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ZEPHANIAH THE UNIVERSAL

by Isaak Landman,
ZEPHANIAH THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 640] ZERUBBABEL claims upon them all the judgment of the Day of the Lord ( 1: 7- 8, 14- 18). In the second part, Zephaniah delivers his oracles of destruction against the Philistine cities ( 2: 4- 7), Egypt ( 2: 12), Nineveh ( 2: 13- 14; verified by a later writer in 2: 15). A writer who knew the unfriendly attitude of Moab and Ammon after 586 B. C. E. inserted imprecations against them ( 2: 8- 11). In the third part ( chap. 3), greatly expanded by later writers, Zephaniah bewails the corrup-tion of Jerusalem despite all warnings ( 3: 1- 7), and an-nounces Gods final judgment: Destruction of certain cities ( 3: 8), invasion of others, and removal of Israels corrupt so that the pious remnant may dwell in peace ( 3: 11- 13). God is to be praised for championing Israel and bringing about the millennium ( 3: 14- 20). Strongly influenced by Isaiah and Amos in his think-ing, Zephaniah has a forceful, vigorous and picturesque style. His description of the Day of the Lord is classic. He approaches the Scythian onslaught with none of the distraught panic of Jeremiah, but likewise without his great contemporarys deep moral convictions. Zephaniah emphasized Gods providential control of the nations, the visitation of His judgment upon cor-rupt Israel and his neighbors, and the prevailing no-tions of a surviving remnant, worthy to enjoy Gods kingdom. Like the book of Isaiah and other prophetic writings, the canonical Zephaniah has the threefold editorial arrangement of the denunciation of the people for its sins, oracles against the nations, and the visions of Israels glorious future. ADOLPH J. FEINBERG. Lit.: Cornill, C. H., The Prophets of Israel ( 1897); idem,  Die Prophetie Zephanjas, Theologische Studien und Kritiken, vol. 89 ( 1916) 297- 332; Smith, W. R., The Prophets of Israel ( 1907); Tobac, E., Les prophetes dIsrael ( new ed., 1932); Schwally, F.,  Das Buch Sephanjä, Zeit-schrift für alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, vol. 10 ( 1890) 165- 240; Pilcher, C. V., Three Hebrew Prophets and the Passing of Empires ( 1931). See the standard commentaries on Zephaniah, such as Expositors Bible, Westminster Com-mentaries, Cambridge Bible, The New Century Bible, Hand-buch zum Alten Testament, Kommentar zum Alten Testa-ment, and Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; also ar־ ticles in the standard Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias. ZEPHANIAH ( SOPHONIAE), APOCALYPSE OF, a lost pseudepigraphic work of Jewish origin. Clemens Alexandrinus cited a verse from it, and there is apparently a fragment of it in the Coptic manuscript edited by G. Steindorff ( Apokalypse des Elias, Leipzig, 1899, p. 153). It seems to have received little or no editing at all by Christian hands. Lit.: Weinel, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen ( 1904). ZEPHATH, see SAFED. ZEPIN, GEORGE, rabbi and religious executive, b. Kiev, Russia, 1878. He was brought to the United States in 1882. He graduated from the University of Cincinnati ( A. B.) and from the Hebrew Union Col-lege ( 1900), and served as rabbi at Kalamazoo, Mich. ( 1900- 1903). He then became director of synagogue and school extension for the Union of American He-brew Congregations ( 1903- 1906), superintendent of the Jewish Social Agencies of Chicago ( 1908- 1909), and rabbi of Congregation Beth El, Fort Worth, Texas ( 1909- 1910). In 1910 Zepin became secretary of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, serving until 1941, when he was appointed its honorary secre-tary as well as secretary of the Joint Committee on Rabbinical Pensions. While serving as rabbi in Fort Worth he was appointed commissioner of charities of the city ( 1909- 10). As secretary of the Union of American Hebrew Con-gregations for more than three decades, Zepin was a constructive worker in the field of Jewish religion and Jewish social service. Many of the institutions which in 1943 formed a part of the Union owed their origin wholly or in part to Zepins foresight and initiative, especially the department of syna-gogue and school extension, which he organized. This de-partment embraces a section on Jewish education, which was in 1943 the largest publishing agency in the United States of Jewish educational literature; a department of pub-lic information about Jews and Judaism which has circulated over a million and a half of well written pamphlets widely distributed to universities and molders of public opinion; a department of synagogue programming, the first of its kind in the United States. Zepin took a prominent part in the organization and early development of the Sisterhood, Brotherhood and Youth national federations, and was for a number of years executive secretary of the first two. In 1942 the Hebrew Union College conferred upon him the hon-orary degree of doctor of divinity. ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HALEVI, see GE-RONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HALEVI. ZERAIM ( seeds), first division of the Mishnah. It consists of the following eleven tractates: Berachoth ( 9 chaps.); Peah ( 8 chaps.); Demai ( 7 chaps.); Kilayim ( 8 chaps.); Shebiith ( 10 chaps.); Terumoth ( 11 chaps.); Maaseroth ( 4 chaps.); Maaser Sheni ( 5 chaps.); Hallah ( 4 chaps.); Orlah ( 3 chaps.); Bikkurim ( 3 chaps.). The Tosefta gives a somewhat different order. Berachoth, dealing with prayers, was placed first in the division in order to become the first tractate of the Mishnah; the other tractates all contain regula-tions as to agricultural products. There is a Gemara to Berachoth in both Talmuds, but only a Palestinian Gemara to the other tractates. See the articles on the individual tractates. ZERE, see VOWELS, HEBREW ( under TZERE). ZERLINA, woman physician, who practised medi-cine in Frankfort, Germany, about 1430 and distin-guished herself especially as an oculist. She was al-lowed to reside outside of the ghetto. Her petition for tax exemption, however, was refused by the city coun-cil. Lit.: Kayserling, Μ., Die jüdischen Frauen, 144; Münz, I., Die jüdischen Ärzte im Mittelalter, 57. ZEROA ( lamb- bone), see SEDER. ZERUBBABEL, governor of Judah in the latter part of the 6th cent. B. C. E. The accounts of his life as given in Ezra, I Esdras, Haggai and Zechariah are meager and contradictory, so that scholars have differed widely on practically every point. He was of the royal line, being the son of Shealtiel, the son of Jehoiachin ( Jeconiah), king of Judah who was deposed by Nebu-chadrezzar in 597 B. C. E. ( the name of his father is given as Pedaiah in I Chron. 3: 19, but this is probably a scribal error). It is Uncertain just when he came from Babylonia to Jerusalem. Some would identify Zerub-babel with Sheshbazzar, leader of the first group of exiles, but the latter is probably the same as Shenazzar, a brother of Shealtiel ( I Chron. 3: 18). I Esdras 3 and 4 has a story of how Zerubbabel was a page of Darius and so won the favor of the king by his brilliant de-fense of truth as the greatest of all things that the latter put him at the head of a group of Jews who were to return to Palestine. While the story itself bears the stamp of legend, it may contain the historical truth that Zerubbabel became governor at the beginning of the reign of Darius ( 521 B. C. E.). At the urging of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, Chapter Home  | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS  | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE  | SPI- ZYL

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ZEPHANIAH THE UNIVERSAL JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA [ 640] ZERUBBABEL claims upon them all the judgment of the Day of the Lord ( 1: 7- 8, 14- 18). In the second part, Zephaniah delivers his oracles of destruction against the Philistine cities ( 2: 4- 7), Egypt ( 2: 12), Nineveh ( 2: 13- 14; verified by a later writer in 2: 15). A writer who knew the unfriendly attitude of Moab and Ammon after 586 B. C. E. inserted imprecations against them ( 2: 8- 11). In the third part ( chap. 3), greatly expanded by later writers, Zephaniah bewails the corrup-tion of Jerusalem despite all warnings ( 3: 1- 7), and an-nounces God's final judgment: Destruction of certain cities ( 3: 8), invasion of others, and removal of Israel's corrupt so that the pious remnant may dwell in peace ( 3: 11- 13). God is to be praised for championing Israel and bringing about the millennium ( 3: 14- 20). Strongly influenced by Isaiah and Amos in his think-ing, Zephaniah has a forceful, vigorous and picturesque style. His description of the Day of the Lord is classic. He approaches the Scythian onslaught with none of the distraught panic of Jeremiah, but likewise without his great contemporary's deep moral convictions. Zephaniah emphasized God's providential control of the nations, the visitation of His judgment upon cor-rupt Israel and his neighbors, and the prevailing no-tions of a surviving remnant, worthy to enjoy God's kingdom. Like the book of Isaiah and other prophetic writings, the canonical Zephaniah has the threefold editorial arrangement of the denunciation of the people for its sins, oracles against the nations, and the visions of Israel's glorious future. ADOLPH J. FEINBERG. Lit.: Cornill, C. H., The Prophets of Israel ( 1897); idem, \\" Die Prophetie Zephanjas,\\" Theologische Studien und Kritiken, vol. 89 ( 1916) 297- 332; Smith, W. R., The Prophets of Israel ( 1907); Tobac, E., Les prophetes d'Israel ( new ed., 1932); Schwally, F., \\" Das Buch Sephanjä,\\" Zeit-schrift für alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, vol. 10 ( 1890) 165- 240; Pilcher, C. V., Three Hebrew Prophets and the Passing of Empires ( 1931). See the standard commentaries on Zephaniah, such as Expositor's Bible, Westminster Com-mentaries, Cambridge Bible, The New Century Bible, Hand-buch zum Alten Testament, Kommentar zum Alten Testa-ment, and Handkommentar zum Alten Testament; also ar־ ticles in the standard Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias. ZEPHANIAH ( SOPHONIAE), APOCALYPSE OF, a lost pseudepigraphic work of Jewish origin. Clemens Alexandrinus cited a verse from it, and there is apparently a fragment of it in the Coptic manuscript edited by G. Steindorff ( Apokalypse des Elias, Leipzig, 1899, p. 153). It seems to have received little or no editing at all by Christian hands. Lit.: Weinel, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen ( 1904). ZEPHATH, see SAFED. ZEPIN, GEORGE, rabbi and religious executive, b. Kiev, Russia, 1878. He was brought to the United States in 1882. He graduated from the University of Cincinnati ( A. B.) and from the Hebrew Union Col-lege ( 1900), and served as rabbi at Kalamazoo, Mich. ( 1900- 1903). He then became director of synagogue and school extension for the Union of American He-brew Congregations ( 1903- 1906), superintendent of the Jewish Social Agencies of Chicago ( 1908- 1909), and rabbi of Congregation Beth El, Fort Worth, Texas ( 1909- 1910). In 1910 Zepin became secretary of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, serving until 1941, when he was appointed its honorary secre-tary as well as secretary of the Joint Committee on Rabbinical Pensions. While serving as rabbi in Fort Worth he was appointed commissioner of charities of the city ( 1909- 10). As secretary of the Union of American Hebrew Con-gregations for more than three decades, Zepin was a constructive worker in the field of Jewish religion and Jewish social service. Many of the institutions which in 1943 formed a part of the Union owed their origin wholly or in part to Zepin's foresight and initiative, especially the department of syna-gogue and school extension, which he organized. This de-partment embraces a section on Jewish education, which was in 1943 the largest publishing agency in the United States of Jewish educational literature; a department of pub-lic information about Jews and Judaism which has circulated over a million and a half of well written pamphlets widely distributed to universities and molders of public opinion; a department of synagogue programming, the first of its kind in the United States. Zepin took a prominent part in the organization and early development of the Sisterhood, Brotherhood and Youth national federations, and was for a number of years executive secretary of the first two. In 1942 the Hebrew Union College conferred upon him the hon-orary degree of doctor of divinity. ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HALEVI, see GE-RONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HALEVI. ZERAIM (\\" seeds\\"), first division of the Mishnah. It consists of the following eleven tractates: Berachoth ( 9 chaps.); Peah ( 8 chaps.); Demai ( 7 chaps.); Kilayim ( 8 chaps.); Shebiith ( 10 chaps.); Terumoth ( 11 chaps.); Maaseroth ( 4 chaps.); Maaser Sheni ( 5 chaps.); Hallah ( 4 chaps.); Orlah ( 3 chaps.); Bikkurim ( 3 chaps.). The Tosefta gives a somewhat different order. Berachoth, dealing with prayers, was placed first in the division in order to become the first tractate of the Mishnah; the other tractates all contain regula-tions as to agricultural products. There is a Gemara to Berachoth in both Talmuds, but only a Palestinian Gemara to the other tractates. See the articles on the individual tractates. ZERE, see VOWELS, HEBREW ( under TZERE). ZERLINA, woman physician, who practised medi-cine in Frankfort, Germany, about 1430 and distin-guished herself especially as an oculist. She was al-lowed to reside outside of the ghetto. Her petition for tax exemption, however, was refused by the city coun-cil. Lit.: Kayserling, Μ., Die jüdischen Frauen, 144; Münz, I., Die jüdischen Ärzte im Mittelalter, 57. ZEROA ( lamb- bone), see SEDER. ZERUBBABEL, governor of Judah in the latter part of the 6th cent. B. C. E. The accounts of his life as given in Ezra, I Esdras, Haggai and Zechariah are meager and contradictory, so that scholars have differed widely on practically every point. He was of the royal line, being the son of Shealtiel, the son of Jehoiachin ( Jeconiah), king of Judah who was deposed by Nebu-chadrezzar in 597 B. C. E. ( the name of his father is given as Pedaiah in I Chron. 3: 19, but this is probably a scribal error). It is Uncertain just when he came from Babylonia to Jerusalem. Some would identify Zerub-babel with Sheshbazzar, leader of the first group of exiles, but the latter is probably the same as Shenazzar, a brother of Shealtiel ( I Chron. 3: 18). I Esdras 3 and 4 has a story of how Zerubbabel was a page of Darius and so won the favor of the king by his brilliant de-fense of truth as the greatest of all things that the latter put him at the head of a group of Jews who were to return to Palestine. While the story itself bears the stamp of legend, it may contain the historical truth that Zerubbabel became governor at the beginning of the reign of Darius ( 521 B. C. E.). At the urging of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, << Chapter >> Home | Index AAR- AZU | BAA- CAN | CAN- EDU | EDU- GNO | GOD- IZS | JAB- LEX | LEX- MOS | MOS- PRO | PRO- SPE | SPI- ZYL
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