Volume 1, The Universal Jewish...

Created by Reform Rabbis and Jewish Scholars, many of whom escaped from Nazi Germany, the Encyclopedia exhibits a unique sensitivity to all forms of anti-Semitic agitation and malice and makes every effort to find allies among others, especially Christians, to forge a shield for Jewish people in the face of the coming catastrophe.

[ 181] THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA ALGERIA various coastal towns, on each occasion bringing dis-crimination, slavery, expulsion, forced conversion and even death to numerous Jews. Under the Turks and their regents, the beys and the deys ( 1518- 1830), the Jews were subject to various humiliating restrictions. They lived in ghettos and were compelled to wear a special dress consisting of a dark skull cap, a gray cloak and hood combination, and shoes without heels. The Jewesses, unlike the Moslem women, went unveiled. Jews were forbidden to ride on horseback or to use saddles. Some of these laws were part of the Code of Omar, and were in-tended, like it, to emphasize the social degradation of the Jewish infidels. The Moslems held the Jews in utter contempt. Moslem despots used their powers to commit acts of economic exploitation, and cases of horrible mistreatment occurred as late as the 19th cent. Not all Jews, however, received the same igno-minious mistreatment. In the 17th cent., a group of Jewish immigrants arrived from Southern France and from Italy, particularly from Leghorn ( Livorno). These Frankish Jews, or Gorneyim, as they were called by their brethren, soon became noted as bankers and assistants to the ruling deys, especially in the city of Algiers. They acted as intermediaries between the deys and the European powers and practically monopo-lized the trade between the cities and with foreign powers. This favored group was generally well treated. In religious and cultural matters the Jewish com-munity enjoyed almost complete autonomy. The Turks usually appointed a wealthy Jew to the position of Mukkadem ( first citizen) to act as the head of every community. The Mukkadem was the official repre-sentative of the community to the government. He imposed and collected the taxes demanded by the state and those required for the administration of the Jewish community. The community income was gen- A synagogue in Algeria, French Colonial province along the North African shore The Jewish quarter at Constantine, population is upward of 100,000 erally raised from a tax on meat and on Passover Matzoth. The Mukkaddem was aided by a council appointed by him and by a rabbinical court. This court had far- reaching powers in both religious and civil affairs, and was empowered to pass sentences of flogging and excommunication. In civil suits, action might also be brought before the Moslem judge, the cadi, and this was always the case when one of the litigants was a non- Jew. The Algerian Jews, in their worship in the syna-gogue, follow the Avignon or Provencal ritual, which came in with the Catalonian Jews. It is interesting to note that on Shabuoth the explanation of the Dec-alogue by Saadia is read in Arabic; while the Blessing of Jacob ( Gen. 49), the Song by the Sea ( Ex. 15) and the Decalogue itself are read in both Arabic and Ara-maic. The Kol Nidre was not recited in the chief syna-gogue of the city of Algiers. Here, too, the fourth of Heshvan was celebrated as a special Purim to com-memórate the defeat of the Spanish army in 1541. In spite of the apparent Jewish isolation, Jews and Moslems borrowed many customs and forms of ritual from one another. The Jews share many of the Mos-lem superstitions, particularly that of the adoration of the sepulchres and departed great men. From 1813 to 1816 Mordecai Manuel Noah was United States consul at Tunis and his diplomatic du-ties extended also over Algeria, where he secured the release of enslaved American seamen. Algerian Jews were financially interested in the corsair traffic. Noah did not intervene in Jewish affairs. He probably felt that the Jews, through their economic influence, could fully protect their own interests. The French conquered Algiers in 1830. The imme-diate cause of the conquest was a dispute over the settlement of a loan made to the French republic in 1795 by Algerian Jewish financiers. The Jews of Oran Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL

Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia


About Book Volume 1, The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia

Front MatterHalf Title PageCopyright PageCONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME ONEDedication PageSponsors, Friends, and Co-Workers of THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA PrefaceRules Governing Transliterations, Citations, Spelling of Proper Names, and AbbreviationsAAR - AZU ( I )BAA-CAN ( II )CAN - EDU ( III )EDU - GNO ( IV )GOD - IZS ( V )JAB - LEX ( VI )LEX - MOS ( VII )MOS - PRO ( VIII )PRO - SPE ( IX )SPI - ZYL ( X )INDEX TO GUIDE
volume universal jewish encyclopedia page https publishersrow ebookshuk books hebrew ebooks created reform rabbis scholars many whom escaped from nazi germany exhibits unique sensitivity forms anti semitic agitation malice makes every effort find allies among others especially christians forge shield people face coming catastrophe
eBookshuk Books

Come Under the Wings: A Midrash on Ruth
Grace Goldin makes the character of Ruth more vivid in her poetry. Two classical idioms, that of the Jewish imagination, and that of English verse, are strikingly joined in the book.

Jewish Life In The Middle Ages
A sweeping view of Jewish historical and cultural experience. Written in the end of the 19th century by an extremly astute historian and a storyteller, this volume will assist readers in better understanding the position of Jews in today's world as well.

Studies in Jewish Education X: In Search of Jewish Paideia : Directions in the Philosophy of the Jewish Education
The 10th volume of Studies in Jewish Education reflects the commitment of the Hebrew University in general, and of the Melton Centre in particular, to reflection and research on issues pertaining to Jewish education. The essays and articles appearing in this volume represent the summary of a conference held in honor of Prof. Michael Rosenak on the occasion of his retirement after 33 years of research and teaching at the Melton Centre.

History of the Jews in Russia and Poland, Vol. 1: From the Beginning until the Death of Alexander I (1825)
A History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the pen of S. M. Dubnow (based upon a work in Russian which was especially prepared for JPS) needs neither justification nor recommendation. The work is divided into thee volumes. The first volume contains the history of the Jews of Russia and Poland from its beginnings until 1825.

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

The Jewish Encyclopedia, Index Volume
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

and Hannah wept: Infertility, Adoption, and the Jewish Couple
The definitive work on Judaism s approach to infertility, pregnancy loss, and adoption.

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael (3 vols.)
An electronic edition of JPS's original 3-volume set, based on manuscript and early editions.

Pirke de-Rabbi Eliezer
Kabbalistic midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers ascribed to R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus.

Candles in the Night: Jewish Tales by Gentile Authors
To keep aglow the candles of human sympathy, the editor has compiled nearly a thousand items of significant non-Jewish literary and historical expression about the Jews. This volume includes twenty-three short stories and episodes from fourteen different national literatures.

A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages, in 3 Volumes
Henry Charles Lea s three-volume The History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (sold as a set only) is widely regarded by scholars in the field as one of the outstanding works of scholarship on the subject.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Treatise Ta anit of the Babylonian Talmud: Critically Edited and Provided With A Translation and Notes
This book presents the first critical edition of the Talmudic text based on a minute collation of all the existing manuscripts and early editions of the Talmud itself, as well as of the Mishnah, Tosefta, the numerous halakic and haggadic Midrashim, the Yerushalmi, and the so-called Minor Tractates. The text is translated and elucidated for the benefit of a wider circle of readers, who are not in a position to study the original.

Lost Love: The Untold Story of Henrietta Szold
The book tells the story of Henrietta Szold s lost love through her correspondence with Louis Ginzberg and a previously unpublished private journal.

Jew or Juif?: Jews, French Canadians, and Anglo-Canadians, 1759-1914
Michael Brown s landmark study offers an unusual perspective on the origins of Canadian-Jewish assimilation in Anglo-Canada and the fear and insecurity that Canadian Jews experienced under the French Canadians.

History of the Jewish People
... a single volume (containing) the multitude of details of nearly 40 centuries of Jewish history (provided) with conciseness, clarity, and completeness. . . entire work is informed by a broad philosophic grasp of the subject, a rare balance and objectivity of treatment, and a warm love for the Jewish people and its heritage. Robert Gordis Encyclopaedia Judaica

Studies in Bible I (Scripta Hierosolymitana VIII)
Publication of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Studies in Mishnaic Hebrew (Scripta Hierosolymitana, XXXVII)
The twenty-two articles in this collection represent the latest results of the research into Mishnaic Hebrew that is conducted in Israel.

JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah
This fine commentary is based closely on the author's original Hebrew commentary (Am Oved, 1992), with some revision and expansion.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 6
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
The classic work on the field. Not for beginners; for those interested in a more historical and critical study of Talmud and Midrash.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
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Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate
Joseph Jacobs was a thinker and writer of unusual breadth and versatility. Among the subjects to which he gave his attention was the comparative distribution of Jewish ability, as the result of researches he had undertaken in association with Sir Francis Galton. The present work was the natural outcome of these studies.

Spain, the Jews, and Franco
The role played by Spain during World War II regarding the Jews has long been a matter of controversy. This volume, first published in Hebrew to wide acclaim seeks to set the record straight. It offers a full and objective account of the rescue of Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries by the Franco regime.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Electronic Edition in 12 v. plus index, il)
Electronic edition of the most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

Studies in Jewish Education XI: Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education
Languages and Literatures in Jewish Education is dedicated to Prof. Michael Rosenak, the founder of the discipline of the Philosophy of Jewish Education.

The Path of the Upright: Mesillat Yesharim
The Path of the Upright, Rabbi Moshe Hayyim Luzzatto's guide to the perfection of human soul, stands on its own as one of the most influential and inspirational ethical works in Judaism. In this work, the author probes every aspect of the human personality and offers advice on ways to overcome its weaknesses. The Path of the Upright: Messillat Yesharim is a bilingual edition in Hebrew and English.

Matters of Life and Death
Incredible medical breakthroughs of today, like genetic engineering, in-vitro fertilization, and cloning, as well as the ability and choice to prolong life force us as Jews and human beings to struggle with the dilemmas posed by modern medicine. How does one decide which treatments to accept as appropriate and which not? Jewish law and ethics, as Dr. Elliot Dorff points out, which stem from the ancient teachings of the Talmud, do not directly address these modern issues, but the Jewish tradition

Community and Polity: The Organizational Dynamics Of American Jewry (Revised and Updated Edition)
Community and Polity explores in depth the developments in the American Jewish community in the post-WWII period. Like the first edition, it is designed to serve two purposes: to provide a basic survey of the structure and functions of the American Jewish community and to suggest how that community should be understood as a polity that is not a state but is no less real from a political perspective.

Sacred Fragments: Recovering Theology for the Modern Jew
Winner of the National Jewish Book Award, this book will be a stimulating and rewarding step to exploring and restoring Jewish theology – and faith – at a time when belief is continually challenged and yet so very needed.

Hanukkah: The Feast of Lights
There is a glamour and mystery about the Feast of Lights. Miss Solis-Cohen takes up the challenge of Hanukkah to the modern Jew and tries to explain it. The book will appeal to adults and to children, to those who seek knowledge on the holiday's origin and history.

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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

Jesus
A compelling biography of Jesus of Nazareth, written by eminent Jewish scholar of the Second Temple and Early Christianity.

Three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia. Hispania Judaica, v. 8
The history of three Jewish Communities in Medieval Valencia: Castellón de la Plana, Burriana, Villarreal.

The End of Time
A stunning departure from the polemics and social criticism that have made Horowitz one of our most controversial public intellectuals, The End of Time is a wide ranging, unflinching and lyrical meditation on subjects ranging from what parents inadvertently teach us in their deaths, to the forbidding reality of the cancer ward and the way in which figures like Mohammed Atta use death to become gods of their own mad creation.

Judaism and Christianity
A signally important work for anyone seriously concerned with Judaism or Christianity. It may prove to be a seminal work, a work that is interesting to both Jews and Christians. No doubt, it has faults, but a lack of nobility is not one of them.

Tractate Ta'anis: Commentary and Study Guide
This is hard-core serious commentary on traditional Jewish belief that climatic conditions are entirely dependent upon the deeds of people. Taanis, one of the most interesting Talmudic Tractates, explicates this principle.

A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ (in 5 vols.)
The most valuable general modern work (on the subject) . . . Encyclopedia Britannica

Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. 10
The most comprehensive work in its class; includes articles on all religions, ethical systems and movements, religious beliefs and customs, philosophical ideas, moral practices, as well as related subjects in anthropology, mythology, folklore, relevant areas of biology, psychology, economics and sociology.

The Bunker
The book tells a story of seven Jews who succeeded in escaping the massacre of Jews that followed the Warsaw uprising in 1944. From about September 1944 until January 1945 the author lived with six others in a bunker under inconceivable conditions. Yet they survived. How they managed this is told in The Bunker.

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 10
qwer

Encyclopedia Biblica: A Critical Dictionary of the Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archæology, Geography, and Natural History of the Bible (in 4 volumes)
New electronic edition of classic four-volume Bible-focused encyclopedia supplied with sophisticated navigation, single-click lookup of original Hebrew text, and copy/paste functionality that comes with automatically generated bibliography.

The House of Nasi: The Duke of Naxos
Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos, Lord of Tiberias, was a Marrano or “converse,” knighted by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, a jousting partner of Emperor Maximillian, and a court advisor to Suleiman the Magnificent. During his astonishing life as a statesman, financier, and philanthropist in sixteenth-century Europe, he moved across the continent from Antwerp to Paris, to Naples, to Rome, and from there to Constantinople, where he reembraced Judaism.

Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica Vol. 4
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The Jewish Encyclopedia Vol. 2
A monumental work which laid the foundation of Jewish scholarship in America. Written by more then 400 contributors from all over the world—many considered founding “fathers” of their respective disciplines—this massive 12-volume Encyclopedia remains unsurpassed in many areas. Each of its 12 volumes was re-created by craftsmen of Varda Graphics, Inc. to look as close to the original as possible, while allowing the reader to take advantage of the latest computer technology.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2/3
The second and third volume of a monumental survey of the Jewish community in Spain under Moslem rule. (See first volume here) It offers the reader access to a difficult subject. The period is recreated in a narrative that flows with life and vitality...unmatched for scholarship and readability.

The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Anti-Semitism
The medieval conception of the Jew as devil – literally and figuratively – is the subject of this classic work, first issued in 1943. The full dimension of the diabolization of the Jew is presented through document, analysis, and illustration. It is a chilling study but an exceedingly important one.