Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12 Page 11...

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מסכת בבא קמא פיא 1 . כל שח ב ת י ב ש מ י ר ת ו ח ב תי ב נ ז ק ו . כל הברייתא עד סופה אצל רב״ס ) ר׳ ברוך מארץ יון( ׳ לפי ר״ז אגמאתי בס׳ הנר, 3 סוף ע״א, בשם: ] תני ר׳[ חייא בראש תוספת נזיקין. ובמשנתנו פ״א מ״ב! כל שחבתי בשמירתו הכשרתי את נזקו. הכשרתי במקצת נזקו וכו׳ . ובפירש״י שם ט׳ ב׳: הכשרתי וזימנתי אותו, שלא שמרתיו יפה. כך מצאתי. לישנא אחרינ א הכשרתי את נזקו, עלי להכשיר ולתקן את נזקו, כלומר אני חייב לשלם. מפי מורי. הכשרת י במקצת נזקו חבתי בתשלומי כר. האי הכשרתי לא דמיא להכשרתי קמא, דהא ודאי זימנתי הו א וכו׳. ובמנ״ב העיר שמלשון התוספתא ששינתה בלשונה ושנתה ברישא חבתי ובסיפא הכשרתי משמע כלשון שגי שברש״י ) ששמע מפי מורו(. אבל לפי פשוטו של לשון הפירוש הנכון הוא כפירוש ראשון שברש״י וכפירוש הר״מ בפיה״מ במקומו ובמשמעותו של הדיבור בכל מקום , והתוספתא תפסה לשון אחרת, עיין במבוא לנוה״מ למהרי״ן אפשטין, עמ׳ 2 ואילך. זה ה ש ו ר ו ה ב ו ר . מלשון המשנה ) ״הכשרתי״( ומלשון המשנה והתוספתא ) בשמירתו ( מוכח שאין מדברים באדם המזיק בידים אלא בנזקי ממונו, והוא שור ובור. וכן בירושלמי פ״א ה״ב, ב׳ ע״ג: תני ר׳ חייה זה השור והבור. והאש לא תנא? א״ר ירמיה האש להכשר נזקיו. וכבד פירשתי במחברתי תלמודה של קיסרין) ירושלים תרצ״א(, עמ׳ 2 , שכאן ״להכשר״ פירושו . לא הכשר.! כלומר, אש ברובה אינה בכלל הכשר נזיקין, אלא נזקי גופו היא. ושואל הירושלמי : אמר ר׳ יוסי ואין כיני, האש להכשר )= לא הכשר( נזקיו, מקבל עליו התרייה בדעת זו ־ ולוקה. 3 מאי כדון?* האש להכשר )= לא הכשר( נזקיו מקבל עליו נזק צער ריפוי שבת ובושת. 5 ובמכילת א משפטים פי״ד, עט׳ 297 : כי תצא אש וכר, הואיל והוא חייב על ידי ק נ ו י לו) כלומר ע״י דב ר לא יהא חייב על ידי עצמו) כלומר ע״י אש שנזקי גופו הן, כר׳ יוחנן בבבלי כ״ב א׳ ( » ) שקנוי לו וכר, אלא בא הכתוב לעשות את האונס כרצון וכו׳ ) והכל כר׳ יוחנן הנ״ל, עיין בבלי הנ״ל כ״ ג רע״א וברש״י ובתוספות שם, ד״ה טמון(. וכן בירושלמי כאן פ״א ה״א, ב׳ ע״ב : והאש מלמדת על כולהן שהו׳ חייב על האונסין. ועיין שם בנתיבות ירושלים שהעיר על המכילתא הנ״ל. ובבבלי ט׳ ב׳ מיישבים את הברייתא שלנו בדוחק, וכנראה שרצו להעמיד אותה בשיטת ריש לקיש הסובר שגם אשו אינו חייב אלא משום ממונו בלבד, כבבלי כ״ב א׳. ועיין מ״ש להלן בסמוך. ובירושלמי לעיל ה״א, ב׳ ע״א: אנן תנינן ארבעה אבות נזיקין ותני ר׳ חייה ג׳ עשר, נזק 1 עיין מ״ש לעיל חלה פ״א, עמ׳ 794 , הערה 17 , ובמפתה העניינים לח״ה, עמ׳ 1355 , ערך ל= לא, ועו ד . בכ״מ. אבל ברוב המקומות בדיבור שלנו, הכוונה היא כפשוטה. עיין להלן הערה 7 2 עיין מ״ש על לשון זו בתרביץ ש״מ, תשל״א, עט׳ 12 , הערה 10 . ועיין להלן בירושלמי פ״ב ה״א, ב׳ ע״ד: מהו שתקבל העדאה וכו׳. 3 כלומר, והרי אין מלסות בחבלה, ולמאמר ר׳ אמי בשם ר׳ יוחנן במכות ט׳ א׳ אין זכר בירושלמי. 4 כלומר, מכיוון שאינו לוקה אלא משלם, למאי נפקא מינה אם אש נזקי גופו היא, או הכשר נזקין. 5 עיין בבלי כ״ג א׳ ברש״י, ד״ה לחייבו. אבל גם בר״ח שם ובר״מ פי״ד מה׳ נזקי ממון הט״ו גר ס  ובושת״. 6 כנראה, שהמכילתא דייקה בלשונה ולא אמרה ״קניינו״ שהרי בור ברשות הרבים אינו קניינו, אלא ״שהכתוב עשאו כאילו הוא ברשותו״, והוא קנוי לו מן התורה לעניין נזיקין גרידא. ובמכילתא ד״ו הגירס א היא: על ידי ק ו צ י ׳ , ועל פיה מפרש רמא״ש, צ׳ ע״ב, הערה י׳. אבל מתוך רוב הנוסחאות משמ ע שהגירסא ״קנוי לו נכונה. 1

Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12


About Book Tosefta Ki-Fshutah v. 12

12. Nezikin, Bava Kamma-Bava Mezi'a-Bava BatraCopyright1. Zera'im, Berakot-Bikkurim2. Zera'im, Berakot-Terumot3. Zera'im, Shevi'it-Bikkurim4. Mo'ed, Shabbat-Shekalim5. Mo'ed, Part III, Shabbat-Eruvin6. Mo'ed, Part IV, Pesakhim-Sukkah7. Mo'ed, Part V, Betza-Hagiga8. Nashim, Yevamot-Kiddushin9. Nashim, Yevamot-Ketubot-Nedarim-Nezirot10. Nashim, Sota-Gittin-Kiddushin11. Nezikin, Bava Kamma-Bava Mezi'a-Bava Batra
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