistics, and Comparative Religion, by E.Y. Kutscher, Yigael Yudin, N. Avigad, Jacob Light, M. H. Segal, Chaim Rabin, Shemaryahu Talmon, Z. Ben-Hayyim, and David Flusser.

AN EMPIRE IN THE HOLY LAND


Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament
Long the standard English work on the subject, now is prepared to work interactively with Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible.

Studies in Jewish Education VIII: Teaching Classical Rabbinic Texts
THIS VOLUME FOCUSES ON THE PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CLASSICAL RABBINIC TEXTS.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Ezra and Nehemiah
A commentary on one of the most interesting for the modern reader books of the Bible.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 10
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi
The noted historian Cecil Roth presents the first full-length biography of Dona Gracia in the English language. Banker, diplomat, philanthropist, defender of her people and promoter of its culture, she was revered by her sixteenth-century contemporaries and earned the highest esteem among Jewish historians in succeeding generations.

The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 3
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the worldmany considered founding fathers of their respective disciplinesthis massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

History of the Jews: Complete Set in 6 Volumes
A condensed reproduction of the entire eleven volumes of the Geschichte der Juden, the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view.

JPS Bible Commentary: Haftarot
The most recent addition to the JPS Bible Commentary series covers the varied selections from the Nevi'im that comprise the haftarot, chanted on Sabbaths and holy days in synagogues.

ANCIENT PLACE NAMES IN THE HOLY LAND


History of the Jews, Vol. 2: From the Reign of Hyrcanus (135 B.C.E.) to the Completion of the Babylonian Talmud (500 C.E.)
A condensed reproduction of the first comprehensive attempt to write the history of the Jews as the history of a living people and from a Jewish point of view. The second volume covers the period from the reign of Hyrcanus to the completion of the Babylonian Talmud.

Studies in Jewish Education XII: The Hebrew Language in the Era of Globalization
This volume of the Studies in Jewish Education examines the place of the Hebrew language today.

Selected Poems of Jehudah Halevi
The gift of song, cherished and tended as it was by the Spanish Jews of the Middle Ages, reached its highest development in the poems of Jehudah Halevi. His love poems are made of dew and fire. But in his poems to Zion there is no such combination of a poet's ordinary artifices. It is his soul that is the instrumentand on his heartstrings is played the song of Israel's hope.

Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa
This book is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the forgotten million that once comprised the great Jewish communities of North Africa. It covers a period of more than two thousand years in the history of those communities.

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): GENESIS
An electronic edition of Skinner's main work.

The Fifty-Third Chapter of Isaiah according to the Jewish interpreters (in 2 vols.)
Collection of printed texts and MSS. by Jewish commentators on the 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, brought together by AD. Nubauer and translated with assistance of S.R.Driver.

Hellenism
This book is intended for those interested in the conflict of Judaism with the culture of the ancient world and its impact on the Jewish life of today.

Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English Edition
Interactive edition of one of the most important Biblical Hebrew grammar ever published in English.

Luah Hashannah 5778
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 9
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Studia Biblica Vol. 1
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Succeeding at Jewish Education: How One Synagogue Made It Work
Joseph Reimer uses his experience and talent as an ethnographer to bring to life the drama of one synagogue's struggle to make Jewish education work. As a result of his classroom observations Reimer comes away with important insights into what makes Jewish education succeed.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Chronicles
The author of this interesting work, has little sympathy with that subjective criticism which prescribes beforehand an author's scheme of composition and then regards all contrary to this scheme as interpolations or supplements.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

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The International Critical Commentary (ICC): ESTHER
Extraodinary book which retained its freshness and technical insight after almost a century of existance.