Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 181] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALGERIA various coastal towns, on each occasion bringing dis-crimination, slavery, expulsion, forced conversion and even death to numerous Jews. Under the Turks and their regents, the beys and the deys ( 1518- 1830), the Jews were subject to various humiliating restrictions. They lived in ghettos and were compelled to wear a special dress consisting of a dark skull cap, a gray cloak and hood combination, and shoes without heels. The Jewesses, unlike the Moslem women, went unveiled. Jews were forbidden to ride on horseback or to use saddles. Some of these laws were part of the Code of Omar, and were in-tended, like it, to emphasize the social degradation of the Jewish infidels. The Moslems held the Jews in utter contempt. Moslem despots used their powers to commit acts of economic exploitation, and cases of horrible mistreatment occurred as late as the 19th cent. Not all Jews, however, received the same igno-minious mistreatment. In the 17th cent., a group of Jewish immigrants arrived from Southern France and from Italy, particularly from Leghorn ( Livorno). These Frankish Jews, or Gorneyim, as they were called by their brethren, soon became noted as bankers and assistants to the ruling deys, especially in the city of Algiers. They acted as intermediaries between the deys and the European powers and practically monopo-lized the trade between the cities and with foreign powers. This favored group was generally well treated. In religious and cultural matters the Jewish com-munity enjoyed almost complete autonomy. The Turks usually appointed a wealthy Jew to the position of Mukkadem ( first citizen) to act as the head of every community. The Mukkadem was the official repre-sentative of the community to the government. He imposed and collected the taxes demanded by the state and those required for the administration of the Jewish community. The community income was gen- A synagogue in Algeria, French Colonial province along the North African shore The Jewish quarter at Constantine, population is upward of 100,000 erally raised from a tax on meat and on Passover Matzoth. The Mukkaddem was aided by a council appointed by him and by a rabbinical court. This court had far- reaching powers in both religious and civil affairs, and was empowered to pass sentences of flogging and excommunication. In civil suits, action might also be brought before the Moslem judge, the cadi, and this was always the case when one of the litigants was a non- Jew. The Algerian Jews, in their worship in the syna-gogue, follow the Avignon or Provencal ritual, which came in with the Catalonian Jews. It is interesting to note that on Shabuoth the explanation of the Dec-alogue by Saadia is read in Arabic; while the Blessing of Jacob ( Gen. 49), the Song by the Sea ( Ex. 15) and the Decalogue itself are read in both Arabic and Ara-maic. The Kol Nidre was not recited in the chief syna-gogue of the city of Algiers. Here, too, the fourth of Heshvan was celebrated as a special Purim to com-memórate the defeat of the Spanish army in 1541. In spite of the apparent Jewish isolation, Jews and Moslems borrowed many customs and forms of ritual from one another. The Jews share many of the Mos-lem superstitions, particularly that of the adoration of the sepulchres and departed great men. From 1813 to 1816 Mordecai Manuel Noah was United States consul at Tunis and his diplomatic du-ties extended also over Algeria, where he secured the release of enslaved American seamen. Algerian Jews were financially interested in the corsair traffic. Noah did not intervene in Jewish affairs. He probably felt that the Jews, through their economic influence, could fully protect their own interests. The French conquered Algiers in 1830. The imme-diate cause of the conquest was a dispute over the settlement of a loan made to the French republic in 1795 by Algerian Jewish financiers. The Jews of Oran Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 6
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Ahad Ha-Am Asher Ginzberg: A Biography
Ahad Ha-Am's “spiritual Zionism” is still as capable, as it was fifty years ago, of giving inspiration and guidance to a large segment of the Jewry.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

A Grammar of Samaritan Hebrew
The importance of the Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has gained wide acceptance as essential for reaching a correct understanding of the processes that affected the development of the Hebrew language in the late second temple period.

The Jewish Community: Its History and Structure to the American Revolution. Vol. III.
This is the third and final volume of the work that is centered on the European Jewish community of the Middle Ages and early modern times. The author offers a comprehensive historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish communal evolution during the Emancipation era.

ALTJÜDISCHE DENKMÄLER AUS DER KRIM


Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

Literary Studies In The Hebrew Bible Form And Content
This volume focuses on some major issues in biblical research. In the studies collected in this volume, the author aims at highlighting salient literary modes which can be identified the books of the Hebrew Bible.

A History of the Marranos
The tradegy and romance of the story of the secret Jews of the Spanish Peninsula is a lesson that every one must learn and always remember.

Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers
This book is a Cochin cake, full of secret goodies and unexpected surprises and mysterious tastes, exotic and familiar. Each story told by Ruby Daniel reveals the unique way of life of the Cochin Jews and preserves it for future generations.

The Jews of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Hispania Judaica, v. 6
A reconstruction of the Jewish life in a small community, on the basis of notary acts found in local archives.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part II): from Noah to Abraham
By extending his method of exegesis in this volume to another section of the Torah, Cassuto indirectly buttressed his theories with new evidence of the inherent rightness of his approach.

Judaism as a Civilization: Toward a Reconstruction of American-Jewish Life
Judaism as a Civilization remains one of the most original and thought-provoking contributions toward creating a comprehensive program for creative Jewish life. In this seminal work, Kaplan offers his now famous concept of Judaism as an evolving religious civilization.

Luah Hashanah 5775
A guide to prayers, readings, laws, and customs for the synagogue and for the home

Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest
In this original study, noted scholar and theologian David Hartman discusses the relation between Maimonides' halakhic writings and The Guide of the Perplexed. This pioneering work earned Dr. Hartman a National Jewish Book Award for a book on Jewish thought.

The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Jobs (in 2 volumes)
Electronic edition of the massive commentary on the Book of Job.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Divine Law in Human Hands
A revealing look at the reciprocal relationship between the Halakha as an abstract system and the realities of the Jewish life.

THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN


Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 1
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 3
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Tractate Bava Basra I: Commentary and Study Guide
The third of the three Talmudic tractates of the order Neziḳin, dealing with man's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property, of a house or field. The tractate is divided into ten chapters, the contents of which may be described as follows: (1) Regulations relating to property held by more than one owner (ch. i.); (2) responsibilities of an owner of property with regard to that of his neighbor (ch. ii.); (3) established rights of ownership and rights connected with property

Legends of the Bible
This is storytelling with a grain of salt and a lot of wit; tales springing from the antiquity of oral tradition, told with sheer delight in the glory of a book transformed by a hundred generations whose daily thoughts and deeds were transformed by The Book.

Judaism and the Origins of Christianity
A massive collection of scholarship of the author who has pioneered new understanding of the Jewish background of early Christianity.

A Commentary on the Book of Genesis (Part I): from Adam to Noah
One of the greatest masterpieces of Jewish Biblical scholarship directed against the Documentary Hypothesis or so-called Higher Critisism.

Volume 2, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia
Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements
This work is a study of a few typical “Reform Movements” or heresies in the history of Catholicism during the Middle Ages and of Protestantism during the Reformation era. It has been undertaken with a view to describing and analyzing the contributions by Jews and Judaism to the rise and development of these movements.

TestEdGu


The International Critical Commentary (ICC): Psalms (in 2 volumes)
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History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 3: From the Accession of Nicholas II until 1916. Bibliography and Index.
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The third and concluding volume deals with the reign of Nicholas II., the last of the Romanovs, and also contains the bibliographical apparatus, the maps, the index, and other supplementary material.

The Return of Anti-Semitism
An anti-Semitic contamination is now world-wide. This sad truth is brilliantly evoked in Gabriel Schoenfeld's important study. Necessary reading. --Elie Wiesel

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 11
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945
The Second World War was a crucial period in the history of Jewish Palestine. Between 1939 and 1945, the Zionist movement and Jewish Palestine underwent considerable transformation. This carefully documented work recounts the events of that period of time.

JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers
Commentary on the Torah' forth book by one of the most insteresting modern Jewish thinkers.

A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 12
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12
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Tractate Berakhos & Tamid v. I: Commentary and Study Guide
Master A Mesikta Series is a perfect perfect companion for the study of Talmud. Designed for those who already know something, the series provides important background information on Talmud and clarifies its content using outlines, elucidations of its text and commentaries: it explains the sequence of Talmud's texts, overviews discussed topics, zooms in on how aggadic portions of Talmud interact with its legal discussions, and much more...

Conversos and the Inquisition in Jaén. Hispania Judaica, v. 7
Description of the fate of the Conversos in the Kingdom of Jaén at the hands of the Inquisition Tribunal which operated there for 43 years, from 1483 until 1526.

The Jews Among the Greeks and Romans
The book is a study of the contribution of the Jews to the modern civilization. The Romans and Greeks were originators of a great many elements of our civilization, but the Jews' impact was no less real or lasting. There was a time when Greek and Roman and Jew were in free contact. The results of this contact the author skillfully explores.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

R. Juspa, Shammash of Warmaisa (Worms)


Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis
The JPS Torah Commentary series guides readers through the words and ideas of the Torah. Each volume is the work of a scholar who stands at the pinnacle of his field.

The Jews of Egypt: From Ramses II to Emperor Hadrian
This is the story of the adventures and misadventures of the Jewish people in the land of Egypt – shrouded in the mists of biblical history under the Pharaohs; the strange intermezzo of the Jewish mercenary detachment on the island of Elephantine on the upper Nile; the apogee of Jewish culture under the Ptolemies; and, finally, the Jewish community's rapid decline and catastrophic disappearance under Roman rule.

A Separate Republic
Based on the Libro Grande, which is included in this volume, this authoritative analysis of the Venetian Jewish community of the 17th century gives a snapshot of the political and social structure of the Jews of Venice as they related to the general population of the Venetian Republic of that period and to the ethnic,economic, and religious diversity within their own community.

Hebrew-English Tanakh: the Jewish Bible
Multi-platform, electronic edition of masoretic text of the Holy Scriptures placed next to classic Jewish translation.

Spanish-Portuguese Synagogue Music